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Bertram . JV. 


(Lowell Institute Lectures) 













THIS work is the outgrowth of a course of lectures upon 
" physical geography and anthropology " in the School of 
Political Science at Columbia University in the city of Xew 
York ; delivered before the Lowell Institute in the fall of 
1896. It originally comprehended, in a study of aboriginal 
societies and cultures, an analysis of the relation of primitive 
man to his physical environment. Gradually, with a growing 
appreciation of the unsuspected wealth of accumulated data, 
it has expanded along lines of greater resistance, concentrating 
attention, that is to say, upon Europe the continent of all 
others wherein social phenomena have attained their highest 
and most complex development. Containing little that may 
be called original, strictly speaking, it represents merely an 
honest effort to co-ordinate, illustrate, and interpret the vast 
mass of original material product of years of patient investi 
gation by observers in all parts of Europe concerning a 
primary phase of human association : that of race or physical 

An earnest attempt has been made to bring this abundant 
store of raw material into some sort of orderly arrangement, 
and at the same time to render it accessible to future investi 
gators along the same line. The supplementary bil biography 
under separate cover has, it is hoped, materially contributed 
to both of these results. The intimate relationship between 


the main volume and the bibliographical list, as explained in 
the preface to the latter, is too apparent to need further ex 
planation. It will be noted at once that all citations accord 
ing to author and date may be immediately identified in full, 
by reference to the supplementary list of authorities at the 
appropriate place. 

To secure a graphical representation of facts by maps 
which should conform to strictly scientific canons, was an 
indispensable requisite in a geographical work of this kind. 
By rare good fortune it has been possible to develop a chance 
suggestion from my artist friend, Mr. Frank B. Masters, into 
a definite and simple system of map construction, whereby 
the work could be done by our own hands. The sacrifice of 
artistic finish incident thereto, was deemed unimportant be 
side the manifest advantage of a close adaptation of the maps 
to the text, both being prepared in unison. To secure this 
result a number of the maps have been entirely redrawn ; in 
several cases they have been experimentally prepared even 
to the engraving of the plates, three times over. Many of the 
maps in this volume probably the majority are the handi 
work of my wife, to whose constant material aid as well as 
inspiration, reference has elsewhere been made. From these 
all extraneous details have been purposely omitted. More 
over, the various maps have been co-ordinated with one an 
other, with the adoption of a common scheme for all. Thus, 
for example, dark shades invariably denote the shorter stat 
ures, and similar grades of tinting, so far as possible, desig 
nate equal intensities of the phenomena in question. In the 
maps of head form this co-ordination has been applied most 
consistently. In respect of maps of stature and pigmentation, 
the diverse anthropometric methods employed and the extraor 
dinary range of variation, have rendered it a more difficult 
matter to preserve a strict uniformity. 


In several cases in the reproduction of standard maps it 
will be noticed that the graphical system has been consider 
ably modified from the original. Sometimes, as in the map of 
Limousin on page 83, the author s scheme has been simpli 
fied ; in others, as in Broca s classical map of Brittany on 
page 100, the number of degrees of shading has been greatly 
increased, it is believed to good effect ; and oftentimes, as in 
the map on page 143, an entire rearrangement of the graphical 
representation has been made to conform to precise statistical 
methods ; for it is a cardinal principle in graphic statistics that 
the visual impression must, so far as possible, conform to the 
represented facts. To denote one grade of variation of ten 
per cent by a single tint, and to make the succeeding shade 
designate a range three times as great, involves almost as 
serious misrepresentation as an actual misstatement in the 
text. At times, as in the evidently misleading scheme used 
on Odin s map on page 525, where equal shades of tint are 
used for widely different ranges of variation, the original 
scheme has been left, because of difficulties in a proper re 
arrangement from the published data. 

Another detail upon these sketch maps will certainly at 
tract attention viz., the apparent lack of system employed 
in the lettering, French, German, Italian, or English orthogra 
phy being alike employed. The rule unfortunately not in 
variably observed has been to apply the spelling native to 
each country in question wherever the map was a direct copy : 
thus Bretagne for Brittany in maps of France, Roma instead 
of Rome in Italy, and Sachsen, not Saxony, on maps of the 
German Empire. When it is an original one, constructed 
herein from statistical data for the first time, English trans 
literations have been used. The purpose of this confessedly 
awkward arrangement has been to permit of a possible adapta 
tion of these selfsame maps to foreign translation. It is the 


only possible international arrangement, that each country 
should preserve its indigenous spelling. As for the legends 
and titles, they lie outside the drawing proper, and necessarily 
must correspond to the language of the text.* 

It would be disingenuous not to confess pride in the col 
lection of portrait types inclosed between these covers. This 
is the more pardonable, inasmuch as a failure thus to recog 
nise its value and completeness would be to reflect lesser credit 
upon those to whose entirely disinterested efforts the collec 
tion is really due. Without the earnest co-operation and never- 
failing interest of the eminent authorities in all parts of Eu 
rope, to whom specific reference is made at appropriate places 
in the body of the text, as well as by name in the index list 
of portraits, this work of scientific illustration of the dry 
matter of the text would have been almost impossible. For 
the proper selection of portrait types necessitates an intimate 
knowledge of the people of each country, not possible to the 
observant student but only to those who have lived and 
worked among them often for months at a time. Words are 
inadequate fully to express the deep measure of obligation 
of which I am sensible for assistance along these lines. 

Among all the European authorities to whom I am in 
debted in various ways, there is no one to whom the obliga 
tion is so great as to my friend Dr. John Beddoe, F. R. S., 
late president of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. 
From first to last, his interest in the work especially evi 
denced by way of candid criticism upon all points of detail 

* In this connection we may note a few errata indelibly fixed in the 
engravings: viz., on page 170, for Basse Xavarra in France, read Basse 
Navarre ; on page 169, for Medoc, read Medoc ; on page 189, for Bilboa 
and Plamplona, read Bilbao and Pamplona respectively ; on page 225, it 
should obviously be Schleswig ; and on page 517, Savoie ; at page 318 
possibly Edinburgh ; and on the folding map at page 222, Tyrol should 
be Tirol and Wiirtemburg should properly be Wiirtemberg. 


has been a constant source of inspiration. Without the sure 
guidance of such criticism, many more errors than now re 
main for future elimination, must surely have occurred. 

The courtesy manifested by the officers and council of 
the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, in intrusting 
the valuable albums of British photographs belonging to the 
Society to my charge, merits the deepest gratitude. As an 
act of international courtesy it is peculiarly worthy of note 
at this time. Professor A. C. Haddon, of Cambridge Uni 
versity, and Dr. C. R. Browne, of Dublin, Ireland, have also, 
among English authorities, rendered important service. In 
Germany, I have continually turned to Dr. Otto Ammon, of 
Carlsruhe, for aid, and have not failed in any instance to find 
a ready response. 

A goodly share in the preparation of this volume has been 
performed by my wife fully enough to warrant my own per 
sonal desire that two names should appear upon the title- 
page, instead of one. For a large part of the drawing of the 
maps, much wearisome reading of proofs, interminable veri 
fication of references and of bibliographical details have fallen 
to her share of the work : and in addition, the invaluable serv 
ice has been rendered of remorseless criticism in all matters 
of style as well as of fact. The six years required for the com 
pletion of the work by our joint labour must have been greatly 
prolonged, and the final product would surely have been far 
more imperfect, had it not been for her constant and de 
voted aid. 

W. Z. R. 

BOSTON, April 23, iSgg. 





History of the study of environment The pre-evolutionary period 
England and the Continent contrasted Buckle s influence 
Recent revival of interest among historians Scope and 
character of geographical study as related to sociology. 

Environment versus race Antagonistic explanations for 
anthropological and social phenomena illustrated Distinc 
tion between social and physical environment Direct and 
indirect influence of milieu compared; the latter more im 
portant in civilization Selection and specialization Progress 
dependent upon such processes Limitation of environmental 
influences by custom Moral and social factors . . . 1-14 



Apparent contrast between eastern and western Europe only a dif 
ference of degree Population seldom static Migration de 
pendent primarily upon economic considerations; not tran 
sient, though changing with modern industrialism. 

Language and race The former often a political or his 
torical product; the latter very rarely so Examples Lin 
guistic geography of the Iberian peninsula (map); Castilian, 
Catalan, and Portuguese Friction where political and lin 
guistic boundaries not identical as in Alsace-Lorraine (map) 
Celtic languages in the British Isles (map) Switzerland 
linguistically described Burgundy Eastern Europe Lan 
guage migratory Proof by study of place names. 

Language and customs or culture independently migratory 



Languages often political or official, customs seldom so 
Languages seldom coalesce, while borrowing in culture 
common Race and customs or culture equally independent 
of one another for similar reasons. 

Migrations and conquests Historical data often unreliable 
Conquest unevenly distributed Military and domestic con 
quest contrasted Persistency of populations racially Race 
often coincident with religion. 

The anthropometric data for Europe Its character and 
defects Conscripts and school children Males and females 
All classes and districts represented 15-36 



Measured by the cephalic index Definitions and methods Head 
form and face correlated- Head form no criterion of intelli 
gence Size unimportant Distribution of head form among 
races (world map) Primary elements in the species Geo 
graphical parallels between head forms, fauna and flora 
Areas of characterization Artificial selection- " Conscious 
ness of kind " Little operative in head form, though com 
mon in facial features Cranial deformation Head form not 
affected by environment Elimination of chance variation 
Distribution of head form in Europe (map) Extreme human 
types comprehended Two distinct varieties Geographical 
parallels again Isolation versus competition . . . 37-57 



Pigmentation a physiological process Distribution of skin colour 
among races (world map) Environmental causes not clearly 
indicated Colour of hair and eyes of Europeans more pecul 
iar than their skin colour The available data ample but in 
definite Comparison of methods of observation Reciprocal 
relation of colour in hair and eyes Types versus traits Dis 
tribution of brunetness in Europe (map) Blonds centred in 
Scandinavia Persistency of brunet traits African blondness 
problematical Racial aspects of pigmentation Walloons 
British Isles Jews Less clear divisions than in head form 
Environmental disturbance indicated Blondness of mountain 
populations a concomitant of climate or poverty Pigmenta 
tion thus inferior to head form as an index of race . . 58-77 

CONTENTS. x iii 


Variations in the human species Geographical distribution (world 
map) Direct influence of environment through food supply 
Mountain peoples commonly stunted Selection at great 
altitudes reverses this The peasantry of Limousin (map) and 
of Landes in France Artificial selection Stature and health 
or vigour In Finisterre (map) .Military selection After 
effects of the Franco-Prussian War Selection shown by stat 
ure among American immigrants Professional selection 
Swiss results Differences between occupations and social 
classes due to natural selection, followed by direct influence 
of habits of life Social classes in the British Isles Depress 
ing influences of industrialism General upward tendency due 
to amelioration of conditions of life Influence of urban life 
twofold, selective and direct Distribution of average stature 
in Europe (map) Teutonic giantism Brittany (map) and the 
Tyrol (map) .......... 78-102 



Trait, type, and race defined Two modes for the constitution of 
types from traits The anthropological one described Asso 
ciation of blondness and stature Difficulty of the problem 
Analysis of seriation curves of stature Scientific definition of 
race as an " ideal type " Further interpretation of seriation 
curves of head form Pure and mixed populations contrasted 
The second or geographical mode for constitution of types 
from traits Heredity and race, with examples Final results 
for Europe Three distinct types The Teutonic race de 
scribed The second or Alpine type The name Celt History 
of the Celtic controversy Difficulty in use of the term illus 
trated The Mediterranean racial type Subvarieties and their 
distribution .......... 103-130 



France comprehends all three racial types Its physical geography 
(map) Axes of fertility and areas of isolation Savoy. Au- 
vergne, and Brittany Distribution of head form (map) The 
Alpine type in isolation The Catiinns and the Morvan Bur 
gundy Social versus racial hypotheses Distribution of bru- 



netness and stature (maps) Normandy and Brittany Ten- 
tonic invasions The Veneti Place names and ethnography 

Northern France historically as well as racially Teutonic 
Not distinguishable from Belgium Flemings and Walloons 
Physical geography of the Ardennes plateau (map) Head 
form, colour, and stature in Belgium (maps) Aquitaine Its 
physical geography Anomalous racial distribution Dolicho- 
cephaly about Limoges and Perigueux (maps) The Lemovici 
Teutonic, the Petrocorii Cro-Magnon The Limousin barrier 
(map) The Cro-Magnon type, arch;eologically and in the life 
Survival in Dordogne, due to geographical circumstances 
The general situation described 131-179 



Number and distribution Social and political institutions The 
Basque language, agglutinative and psychologically primitive 
in structure Early theories of origin based upon language 
This language moving northward (maps) Cephalic index of 
the Basques (map) Difference between French and Spanish 
types of head form The Basque facial type peculiar to both 
Its geographical distribution as related to language (map) 
Threefold stratification of population in the Pyrenees Re 
cent theories as to origin Historical data Collignon s hy 
pothesis Artificial selection engendered by linguistic indi 
viduality Stature and facial features Corroboration by local 
customs of adornment ........ 180-204 



Head form in Norway (map) Peculiar population in the south 
west, both brachycephalic and dark Stature in Norway and 
Sweden (maps) The Alpine type surely settled along the 
southwestern coast Anthropology of Denmark corroborates 
it Sweden as a whole more homogeneous than Norway. 

Germany Nationality, language, and religion no index of 
race Racial division of the empire Physical geography 
(map) The head form: Teutonic in the north, Alpine toward 
the south Place of the Prussians De Quatrefages versus Vir- 
chow Blonds and brunets (map) Teutonization of Fran- 
conia Bavaria and Wurtemberg compared Stature (maps) 
Austria and Salzburg Historic expansion of the Germans 


The Rcilicngnibcr Franks and Romans The Black Forest 
(maps) Environmental factors at work Alsace-Lorraine 
(maps) The Vosges The Teutonic expansion an economic 
movement Influence of customs of inheritance The great 
Slavic expansion Traced by place names and village types 
(diagrams and maps) Somatological results of Slavic inva 
sions Thuringia and Saxony compared Parallels between 
ethnic and physical phenomena .... 205-245 



Italy Its physical geography (map) The Po Valley and the 
peninsula compared The Alpine type in Piedmont Stature 
and blondness (maps) Teutonic racial survivals, especially in 
Lombardy Germanic language spots Settc Comnni and I al- 
d cs i Veneto The Mediterranean type in Liguria Garfag- 
nana and Lucchese (map) Ethnic hypotheses The Ligurians 
historically and physically Difficulty of the problem An 
thropology versus philology Recent views Umbria and 
Tuscany (map) The Etruscans (map) Two opposing views 
Evidence of prehistoric archaeology Rome and Latinm 
Calabria Foreign settlements, Albanians and Greeks Sar 
dinia and Corsica compared Historical and ethnic data. 

Spain Its isolation and uniformity of environment Cli 
mate and topography The head form (map) Stature (map) 
The Iberians, historically and physically considered Influ 
ence of the Moors and Saracens. 

Africa Oriental and Western divisions The Berber type 
described The Libyan blonds Ethnic and historical hypothe 
ses Indication of environmental influences 246-280 


Geographical circumstances Isolation versus competition Di 
versity of languages and dialect The head form Burgumlians 
and Helvetians Blonds and brunets (maps) Environmental 
influences in the Bernese Oberland (map) Stratification of 
population in the Tyrol (map). 

The Netherlands Frisians. Franks. Hollanders, and Wal 
loonsThe head form (map) The Neanderthal controversy 
The Alpine race in Zeeland, Denmark, and the British 
Isles 281-299 




Insularity as an ethnic factor Ireland " a little behindhand " Rel 
ative fertility and accessibility Parallel in social relations 
Uniformity in head form (map) Prehistoric chronicle Cave 
dwellers The Long Barrow epoch The Round Barrow type 
"Long barrow, long skull; round barrow, broad skull "- 
Modern survivals of type The Romans The Teutonic inva 
sions Evidence of place names (map) The Anglo-Saxons 
ubiquitous Two varieties of Danish invasion Norwegians 
along the Scottish coast The Normans, last of the Teutonic 

Distribution of pigmentation (map) A brunet substratum 
still extant in areas of isolation Relative brunetness as com 
pared with continental countries Subvarieties The " light 
Celtic " eye and the red-haired Scotch type Parallel between 
Celtic languages and brunetness Peculiarities of Hertford 
shire and Buckinghamshire Iberian origins, historically and 
philologically considered Picts, Basques, and Silures The 
witness of stature (map) Contradictions in Scotland Weight 
and stature Facial features Old British compared with 
Anglo-Saxon Temperament as a racial trait . . . 300-334 



Political boundaries of Russia Monotony of environment de 
scribed Its relative fertility Forest, black mould, and steppe 
Distribution of population Languages: Great, White, and 
Little Russians Letto-Lithuanians and Finns Uniformity of 
Russian cephalic type (map) a product of environment Pe 
culiarity of the Letto-Lithuanians Broad-headedness of the 
southern Slavs The phenomena of brunetness The Baltic 
Sea as a centre of blondness Distribution of stature (map) 
Tallness of the Teutons and the southern Slavs Giantism 
of the modern Illyrians Similarity in stature between Finns 
and Teutons. Duality of physical type throughout eastern 
Europe Priority of the dolichocephalic one Evidence from 
the Kurgans Prehistoric distribution Which is the Slav? 
Outline of the controversy. 

The aboriginal peoples of Russia Finns, Turks, and Mon 
gols Impossibility of linguistic classification Two types 
physically considered Contrast between Mongols and Finns 



Close similarity of the Finnic type to the Scandinavians 
The Finnic branch of Teutonic racial descent Importance 
of the theory in the anthropological history of Europe . 335-367 



Social solidarity despite diversity of language and geographical 
dispersion Is racial purity responsible for it? Number and 
geographical distribution (map) Political and social prob 
lems Concentration in cities Former centre in Franconia 
Original centre of Jewish dispersion Relation of the Jews 
to the Semites Course of Jewish migrations traced Pecul 
iar deficiency in height among Jews Stature as evidence of 
social oppression Its distribution in Poland (map) Parallel 
between stature and prosperity in Warsaw (maps) Narrow- 
chestedness of Jews Their surprising longevity and vitality 
Its causes examined. 

Traditional division of Ashkenazim and Sephardim Their 
early physical type described Modern testimony as to the 
head form of Jews and Semites Approximation of type to 
that of surrounding peoples Impossibility of purity of de 
scent Historical evidence as to intermixture The Jewish 
facial features Strong brunetness The nose and eyes 
Purity of facial type, despite cranial diversity Potency of arti 
ficial selection Peculiar persistency among the women The 
Jews a people, not a race Religion as a factor in selection 
Parallel between Jews and Armenians .... 368-400 



Geography and topography of the Balkan peninsula Comparison 
with Italy and Spain Political role of the Slavs Numerical 
importance of the Greeks and Turks (map) Reasons for 
Turkish political supremacy Mohammedans and Turks. 
Greece Physical type of classical antiquity Racial immigra 
tions from the north Evidence of Albanian and Slavic inter 
mixture Characteristics of the modern Greeks Brunetness 
and classical features. The Slavs Illyrians and Albanians 
Bosnia and Servia Physical individuality of the western Bal 
kan peoples Giantism, brachycephaly, and brunetness Evi 
dences of environmental disturbance. The Osmanli Turks 



Their linguistic affinities Mongols and Finns Turkomans 
Their Alpine characteristics The modern Turkish type not 
Asiatic The Bulgarians Their Finnic origin Their geo 
graphical extension into Thrace and Macedonia. The Rou 
manians Their geographical distribution (map) Theories 
as to their linguistic origin The Pindus Roumanians Phys 
ical type of Bulgarians and Roumanians compared Peculiar 
dolichocephaly of the lower Danubian Valley Its significance 
in the anthropological history of Europe Superficiality of po 
litical and national boundaries. The Hungarians Geograph 
ical distribution (map) The political problem Origin of the 
Magyars Linguistic affinity with the Finns Physical char 
acteristics Head form and stature Difficulties in their identi 
fication 4OI-435 



Caucasia The Caucasian theory of European origins Its present 
absurdity Linguistic heterogeneity of the region All types 
of languages represented Influence of physical environment 
producing " contiguous isolation " Variability of head form 
(map) Cranial deformation prevalent Various types de 
scribed Lesghians Circassians Ossetes Tatars. 

Asia Minor and Mesopotamia Its central position and no 
madic peoples render study difficult Distribution of lan 
guages Duality of physical types Iranian and Armenoid 
peoples Cranial deformation common The Kurds The Ar 
menians Evidence of artificial selection among the latter 
Their social solidarity and purity of physical type Religion 
as a factor in selection Wide extension of the Armenoid type 
Its primitive occurrence Its significance as a connecting 
link between Europe and Asia. 

Persia Absence of sharp segregation, as in Asia Minor 
The environment described Three subvarieties The Semites 
Azerbeidjian Tatars Turkomans Suzians. 

India Importance of the Pamir as dividing racial types- 
Hindoos and Galchas Affinities between Turkomans and the 
Alpine race 436-452 


The classical theory of an Aryan race Importance of distinguish 
ing race, language, and culture Misconceptions due to their 


confusion The Teutonic-Aryan school The Gallic-Aryan 

Physical origins Proof of secondary character of European 
races Evidences of hair texture (map) Lowest stratum of 
European population, long-headed and dark Historical out 
line of opinions Reversal of earlier theories of Lappish ori 
gins The blond, long-headed, Teutonic type evolved by the 
influences of climate and artificial selection Later appearance 
of the brachycephalic Alpine race, submerging its predecessor 
in many parts of Europe Its Asiatic derivation doubtful Dif 
ficulties to be cleared up. 

Linguistic origins Two modes of study Structure versus 
root words The original Asiatic hypothesis Its philological 
disproof Arguments based upon other primitive languages 
of Africa and Asia The Finnic theory Attacks upon the 
" Stammbaum " hypothesis Net results of all observation 
The second mode of research based upon root words Its fun 
damental defects Variant conclusions among authorities 
Impossibility of geographical localization of the Aryan centre. 



The indigenous culture of western Europe described Recent 
change of opinion respecting its origin Outline of th~ con 
troversy The Hallstatt civilization in eastern Europe Its 
Oriental affinities Situlce as illustrating its culture in detail 
The bronze and iron ages Koban in the Caucasus Olympia 
and Mycenae Human remains of the Hallstatt period Their 
head form and racial affinities Bronze culture and incinera 
tionDifficulties in the interpretation of data The Hallstatt- 
ers probably of Mediterranean race Comparison with the 
Umbrian people and those of the Lake Dwellings The early 
civilizations in Italy Their dual origin Terramare and Pala- 
fittcUmbrizns and Etruscans The cultural status of north 
western Europe Scandinavia consistently backward in civili 
zation because of its remoteness and isolation Extraneous 
origin of its people and culture Its stone age unduly pro 
tracted, attaining a wonderful development thereby The 
bronze age Its chronological development Bearing of this 
evidence upon the Aryan theories of the school of Penka 
General summary of the question of European origins The 
necessity of careful distinction of the phenomena and prin 
ciples of race, language, and culture again emphasized . 486-512 




Hereditary forces as distinct from environmental ones Impor 
tance of the latter Examples of the climatic influences in 
cotton manufacture The racial explanation peculiar to the 
" anthropo-sociologists " Examination of the social geog 
raphy of France as compared with the phenomena of race 
Divorce and domestic organization, in how far Teutonic (map) 
Suicide as a racial characteristic (map) Suicide in England 
also (map) Correlative social phenomena, such as artistic 
and literary fecundity (maps) Adequacy of purely environ 
mental explanations The social geography of Italy examined 
by the distribution of intellectuality, etc. Overwhelming im 
portance of the social environment and density of population 
Progressive and conservative societies compared The vital 
criteria of civilization Further examination of the social 
geography of France Statistics of " home families " (map) 
Intricate nature of the problem Certain environmental factors 
in evidence Comparison of Brittany and Normandy Polit 
ical aptitudes and proclivities Radicals and conservatives in 
France The election of 1885 (map) Potency of the influence 
of isolation Isolation and competition fundamentally opposed 
The modern phase is competition, especially in urban life. 





Mobility of population all over Europe Currents of internal mi 
gration Powerful trend toward the cities Recent wonderful 
development of urban centres Twofold attractions, economic 
and social Depopulation of the country A process of selec 
tion at work Hansen s " three population groups " Vital 
versus psychic classes The comparative increase and distri 
bution of each Peculiar long-headedness of urban populations 
Ammon s law Universality of the phenomenon proved 
Its claim to a purely racial explanation Is the Teutonic type 
peculiarly an urban one? Or is the process one of social 
selection alone? Temperament of the Alpine and Teutonic 
types compared The phenomenon of re-emigration The 
stature of urban populations Conflicting testimony, yet gen 
eral deficiency in height indicated The phenomenon of segre- 


gation Differentiation of the tall from the short Social se 
lection clearly proved in this respect Relative brunetness 
of city populations almost universal Brunetness as an index 
of vitality Urban immigrants compared with urban " per- 
sistents " Pigmentation and force Further proof of the ef 
ficiency of social selection in this regard Importance of the 
problem for the future ........ 537-559 




Threefold aspects of the problem of climatic adaptation Its bear 
ing and significance as applied to tropical countries Factors 
to be eliminated at the outset, such as change of habits of life, 
immorality, the choice of food, profession, or occupation, and 
finally race Racial predispositions to disease Consumption, 
syphilis, and alcoholism The negro and Mongolian com 
pared Effects of racial intermixture Vitality of half-breeds 
Their lessened powers of resistance. 

The physical elements of climate Heat alone not a seri 
ous obstacle Humidity the important factor Heat and 
dampness together Advantages of a variety of seasons 
Benefits of altitude Relative value of parts of Africa. 

Physiological effects of a change of climate Rise of bodily 
temperature in relation to immunity from tropical diseases 
True physiological adaptation a slow process The results of 
hygiene and sanitation The effect of tropical climates upon 
fecundity Inadequacy of proofs of sterility Comparative 
aptitudes of European peoples The handicap of the Teutonic 
race Comparison of opinions of authorities Racial accli 
matization a slow process Two modes outlined for a prac 
tical policy Relative value and advantages of each described. 


Special Bibliography of Acclimatisation .... 589-590 

Appendix A. The cephalic index 591-594 

Appendix B. Blonds and brunets 594-595 

Appendix C. Stature 595-596 

Appendix D. Deniker s classification of the races of Europe 

(map) . 597-6o6 

Appendix E. Traits as combined into types .... 606-607 

Appendix F ............ 608 

General Index . 609-624 



NOTE. Figures refer to the separate portraits as individually numbered, six on a 



Number. Millimetres. Millimetres. 

1. Original ; loaned by Prof. Kollmann, of Basle 205 140 

2. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Arbo, of Christiania ... 

3. Original ; loaned by Dr. Ammon, of Carlsruhe ... 

4. Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 174 154 

5. From Mantegazza and Sommier, 1880 b 182 171 

6. Original ; loaned by Prof, de Lapouge, of Rennes ... 

7-8. From de Ujfalvy, i878- 8o, by permission ... 

9-10. From de Ujfalvy, i878- 8o, by permission ... 

11-12. Original; from the Tashkend Album, by courtesy of 

the Royal Geographical Society ... 

13-14. Original ; loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis 196 135 

15-16. Original ; loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis 2O2 146 

17-18. From Verneau, in 1 Anthropologie, vi, 1895, p. 526 ... 

19. Original ; loaned by Dr. Arbo, of Christiania 

20. Original ; loaned by Dr. Arbo, of Christiania 

21-22. Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 179 158 

23-24. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome 187 145 

On page 123. From Ranke, Beitrage, v, 1883, plate iv ... ... 

On page 129. After Mahoudeau, 1893 

25-26. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Collignon 

27-28. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Collignon 177 160 

29-30. Original ; loaned by Prof, de Lapouge, of Rennes 

On page 142. From Hovelacque and Herve, 1894 b 

31-32. Original ; loaned by Prof, de Lapouge, of Rennes 

33-36. Original ; loaned by Prof, de Lapouge, of Rennes 

37-40. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Collignon 

41-42. Original ; loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis 206 143 

43-48. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Collignon 

50-52. From De Aranzadi, 1889 ... 

53-54. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Collignon 

55-58. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Arbo, of Christiania 

59. From Mantegazza and Sommier, 1880 b 175 153 

60. From Mantegazza and Sommier, 1880 b. . . 184 161 

61-66. Original ; loaned by Major Dr. Arbo, of Christiania ... 





Millimetres. Millimetres. 


67-68. Original ; loaned by Dr. Ammon, of Carlsruhe 200 151 

69-70. Original ; loaned by Dr. Ammon, of Carlsruhe ... 

71-72. Original ; loaned by Dr. Ammon, of Carlsruhe 179 155 

73-74. Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 182 155 

75-76. Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Budu-Pesth 174 154 

77-78. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoc. . ... 

79-80. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome. . . . 195 178 

81-82. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome. . . . 188 157 

83-84. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome. . . . 193 147 

85-86. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome. . . . 189 156 

87-88. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome. . . . 187 158 

89-90. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, of Rome 

On page 256. Original ; loaned by Captain Dr. Livi, 

of Rome 182 155 

91. Original ; loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis 193 152 

92. Original ; loaned by Dr. Collignon (from his 1896 b) ... ... 

93-94. Original ; loaned by Dr. Collignon 186 138 

95-96. Loaned by Dr. Collignon. Original in his 1887 a 

97-98. From Defregger s Aus Studienmappen deutscher 

Meister. (Courtesy of Prof. Kollmann.) 

99. Original ; loaned by Prof. Kollmann, of Basle 

loo. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoc ... 

101-102. Original ; loaned by Prof. Kollman, of Basle 205 140 

On page 298. Original ; loaned by Dr. De Man, of 

Middelburg, Holland 

103-110. Original; loaned by the Anthropological Institute 

of Great Britain and Ireland ... 

III-H2. Original ; loaned by Prof. A. C. Haddon, of Cam 
bridge University. Described in his 1897 :.. 

113. Original ; loaned by the Anthropological Institute ... 

114. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoe 197 152 

115-119. Original; loaned by the Anthropological Institute ... 

120. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoc ... 

121-126. Original ; loaned by the Anthropological Institute. . . . ... 

127-128. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoe ... 

129-131. Original ; loaned by the Anthropological Institute ... 

132. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoe ... 

133-134. Original ; loaned by Prof. A. C. Haddon (1893) 198 163 

135-136. Original ; loaned by the Anthropological Institute 

137. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoe 

138. Original ; loaned by the Anthropological Institute 

139-140. From Zograf, 1892 a 190 160 

141-142. From Zograf, 1892 a . . 195 J 6o 

143-144. From Zograf, 1892 a 182 156 

145-146. Original ; loaned by Dr. Beddoe 




Number. Millimetres. Millimetres. 
147-148. Original ; taken for me by Mr. David L. Wing 

149. Original ; taken for me by Mr. David L. Wing . . 187 157 

150. Original ; taken for me by Mr. David L. Wing .... 202 152 
151-152. From Szombathy ; Mitt. Anth. Ges., Wien, xvi, p. 25 

153-154. From A. N. Kharuzin, 1889, plate v ... 

155-156. From Sommier, 1889 ... 

157-158. From A. N. Kharuzin, 1890 d ... 

159-162. From Sommnr, 1886 and 1888 

163-164. Loaned by Major Dr. Collignon. Original in his 1887 a ... ... 

165-166. Original ; loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis 200 150 

167-168. Original ; loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis 192 144 

169-170. From de Ujfalvy, i878- 8o, by permission 

171. Original ; loaned by Prof, de Lapouge, of Rennes ... 

172. Original ; loaned by Dr. S. Weissenberg, of Eliza- 

bethgrad. ... 

173. Original; loaned by Major Dr. A. Weisbach, of ... 

Sarajevo, Bosnia ... 

174. Original ; loaned by Dr. Weissenberg 

175-176. Original ; loaned by Dr. Achilles Rose, of New York ... 

177-180 Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 

181-186. From F. Ritter von Luschan, 1889, by permission 

187-188. From A. N. Kharuzin, 1890 d, by permission 

189-192. From F. Ritter von Luschan, 1889, by permission 

193-194. Original; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 182 162 

195-196. Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 174 158 

197-198. Original ; loaned by Dr. Janko, of Buda-Pesth 

190-210. From Chantre, i88s- 87, vol. iv, by permission 

211-216. From F. Ritter von Luschan, 1889, by permission 

217-218. From Chantre, 1895 

219-220. From Danilof, 1894 180 

221-222. From Danilof, 1894 194 



Dialects and languages; Spain and southwestern France. Original 18 

Place names; British Isles 23 

Diagram of cephalic index; American college students ... 40 

Cephalic index; world map. Original ...... 42 

Head form; Europe. Original ...... facing 53 

Colour of skin ; world map ........ 59 

Relative frequency of brunet traits : Europe. Original ... 67 

Stature of adult males; world map. Original 79 

Stature in Limousin . . . . . . . . . . . 83 

Stature and health in Finisterre (two maps) ..... 86 

Average stature; Europe. Original facing 96 

Stature in Lower Brittany . . . . . . . . . 100 

Stature in Austrian Tyrol ......... 101 

Diagram. Percentage distribution of stature ..... 108 

Diagrams. Seriation of cephalic index . . . . . 115, 116 

Physical geography of France 133 

Cephalic index; France and Belgium ...... 138 

Stature; France 143 

Brunetness; France .......... 147 

Average stature; France ......... 149 

Cephalic index; Normandy and Brittany ...... 151 

Place names; Normandy and Brittany 155 

Geology and elevation; Belgium ....... 160 

Blond type in Belgium ......... 161 

Cephalic index; Belgium ......... 162 

Cephalic index; southwestern France ...... 168 

Key to the preceding map ......... 169 

Stature; southwestern France and Spain . . . . . .170 

Cephalic index; Basque provinces, France and Spain . . . 189 

Detail; Basque-French boundary ....... 190 

Relative frequency of Basque facial types in France . . . 194 



Cephalic index; Norway 206 

Stature; Norway 209 

Stature: Sweden ..... ...... 210 

Physical geography of Germany 216 

Relative frequency of brunet types; Germany . . . facing 222 

Stature; northwestern Germany ....... 225 

Stature; Bavaria . . . . 22 7 

Head form; Austria and Salzburg 228 

Head form in Baden and Alsace-Lorraine 231 

Head form and dialects in Wiirtemberg 233 

Average stature; Baden and Alsace-Lorraine .... 236 

Plan of Slavic long village 240 

Plan of Slavic round village . . ... . 240 

Plan of Germanic village . . . . 241 

Settlements and village types; Germany . 242 

Physical geography of Italy . . 248 

Cephalic index; Italy .... 251 

Relative frequency of brunet traits; Italy 253 

Relative frequency of tall stature; Italy 

Cephalic index; Liguria and vicinity . - 259 

Umbrian period: Italy 2 ^4 

Etruscan period; Italy 2 &> 

Cephalic index; Spain . . 2 74 
Average stature: Spain 

Relative brunetness; Switzerland . 284 

Average stature; Switzerland. Original . . . . - - 285 
Blond type; Berne 

Head form in the Austrian Tyrol. Original 291 

Cephalic index; Netherlands. Original . 296 

Physical geography of the British Isles . . 3 02 

Cephalic index: British Isles. Original . 304 

Place names; British Isles 3 : 3 

Relative brunetness; British Isles .... 3 1 " 

Average stature of adult males; British Isles . . 3 2 7 

Cephalic index; eastern Europe. Original facing 340 

Stature; Russia 34 

Stature; Austria-Hungary 35 

Head form; Finns and Mongols in Russia. Original facing 362 
Geographical distribution of Jews 

Stature; Poland 37 

Average stature of Poles; Warsaw 3&O 



Average stature of Jews; Warsaw ....... 381 

Social status; Warsaw ......... 381 

Peoples of the Balkan Peninsula ..... facing 402 

Peoples in Hungary and Transylvania ...... 429 

Cephalic index; Caucasia. Original ...... 439 

Texture of hair; world map ........ 459 

Frequency of divorce; France. Original . . . . .51? 

Intensity of suicide; France ........ 520 

Intensity of suicide; England ........ 521 

Distribution of awards of the Paris Salon; France .... 524 

Relative frequency of men of letters by birthplace in France . . 525 

Families inhabiting separate dwellings; France .... 531 

Political representation in the Chamber of Deputies; France, 

1885. Original 535 

Deniker s races de 1 Europe 599 



Series of head-form types ...... -39 

Broad-headed Asiatic types ... ... 44. 45 

Long-headed African types 44. 45 

The three European races ..... . 122 

French types 137, J 56 

Cro-Magnon types 173 

French Basques J 93 

Spanish and French Basques ........ 200 

Scandinavian types: Norwegians and Lapps . . . 209 

Norwegian Teutonic types. 211 

German types ........... 218 

Austrians and Hungarians 228 

Italian types 251, 270 

North Africans: Berbers and Kabyles . > 278 

Swiss and Tyrolese types 290 

Shetland Island " Black-Breed " types 302 

Old Britons 308, 309 

Blond Anglo-Saxon types 308, 309 

Welsh and Jutish types ......... 316 

The three Scotch varieties ......... 325 

Various British and Irish types ....... 330 

Great Russians ........... 343 

Blond Finno-Teutonic types ........ 346 

Mongol types 358 

Eastern Finns and Tatars 364 

African Semitic types .......... 387 



Jewish types 

Greeks, Roumanians, and Bulgarians ... . . 410 

Turks: Asia Minor . .418 

Magyars: Hungary . 

Caucasian mountaineers . 

Caucasian types . . * 44O, 441 

Armenoid types: Asia Minor 

Iranian types: Persian, Kurd, and Tatar . 449 

NOTE. Footnotes in this volume give, wherever possible, the pagina 
tion according to the original publication. In cases of bibliographical 
disagreement, page numbers have been taken from reprints separately 
and independently paged. 




Page 54, second footnote should read Bertholon, 1891. 
Page 81, third footnote should be Zampa, 1886 a. 
Page 81, third footnote should read Kopernicki, 1889, p. 50. 
Page 85, third line from bottom, should read on page 86. 
Page 106, third footnote should be Beddoe 1867- 69 a, reprint, p. 171. 
Page 106, fifth footnote should read Oollignon, 1890 preprint, p. 15. 
Page 124, footnote, should be Lagneau, 1873 c and 18?!i />. 
Page 208, seventh line, should be spelled J0deren. 
Page 358, second footnote should be 1895 B, p. 70. 
Page 428, eighteenth line, should read, the Slavs were of fair com 

Page 433, tenth line, should be. portraits at page 364. 
Pages 462 and 406. footnotes, should be spelled Schaa/hausen. 
Pago 523. second line, should read, fJirir best friends, etc. 



Jewish types 

Greeks, Roumanians, and Bulgarians 

. 418 
Turks: Asia Minor 

. 433 
Magyars: Hungary . 

. 440, 441 
Caucasian mountaineers 

. 440, 441 
Caucasian types . 

Armenoid types: Asia Minor . 

Iranian types: Persian, Kurd, and Tatar . 




" HUMAN history," says Taine in the introduction to his 
History of English Literature, " may be resolved into three 
factors environment, race, and epoch." This epigrammatic 
statement, while superficially comprehensive, is too simple to 
be wholly true. In the first place, it does not distinguish be 
tween the physical environment, which is determined inde 
pendently of man s will, and that social environment which 
he unconsciously makes for himself, and which in turn re 
acts upon him and his successors in unsuspected ways. The 
second factor, race, is even more indefinite to many minds. 
Heredity and race may be oftentimes synonymous in respect 
of physical characteristics: but they are far from being so 
with reference to mental attributes. Race, properly speak 
ing, is responsible only for those peculiarities, mental or 
bodily, which are transmitted with constancy along the lines of 
direct physical descent from father to son. Many mental traits, 
aptitudes, or proclivities, on the other hand, which reappear 
persistently in successive populations may be derived from an 
entirely different source. They may have descended collater 
ally, along the lines of purely mental suggestion by virtue of 
mere social contact with preceding generations. Such char 
acteristics may be derived by the individual from uncles, 
neighbours, or fellow-countrymen, as well as from father and 
mother alone. Such is the nature of tradition, a very distinct 


factor in social life from race.* It is written in history, law, 
and literature; it is no less potent, though unwritten, in na 
tional consciousness, in custom and folklore. M. Taine s 
third factor, epoch, what the Germans call the Zeitgeist 
the spirit of the times, the fashion of the hour is perhaps 
the most complex of all. A product of the social environ 
ment, it is yet something more than this. There may be a 
trace of tradition in it, a dash of race; to these being added 
the novel impulses derived from immediate contact with one s 
fellow-men. This means something different from slavish imi 
tation of the past; it generally arises from a distinct desire 
for self-assertion in opposition to it. Style in literature, 
schools of art, fashions in dress, fads, parties in politics, panic 
in the mob all alike spring from the imitative instinct in man. 
If his imitation be of the past, we term it custom, conserva 
tism, tradition ; if imitation of his present fellow-men re 
ciprocal suggestion, or what Giddings terms " like-minded- 
ness " it generates what we call the spirit of the times. 

Human society is indeed an intricate maze of forces such 
as these, working continually in and through each other. The 
simplest of these influences is perhaps that of the physical 
environment, the next being race. The task before us is to 
disentangle these last two, so far as possible, from the com 
plex of the rest, in all that concerns Europe; and to analy/e 
them separately and apart, as if for the moment the others 
were non-existent. 

The history of the quasi-geographical study of environment 
as a factor in human history and progress may roughly be 
divided into three periods, conditioned by the rise and vary 
ing fortunes of the evolutionary hypothesis. f This first of 
these periods preceded the appearance of Darwin s Origin of 

* Bertillon distinguishes this from the " mesologic " influences of 
environment as "hereditary social forces" (De 1 Influence des Milieux, 
Bull. Soc. d Anth., 1872, p. 711). 

f For additional references and details, consult our Geography and 
Sociology in Political Science Quarterly, x, 1895, pp. 036-655, with 


Species. Its great representatives were Ritter, Guyot, and 
Alexander von Humboldt. They completed the preliminary 
work of classification and description in geography which 
Agassiz, Owen, Prichard, and Dawson performed in other 
kindred natural sciences. The results of all these system- 
atists were subject to the same limitation namely, the lack 
of a general co-ordinating principle. They perceived the 
order of natural phenomena, but explained it all on the 
teleological basis. Africa and Asia were practically unknown ; 
no sciences of anthropology or sociology had accumulated 
data ; and the speculations as to human affairs of these earlier 
geographers, therefore, were necessarily of a very indefinite, 
albeit praiseworthy, nature. From lack of proper material 
they were constrained merely to outline general principles. 
Whenever details were attempted, they were too often apt to 
lead to discouraging absurdities. Price s ( 29) theory that the 
black eyes of the Welsh peasantry were due to the prevalence 
of smoke from their coal fires is a case in point. The only 
other studies of a similar nature in this early period were those 
of Quetelet and Bernard Cotta. These were, to be sure, defi 
nite and specific ; they contained to,, some degree the ideas of 
mass and average, but they were each limited to a narrow 
field of investigation. 

The literature produced in the period just noticed was 
exclusively continental. The decade following 1859, which 
we may call the probational period for the doctrine of evolu 
tion, at first promised well for the extension of geographical 
studies into the English field. Ritter s works were received 
with great favour in translations, and Guyot s Lowell Lectures 
awakened intense interest in America. No one thought of 
the lurking danger for the teleological idea. But suddenly 
" the gloomy and scandalous " theories of Thomas Buckle s 
History of Civilization cast a deep shade over the field ; the 
alarm awakened by the lectures of Vogt and the claims of 
Darwin and Huxley as to man s origin became intensified; 
and the sudden outburst all over Europe of interest in an 
thropological studies excited new fears. Moreover, the 
younger advocates of the doctrine of environmental influence 


in human affairs insisted upon taking the apparently harmless 
general principles of the founders of modern geography and 
carrying them out into all details of social life. Long before 
the proper data existed, Buckle, Crawfurd, Pellarin, and their 
fellows tried in vain to imitate the precision of the older and 
exact natural sciences. It must be confessed also that the 
exaggerated claims of the economists and the generalizations 
of the utilitarian philosophers also contributed in some de 
gree to bring the study of physical environment as a factor 
in social life into disrepute. 

Uprooted in England, the new environmental hypotheses 
found on the Continent a congenial soil, that had long been 
prepared for their reception by Bodin, Montesquieu, and 
Quetelet. Cuvier had not hesitated to trace the close rela 
tion borne by philosophy and art to the underlying geological 
formations. The French inclination to materialism offered 
a favourable opportunity for the propagation of the environ 
mental doctrines. They were kept alive in anthropology by 
Bertillon pere and Perier; in literature by Taine ; and in the 
study of religions by Renan. It appears to be true that where 
the choice lies between heredity and environment, the French 
almost always prefer the latter as the explanation for any 
phenomenon. In Germany during this second period the 
earlier work of Cotta and Kohl was continued by Peschel, 
Kirchhoff, and Bastian, and in later days with especial bril 
liancy by Ratzel. 

The last decade has witnessed a marked revival of inter 
est among English scholars in the study of the environmental 
influences which play upon man individually and upon human 
society at large. Buckle s errors have been forgiven. An 
tagonism to the doctrine of evolution has passed away. A 
new phase of geographical research in short, its purely human 
aspects is now in high favour among historians and students 
of social affairs. The apostles of the movement have been 
the late historian Freeman and the eminent author of The 
American Commonwealth.* Payne, in his History of the 

* An interesting sketch of the geographical work of Mr. Freeman will 
be found in the Geographical Journal, London, for June, 1892. The 



New World called America, has shed a flood of new light upon 
an old theme by the appeal to environmental factors. Justin 
Winsor, in The Mississippi Basin, shows the geographical 
idea logically developed " with such firm insistence and with 
such happy results that he almost seems to have created a 
science for which as yet we have no name which is capable 
of development even to the predictive stage," to quote the 
words of a reviewer. The movement has even invaded the 
sacred precincts of biblical literature in Smith s Geography 
of the Holy Land, which is in itself a wonderfully suggestive 
commentary upon the influence of physical environment dur 
ing the course of Jewish history. 

The real significance of this tendency in historical writing 
lies not in its novelty, for it merely revives an old idea ; but in 
the fact that the initiative comes this time from the historians 
rather than from the geographers or the economists. Geog 
raphy has heretofore appeared in the guise of a suppliant for 
recognition at court. The burden of proof in maintaining 
the value of geographic science for the historian and sociolo 
gist has therefore rested mainly in the past upon the geogra 
phers and students of purely natural science. Notwithstand 
ing all manner of discouragement, however, Wallace, Geikie, 
Strachey, Mill, Keltie, and others have at last succeeded in 
making their claims good, both in the English universities 
and in the learned world outside as well. The tendency to 
broaden the scope of economics and the new interest in soci 
ology have together served as an encouragement. Cliffe- 
Leslie and Roscher pointed the way; Meitzen, Ravenstein, 
and Kirchhoff brought the use of statistics to its aid ; until 
to-day geography stands ready to serve as an introduction, as 
well as a corrective, to the scientific study of human society. 

The geography that is attracting the attention of historians 

province of geography in its relation to history is also discussed by him 
in the Methods of Historical Study; and his uncompleted History of 
Sicily shows the extreme development of the ideas found in his Historical 
Geography of Europe. Despite this tendency, we find a late reviewer 
(Nation, July 18, 1895, p. 50) declaring that "after all his everlasting 
insistence on the great external facts of the history of the Western world, 
[he] erred chiefly in going no further." 


to-day is that which is defined by Conner as " the study of 
the environment of man." It is the geography of Guyot and 
Ritter, stimulated and enlightened by the sciences of anthro 
pology, archaeology, sociology, and even statistics. No one 
of these contributory branches of investigation antedates the 
middle of this century. Call it " physiography," defined by 
Huxley as the science of man in relation to the earth ; as dis 
tinct from geography, the science of the earth in its relations 
to man : " anthropo-geography," with Ratzel : or even " histo- 
geography," as some one has proposed. These names all 
convey the same general meaning. It is neither political, 
commercial, administrative, nor economic geography ; it is 
something more than the science of the distribution of races. 
It overlaps and includes them all. It is not merely descriptive. 
It is able to formulate definite laws and principles of its own. 
In fact, geography in any of the familiar senses, is, after all, 
only a single element in this new field of research. It repre 
sents primarily the attempt to explain the growing convic 
tion, so well expressed by Giddings, that " civilization is at 
bottom an economic fact." 

The scope and purpose of this new phase of geography 
the study of physical environment in its influence upon man 
are certain and well defined. It is a branch of economics, 
with a direct bearing upon both history and sociology. " It 
is the point of contact," observes Bryce,* " between the sci 
ences of Nature taken all together and the branches of in 
quiry which deal with man and his institutions. Geography 
gathers up, so to speak, the results which the geologist, the 
botanist, the zoologist,! and the meteorologist have obtained, 
and presents them to the student of history, of economics, of 
politics and, we might even add, of law, of philology, and 
of architecture as an important part of the data from which 

* Cf. The Relations of History and Geography, Contemporary Re 
view, xlix, pp. 426-443 ; also, The Migrations of the Races of Men 
considered Historically, ibid., Ixii, pp. 128-149, reprinted in Smithsonian 
Reports, 1893, p 567. 

f See Payne s masterly discussion, in his History of America, of the 
influence of the zoological poverty of the Western hemisphere upon 
Aztec civilization. 


he must start, and of the materials to which he will have to 
refer at many points in the progress of his researches." By 
reason of its very comprehensiveness, this study of geogra 
phy may be entitled, perhaps, merely a mode of sociological 
investigation, allied to the graphical method in statistics. 
Thus Schifrner exemplifies it in treating of the relations be 
tween geography and jurisprudence.* " Every relation of 
life," he says, " which exists upon the earth and which may 
be plotted upon a map belongs, in one sense, to geography." 
Mill s definition, that " geography is the science of distribu 
tion," expresses the same idea. In this sense we have ap 
plied it to all manner of social phenomena in our subsequent 
chapters on Social Problems. Economic tendencies may be 
illustrated by it.f In linguistics and ethnology there is no 
limit to its suggestiveness.J In the analysis of political phe 
nomena, in tracing the migrations of civilization in fact, in 
almost every branch of science the value of this mode of 
statistical or cartographical investigation is bound to become 
more and more fully recognised. 

In every science which deals with man we may discover 
some trace of a division of opinion, similar to that which is 
responsible for the great controversy in which the biologists 
have recently been engaged. Two schools of investigators 
almost everywhere appear. One of these attaches the great 
est importance to race, to transmitted characteristics or hered 
ity ; while the other regards this factor as subordinate to the 
influences of environment. This antagonism is clearly marked 
in the science of physical anthropology, and especially, for 
example, in the discussions over the causes of variations in 
stature among the different populations of the world. In the 
early days, when race was an adequate explanation for every- 

* Ueber die Wechsel-Beziehungen zwischen der geographischen und 
der Rechts-Wissenschaft (Mitt. Geog. Gesell., Wien, 1874, pp. 100-113). 
Schroeder s Erliiuterung zur Rechtskarte von Deutschland, Petermann 
Geog. Mitt., xvi, 1870, Tafel 7. 

t Ashley, Introduction to English Economic History, ii, p. 304. 

t Gerland s Atlas der Volkerkunde, for example. 


thing-, the problem was simple. But since the doctrine of 
evolution has shaken faith in what Cliffe-Leslie * terms " the 
vulgar theory of race," another competent explanation is to 
be found in the mere influence of outward circumstances. 
Too often, however, the choice between these two possible 
causes of the phenomenon, or their relative importance when 
both are recognised as effective, will vary, in absence of more 
definite proof, with the personal bias of the observer. Thus 
in France we find among the advocates of environmental 
influence Villerme, Sanson, Bertillon, Durand de Gros, 
Boudin, and De Quatrefages ; while Broca, Lagneau, and 
Topinard as strenuously maintain the priority of racial factors. 
Endless examples of such diversity of opinion might be given : 
In Italy it is Pagliani and Sormani versus Cortese and Lom- 
broso ; in Switzerland, Dunant versus Garret ; in Germany, 
to a lesser degree perhaps, Ranke versus Virchow; and in 
Russia, Zograf versus Anutchin and Erismann. Fortunately, 
however, there is in anthropology a tendency among all the 
later authorities Beddoe, Collignon, Livi, and others to 
admit both causes as alike efficient according to circum 

The predisposition of observers to take these opposing 
views on the same or similar evidence in respect of social 
phenomena, may be shown by a few illustrations chosen at 
random. It appears at once in all discussions over the vari 
ous forms of village community and of architectural types in 
Europe. Thus Meitzen ( nr>) , as we shall see later, divides Ger 
many into several sections, dominated respectively by what 
he terms the German, the Celtic, the Roman, and the Slavic 
type of village. In comparing these, the haphazard grouping 
of dwellings in the Germanic village is~sh"arply contrasted with 
the regular arrangement in the Slavic community, with its 
houses about a central court or along a straight street : and 
the regular division of the land into hides (Hufcnverfassung) 
owned in severally, which characterizes the German type, is 
as sharply differentiated from the holding of lands in com- 

* Fortnightly Review, xvi, 1874, p. 736. 


mon among the Slavs. Distinct from each in many respects 
is the Celtic type, which rules in South Germany and Bohe 
mia. Approaching the subject in this way, the statistician 
may help in solving the vexed question of the origins of these 
populations, provided the village types are the constant accom 
paniment of certain racial types. But if these differences are 
merely the result of local circumstances, all their ethnological 
significance vanishes, and their study becomes of importance 
merely for purposes of reform or administration. In a similar 
investigation in France, the predilection for environmental 
explanations has apparently led to this latter conclusion.* 
Apply this method of reasoning to Germany. May not the 
utter lack of variety in the quality of plots for cultivation in 
the open plains inhabited by the Slavs, have led to habits of 
communal ownership, which are perpetuated in a new land 
through the selection of localities for habitation where such 
customs may persist unchanged? May not even the laws of 
inheritance be affected by the environment in the sandy sterile 
regions, to the end that primogeniture, and not equal division 
of the land among heirs, may be the only form of inheritance 
which will survive? Is not emigration of all the children but 
one a physical necessity? These are some of the questions 
which the geologist Cotta would answer in the affirmative, f 
and Baring-Gould acquiesces in his opinion. J The truth, 
probably, is a mean between these extremes, but in the ab 
sence of some recognised criterion our judgment will depend 
to a great extent upon personal predilections. Precisely the 
same conflict of opinion may prevent a final acceptance of 
some of the theories of Gomme with regard to the early in 
habitants of Great Britain ; for we may emphasize the ethnic 

* Enquete sur les Conditions de 1 Habitation en France. Les Maisons 
Types. Min. de 1 In. Pub., des Beaux-Arts et des Cultes, Paris, 1894. 
Introduction by A. de Foville. Vide pp. 9-18, especially. 

f- Deutschlands Boden, sein Geologischer Bau und dessen Einwirkung 
auf das Leben des Menschen, Leipzig, 1858. In part ii, p. 63 ct scq., the 
geological factor in the distribution of the village community in Germany 
is fully discussed. 

\ History of Germany, p. 74. 


element, as he is inclined to do, or we may prefer to inter 
pret the form of the village more nearly in terms of environ 
ment, as does the geologist Tapley.* 

A distinction must be made at this point between social 
and physical environment. This is especially important be 
cause it is closely related to a further distinction between 
the direct and the indirect effects of the milieu. Thus, that in 
general under a system of peasant proprietorship, the size 
of agricultural holdings should be larger on an infertile soil 
than on rich bottom lands, is a direct result of environment ; 
for the size of holdings tends to vary according to their ca 
pacity for giving independent support to a household. But 
the influence of environment is no less important, even though 
less direct, when the infertile region produces social isola 
tion, and thereby generates a conservative temperament which 
resists all attempts at a subdivision of the patrimony, f The 
result a holding above the average size is in each case the 
same ; and the ultimate cause, although in the second instance 
working indirectly, is physical environment. 

The importance of emphasizing the distinction between 
the direct and the indirect influence of environment lies in the 
fact that with advance in culture it is the latter, subtler aspect 
of the milieu which becomes progressively of greater impor 
tance. All students would agree with Spencer that " feeble 
unorganized societies are at the mercy of their surroundings " ; 
or with Kidd, that " the progress of savage man, such as it 
is, is born strictly of the conditions in which he lives." Na 
ture sets the life lines for the savage in climate ; she deter 
mines his movements, stimulates or restrains his advance in 
culture by providing or withholding the materials necessary 
for such advance. The science of primitive ethnology is a 

* The Village Community in Great Britain, p. 133 et seq., and Jour- 
Anth. Inst., iii, p. 32 et seq., especially p. 45. All of the references on 
this subject are accompanied by diagrams, maps, or illustrations. The 
peculiarities of land tenure in the south Midland and other counties may 
likewise be the product of a double set of causes. 

f This is the cause assigned by Cliffe-Leslie for certain peculiarities in 
land tenure in parts of France. Fortnightly Review, xvi, p. 740. 


constant illustration of this fact even in the smallest details.* 
It is only when we come to study peoples in more advanced 
stages of culture that we find environment marking the line 
of cleavage between two opposing views. One set of think 
ers Ward, for example, in his Dynamic Sociology f affirms 
that at a certain point natural selection seizes upon mind as 
the dominant and vital factor in progress. Society passes 
from the " natural " to the " artificial " stage. Based upon this 
thesis, the study of environment, and even of race, becomes 
more and more retrospective even, so to speak, archaeo 

The opponents of this optimistic view take the ground that 
civilization is merely a result of adaptation to environment, 
physical as well as political. Once more to quote Mr. Bryce : 
" The very multiplication of the means at his [man s] dis 
posal for profiting by what Nature supplies, brings him into 
ever closer and more complex relations with her. The vari 
ety of her resources, differing in different regions, prescribes 
the kind of industry for which each spot is fitted ; and the 
competition of nations, growing always keener, forces each 
to maintain itself in the struggle by using to the utmost 
every facility for the production or for the transportation of 
products." J 

It would be easy to multiply examples of the effect of 
progress in thus compelling specialization the utilization of 
each advantage to the last degree thus illustrating the force 
of environment even in the highest civilization. When the 
vine was introduced into California the settlers tried to cul 
tivate it in the north and in the south, along the rivers and 
on the hillsides, near the coast and in the interior. The grape 
rapidly took root and grew, but its very prosperity in some 

* This is ingeniously worked out by Shaler in his Nature and Man in 
North America. 

\ Cf. Patten s Theory of Social Forces, in his discussion of race and 
physical environment. 

\ A new chapter on this subject added to the third edition of The 
American Commonwealth, ii, p. 450. The same view is well expressed 
by Strachey in Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., xxi, p. 209 et seq.; by Geikie in 
ibid., 1879, p. 442, and in Macmillan s Magazine for March, 1882. 


places threatened its culture in others.* Some valleys soon 
proved too hot to produce wine which would sell in com 
petition with the best ; some soils were too heavy, others too 
moist. Certain regions produced sherries, while others served 
better for port wines. To insure success, the conditions had 
to be most diligently investigated each year, and it was pre 
cisely because all were successful that specialization was bound 
to follow as a matter of course. 

A similar example is the progressive differentiation in 
agriculture taking place all over the United States to-day. 
Once it was possible to point to the corn, cotton, wheat, and 
rye belts, and to show a massing of each crop, regardless of 
local circumstances. But, in virtue of the severe international 
competition, these great aggregations of similar crops are 
breaking up, and local specialization is the rule.f It is pre 
cisely because nearly all Japan is favoured as a silk-producing 
country that her best silk culture is forced to localize itself. J 
Less than a quarter of a century ago a difference of an inch 
in the length of the cotton staple was of slight importance ; 
but in 1894, with improved manufactures, Egypt found a ready 
market in the United States the home of cotton for thirty- 
five million pounds of her product. The same principle holds 
true of mechanical industry. When the manufacture of cot 
ton was introduced into the United States it was indiscrimi 
nately prosecuted wherever there were water power and 
labour. At last it was perceived that climatic influences were 
of great importance in the finer fabrics, and to-day there are 
indications that the work of this grade is tending to localize 
itself along the south shore of New England.* Here, again, 
it is not any lack of ability to manufacture in the less favoured 
spots, but the conspicuous advantages in the new localities, 
that finally produce the new results. Each advance in skill 
makes the influence of local peculiarities more keenly felt. In 
short, we have here merely another illustration of the eco- 

* Fortnightly Review, vol. liii, p. 401 et seq. 

\ Publications Amer. Stat. Assoc., December, 1893, p. 492 et seq. 
\ Jour. Royal Geog. Soc., xl, p. 340. 

* New York Evening Post, March 30, 1895. 


nomic advantages of division of labour. Viewed in this wise, 
environment assumes a greater measure of importance with 
each increment of progress and civilization. The fact seems 
to us to be incontestable. 

With all its possibilities, this study of physical environ 
ment must at the outset clearly recognise its own limitations, 
arising from the power of purely historical elements, of per 
sonality, of religious enthusiasm, and of patriotism. By all 
the laws of geographical probability, England s historical 
influence on France ought to have been greatest in Nor 
mandy, while in reality Aquitaine was the centre of English 
continental activity. That Yorkshire and not Kent should 
to-day exhibit the strongest infusion of Norman blood in 
England is also a geographical anomaly. Again, take the 
following case in connection with the distribution of popula 
tion : In Brittany a primitive, non-absorbent rock formation 
affords numerous natural reservoirs to hold the abundant 
rains, and the population is scattered broadcast in little ham 
lets. In the department of the Marne, on the other hand, 
where a calcareous soil quickly absorbs the scanty rainfall, 
the people are bunched about the springs and rivers. Ac 
cordingly, the two districts differ widely in their percentages 
of urban population and in all the social characteristics de 
pendent thereon.* It would seem as if the relation of geo 
logical and social conditions here discovered might be formu 
lated into a general law, through which the course of settle 
ment in a new country might be predicted. But the United 
States promptly sets such a law at defiance. For here it is 
on the primitive rock formations, in the area of plentiful rains, 
that the New England village is at home. It is in the drier 
areas of the West, and even on their clayey soils, that popu 
lation is most widely scattered. Thus the force of custom and , 
tradition proves itself fully able to withstand for a time the 
limitations of physical conditions. 

Yet, even if it does not reach the grade of a predictive 
science, the study of the milieu can not be neglected. One 

* For illustrations in detail, see Levasseur, Bulletin de 1 Inst. Internat. 
de Statistique, iii, liv. 3 (1888), p. 73. 



of its aims will always be " to discover whether the historical 
development of a people is in harmony with its environment, 
and, if not, whether it is a plus or minus factor in progress." 
Viewed in this light, geography derives a new significance 
from the standpoint of human interests. It deserves a primary 
place in all departments of research which have to do with 
man or with his institutions. This we hope to be able to prove 
in detail for the continent of Europe. 



THE historian of The Norman Conquest of England was 
very fond of contrasting the east and the west of Europe. He 
maintained that the political unrest which underlies the East 
ern question was partly due to the utter lack of physical 
assimilation among the people of the Balkan states ; that, in 
other words, nationality had no foundation in race. This was 
undoubtedly true to some extent ; and yet even in the west 
the formation of these boasted nationalities is so recent that 
it accords but slightly with the lines of physical descent. All 
over the continent there exist radical differences of blood be 
tween the closest neighbours, so that the west is merely a 
step in advance of the east after all. It is a trite observation 
that all over Europe population has been laid down in differ 
ent strata more or less horizontal. In the east of Europe this 
stratification is recent and distinct. West of the Austro-Hun- 
garian Empire the primitive layers have become metamor 
phosed, to borrow a geological term, by the fusing heat of 
nationality and the pressure of civilization. The population 
of the east of Europe structurally is as different from that 
of the west to the naked eye as, to complete our simile, sand 
stone is from granite ; nevertheless, despite their apparent 
homogeneity, on analysis we may still read the history of 
these western nations by the aid of natural science from the 
purely physical characteristics of their people alone. 

To the ordinary observer a uniform layer of population is 
spread over the continent as waters cover the earth. In real 
ity, while apparently at rest, this great body of men reveals 



itself to-day in constant motion internally ; * for population is 
as certain to follow social and economic opportunity as water 
is to run down hill. Currents and counter-currents sweep 
hither and thither, some rising and others falling, with now 
and then a quiet pool or eddy where alone population is really 
in a quiescent state. These movements are not transient. 
Some, to be sure, may be of local and special origin, but 
others are due to the operation of great natural causes. These 
latter have been at work for centuries, determined by the un 
changing economic character and the geography of the con 
tinent. They are shifting suddenly now with modern indus 
trial life, but they have persisted until the present through 
generations. Proof of this antiquity we have; since, where 
Nature has isolated little pools of population, we may still find 
men with an unbroken ancestral lineage reaching back to a 
time when the climate, the flora and fauna of Europe were 
far different from those which prevail to-day. This may be 
shown, not by historical documents, for these men antedate 
all written history ; but by physical traits which are older than 
institutions and outlast them all as well. 

This varied population, as we see it to-day, is in its racial 
composition the effect of a long train of circumstances, his 
torical upon the surface, social it may be in part, but at bot 
tom also geographical. From the study of this population as it 
stands, and from the migrations even now going on within it, 
we may analyze these permanent environmental influences 
many of which have hitherto been neglected by students of 
institutions which have been operative for centuries, and 
which have persisted in spite of political events or else have 
indirectly given rise to them. Progress in social life has not 
been cataclysmic ; it has not taken place by kangaroo-leaps of 
political or social reforms on paper ; but it has gone on slowly, 
painfully perhaps, and almost imperceptibly, by the constant 
pressure of slight but fixed forces. Our problem is to exam 
ine certain of these fundamental mainsprings of movement, 

* Ravenstein, 1885, for the British Isles, and Rauchberg, 1893, for 
Austria-Hungary, give interesting graphical representations of these 
undercurrents of migration at the present time. 


especially the influence of the physical environment ; and to 
do it by means of the calipers, the measuring tape, and the 
colour scale. Science proceeds best from the known present 
to the remote past, in anthropology as in geology or astron 
omy. The study of living men should precede that of the 
dead. This shall be our method. Fixing our attention upon 
the present population, we shall then be prepared to inter 
pret the physical migrations and to some extent the social 
movements which have been going on for generations in the 

Let us at the outset avoid the error of confusing . com- 
munity of language with identity of race.* Nationality may 
often follow linguistic boundaries, but race bears no necessary 
relation whatever to them. Two essentials of political unity 
are bound up in identity of language : namely, the necessity 
of a free interchange of ideas by means of a common mental 
circulating medium ; and, secondly, the possession of a fund 
of common traditions in history or literature. The first is 
largely a practical consideration ; the second forms the subtle 
essence of nationality itself. For these reasons we shall find 
language corresponding with political affiliations far more 
often than with ethnic boundaries. Politics may indeed be 
come a factor in the physical sense, especially when re-enforced 
by language. It can not be denied that assimilation in blood 
often depends upon identity of speech, or that political fron 
tiers sometimes coincide with a racial differentiation of popu 
lation. The canton of Schaffhausen lies north of the Rhine, 
a deep inset into the grand duchy of Baden, yet its people, 
though isolated from their Swiss countrymen across the river, 
are intensely patriotic. In race as in political affairs they are 
distinctly divided from their immediate German neighbours. 

* A full discussion of this point is offered by Broca, 1862 c ; Sayce, 1875 ; 
Freeman, 1879 , an d in the brilliant essay on Race and Tradition, in 
Darmesteter, 1895. See also Taylor, 1890, p. 204. The first protest 
against the indiscriminate use of the word "race" came from Edwards, 
1829, in his letters to Thierry, author of the Histoire des Gaulois. It led 
to the foundation of the first Societe d Ethnologie at Paris as a result. 



Mentally holding to the Swiss people, they have unconsciously 
preserved or generated during three hundred years of polit 
ical union a physical individuality akin to them as well.* Thus 
it is possible that a sense of nationality once aroused may 
become an active factor through selection in the anthropo 
logical sense. Nevertheless, this phenomenon requires more 
time than most political history has at its disposition, so that 





^<^fc D OEI^ 


ALONE . . . . 



in the main our proposition remains true. Despite the polit 
ical hatred of the French for the German, no appreciable effect 
in a physical sense has yet resulted, nor will it until the lapse 
of generations. 

* Kollmann, 1881 a, p. 18, finds the blonde types among them less than 
half as frequent as in Baden. Schaffhausen affiliates with Switzerland 
in stature also, as we shall show. 


Consideration of our linguistic map of the southwest of 
Europe will serve to illustrate some of the potent political 
influences which make for community of language without 
thereby indicating any influence of race. The Iberian Penin 
sula, now divided between two nationalities, the Spanish and 
the Portuguese, is, as we shall subsequently show, in the main 
homogeneous racially more so, in fact, than any other equally 
large area of Europe. The only exception is in the case of 
the Basques, whom we must consider by themselves. This 
physically uniform population, exclusive of the Basque, makes 
use to-day of three distinct languages, all Romance or Latin 
in their origin, to be sure ; but so far differentiated from one 
another as to be mutually unintelligible. It is said, for ex 
ample, that the Castilian peasant can more readily under 
stand Italian than the dialect of his neighbour and com 
patriot, the Catalan. The gap between the Portuguese and 
the Castilian or true Spanish is less deep and wide, perhaps ; 
but the two are still very distinct and radically different from 
the language spoken in the eastern provinces of Spain. The 
Catalan speech is, as the related tints upon our map imply, 
only a sub-variety of the Provencal or southern French lan 
guage. The people of the eastern Balearic Islands speaking 
this Catalan tongue differ from the French in language far 
less than do the Corsicans, who are politically French, though 
linguistically Italian.* 

At first glance all this seems to belie our assertion that 
unity of language is often an historical product of political 
causes. For it may justly be objected that the Portuguese 
type of language, although in general limited by the political 
boundary along the east, has crossed the northern frontier 
and now prevails throughout the Spanish provinces of Galicia ; 
or again, that the French-Spanish political frontier has been 
powerless to restrain the advance, far toward the Strait of 

* Morel-Fatio is best on Catalan. Its limits in France are given by 
Hovelacque, 1891. See also Tubino, 1877, p. 108. For the Basque, 
Broca, 1875, is best; and for Langue d Oc., Tourtolon and Bringuier, 
1876. Grobers s Grundriss gives many interesting details on Spanish and 


Gibraltar, of the Catalan speech, closely allied as we have 
said, to the dialects of Provence in southern France ; that not 
even the slight line of demarcation between these last two lies 
along the Pyrenean political boundary, but considerably to 
the north of it, so that Catalan is to-day spoken over nearly 
a whole department in France; and, lastly, that the Basque 
language, utterly removed from any affiliation with all the rest, 
lies neither on one side nor the other of this same Pyrenean 
frontier, but extends down both slopes of the mountain range, 
an insert into the national domains of both France and Spain. 
These objections are, however, the very basis of our conten 
tion that language and nationality often stand in a definite 
relation to one another: for, if we examine the history of 
Spain and Portugal, we shall discover that historical causes 
alone have determined this curious linguistic distribution. 
The sole discoverable influence of language upon race appears 
in the Iberian character of the Catalan corner of France. It 
really seems as if intercourse around the eastern end of the 
Pyrenees, facilitated by community of language, had produced 
a distinctly Iberian type of population on French soil.* 

The three great languages in the Iberian Peninsula Cas- 
tilian or Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan correspond re 
spectively to the three political agencies which drove out the 
Moorish invaders from the ninth century onward, from three 
different directions and from distinct geographical centres. 
The mountains of Galicia, in the extreme northwest, served 
as the nucleus of the resistant power which afterward merged 
itself in the Portuguese monarchy. Castile in the central 
north was the asylum of the refugees, expelled from the south 
by the Saracens, who afterward reasserted themselves in force 
under the leadership of the kings of Castile. Aragon in the 
northeast, whose people were mainly of Catalan speech, which 
they had derived from the south of France, during their tem 
porary forced sojourn in that country while the Moors were 
in active control of Spain, was a base of supplies for the third 

* Oloriz, 1894 a, p. 180. See also p. 165, infra. Schimmer, 1884, p. 8, 
finds similar evidence of a reaction of language upon race in Austria- 


organized opposition to the invaders. Each of these political 
units, as it reconquered territory from the Moors, imposed its 
official speech upon the people, where it remains to-day. Were 
the present Spanish nation old enough and sufficiently unified ; 
were the component parts of it more firmly knitted together 
by education, modern means of transport, and economic in 
terests, this disunity of speech might disappear. Unfortu 
nately, the character of the Iberian Peninsula is such arid, 
infertile, and sparsely populated in the interior that these 
languages socially and commercially turn their backs to one 
another.* Of necessity, they do this also along the frontier 
between Spain and Portugal. The eyes of each community 
are directed not toward Madrid, but toward the sea ; for there 
on the fertile littoral alone is there the economic possibility 
of a population sufficiently dense for unification. Thus the 
divergence of language is truly the expression of natural 
causes working through political ones, which promise to per 
petuate the differences for some time. The modern political 
boundaries in the Iberian Peninsula are even less important 
than the linguistic ones as a test of race. For, as Freeman 
says, if in the fifteenth century Isabella of Castile had mar 
ried the King of Portugal instead of the King of Aragon, the 
peninsula would to-day be divided, not into Spain and Por 
tugal ; but into two kingdoms of Spain and Aragon respect 
ively, and Portugal as such would have disappeared from the 
map. As for the Basques, they have been politically inde 
pendent both of the French and the Spaniards until within 
a few years, and have been enabled to preserve their unique 
speech largely for this reason. But now that their political 
autonomy has begun to disappear, the official Spanish is press 
ing the Basque language so forcibly that it seems to be every 
where on the retreat. 

Friction is generally incident to a divergence of political 
from linguistic boundaries. Especially is this the case where 
a small minority of alien speech is rudely torn up by the roots 
and transferred in its political allegiance. Alsace-Lorraine 

* Fischer s map in Verb. Ges. fur Erdkunde, xx, 1893, map 3, brings 
out this coast strip clearly. 


exemplifies this contingency. Turn to our map on page 231, 
and it will be seen that the frontier between France and Ger 
many follows the bounds of speech approximately along the 
west of southern Alsace. It departs widely from it all across 
Lorraine, which is about equally divided in its language. 
There can be little doubt that the acute unrest in this province 
would be greatly relieved if the two frontiers, linguistic and 
political, were the same. The natural boundary of nationality 
would certainly seem to lie where the people are set apart 
from one another in respect of this primary element of social 
intercourse. This linguistic boundary has, moreover, per- 
sisted in its present form for so many generations as to give 
decided proof of its permanence. And yet, despite this per 
sistence through many political changes, it has absolutely no 
ethnic significance. The boundary of racial types bears no 
relation to it in any way, as we shall see. 

We have seen that community of language is often im 
posed as a result of political unity. Thus it is, after all, rather 
a by-product, so that it often fails even here to indicate na 
tionality. Its irresponsibility in respect both of nationality 
and of race is clearly indicated by the present linguistic status 
of the British Isles.* As our map shows, the Keltic language 
is now spoken in the remote and mountainous portions of 
Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, as well as across the English 
Channel in French Brittany. It is everywhere on the retreat 
before the English language, as it has been ever since the 
Norman Conquest. Are we to infer from this that in these 
several places we have to do with vestiges of a so-called Keltic 
race which possesses any physical traits in common? Far 
from it ! For, although in a few places racial differences occur 
somewhere near the linguistic frontiers, as in Wales and Brit 
tany, they are all the more misleading elsewhere for that 
reason. Within the narrow confines of this spoken Keltic 
language are to be found populations characterized by all the 

* For exact details and maps of the spoken languages, vide Raven- 
stein, 1879. For France, Broca, 1868 a; Andree, 1879 b a d 1885 a; and Se- 
billot, 1886, give maps and details. See our map on p. 100. Andree gives 
the boundary in France in the twelfth century, showing the retreat clearly. 


extremes of the races of Europe. The dark-haired, round- 
faced Breton peasant speaking the Kymric branch of the Keltic 
tongue in France is, as we shall hope to demonstrate, physical 
ly as far removed from the Welshman who uses the same 
language, as from the tall and light-haired Norman neigh 
bour at home who knows nothing of a Keltic speech at all. 



NAMES . . . . - 

The Welshman in turn is physically allied to the Irish and 
distinct from many of the Gaelic-speaking Scotch, although 
these last two speak even the same subtype of the Keltic 
language. Such racial affinity as obtains between certain of 
these people is in utter defiance of the bonds of speech. The 


Breton should be more at home among his own folk in the 
high Alps in respect of race, even although he could hold no 
converse with the Swiss people in their own tongue. 

A sense of nationality, " memories of the past and hopes 
for the future," may indeed become highly developed in ab 
sence of any community of language at all. -The Walloons 
and Flemish are equally ardent Belgian patriots, despite their 
linguistic differences.* Switzerland offers us an interesting 
illustration of the same phenomenon. While the greater part 
of the confederation is of German speech, as our map on page 
284 shows, both Italian and French coexist peacefully along 
side of it, to say nothing of the primitive Romansch, of which 
we shall speak later, f There is no such linguistic repulsion in 
Switzerland as between German and Czech in Bohemia, or 
Italian and Slavonic in the Adriatic provinces of the Austrian 
Empire. This exception to our law, that nationality and lan 
guage are alike products of social contact, is not hard to ex 
plain. Primarily, Swiss nationality exists despite linguistic 
differences, because the three languages exist on terms of en 
tire equality. The confederated form of government, with a 
high degree of local autonomy in the cantons, leaves each 
linguistic contingent in no fear of annihilation by its neigh 
bour. The Italian in Ticino, moreover, is entirely isolated 
by the Alpine chain ; the boundary of speech runs along the 
mountain crests, so that geographical and political circum 
stances alike insure its perpetuation free from disturbance. 
The reason for the present boundary of French and German 
is more difficult to explain. It runs often at right angles to 
the topography, as where, for example, our map shows it cut 
ting off the upper Rhone Valley in Valais. Historical factors, 
as in Spain, must be invoked as a cause. The Burgundian 
kingdom, radiating its influence from Geneva, undoubtedly 
imposed its French speech upon the whole western highlands ; 
and the present boundaries of the French language undoubt- 

* See p. 162, infra. 

f On languages in the Alps, see Charnock, 1873 ; Schneller, 1877 ; 
Bresslau, 1881 ; Galanti, 1885; Bidermann, 1886; Zemmrich, 1894 a; 
Andree, 1879 a and 1885 b, etc. 


edly are a heritage from this Burgundian rule.* The Swiss 
nation is indeed an artificial one, as Freeman says ; it offers 
an example of both political and linguistic adoptions of a 
unique sort. One point is certain. Such racial differences 
as exist in Switzerland are absolutely independent of all these 
linguistic boundaries. We seek in vain for any eyidence of 
physical differences along these lines. South of the Alps to-day 
there are considerable communities still bearing the German 
speech and customs, evidence of the Teutonic invasions of 
historic times. These people have become so completely ab 
sorbed that they are not distinguishable physically from their 
Italian neighbours.! There are indeed spots in Italy where 
German racial traits survive, but they -are quite remote from 
these islets of Teutonic language, as *we shall see. 

If we turn to the east of Europe, we encounter all sorts 
of linguistic anomalies, beside which European ethnography 
west of Vienna appears relatively simple. \ The Bulgarians 
have entirely abandoned their original Finnic speech in favour 
of__Slavic. The Roumanian language, Latin in its affinities, 
is entirely a result of wholesale adoption : and a new process 
of change of speech like that in Bulgaria threatens now to 
oust this Roumanian and replace it also by a Slavic dialect.* 
Magyar, the language of the Hungarians, spreading toward 
the east, displaced by German, which is forcing its way in 
from the northwest, is also on the move. Beneath all this 
hurry-skurry of speech the racial lines remain as fixed as ever. 
Lnnguugr. in short, as a grrut plii1< >1< >gi>t lias pin it, " i^ not 
a test of race. It is a test of social contact." Waves of lan 
guage have swept over Europe, leaving its racial foundations 
as undisturbed as are the sands of the sea during a storm. 
The linguistic status of the British Isles, above described, 
shows us one of these waves the Keltic which is, to put it 
somewhat flippantly, now upon its last lap on the shores of 
the western ocean. 

* The French language also extends far across the Italian frontier into 
Piedmont, perhaps for the same reason. (Pulle, 1898, p. 66, and map ii.) 

t Livi, 1896 a, p. 147, and 1886, p. 70 (reprint). 

\ Topinard, 1886 c, is fine on this. See also chap, xv, infra. 

* Xenopol, 1895. 


We may discover how slippery speech is upon men s 
tongues in yet another way namely, by observing it actually 
on the move in a physically quiescent population, leaving a 
trail behind to mark its passage. Language becomes truly 
sedentary when a distinctive name is given by men to a place 
of settlement ; it may be a clearing in the virgin wilderness or 
a reconstructed village after a clearing away by conquest 
of the former possessors. In either case the result is the same. 
The name, be it Slavic, Keltic, or other, tends to remain as a 
permanent witness that a people speaking such a tongue once 
passed that way. A place name of this kind may and often 
does outlive the spoken language in that locality. It remains 
as a monument to mark the former confines of the speech, 
since it can no more migrate than can the houses and barns 
within the town. Of course, newcomers may adapt the old 
name to the peculiar pronunciation of their own tongue, but 
the savour of antiquity gives it a persistent power which is 
very great. For this reason we find that after every migration 
of a spoken language, there follows a trail of such place names 
to indicate a former condition. Our maps, both of the British 
Isles and of Spain, show this phenomenon very clearly. In 
the one case, the Keltic speech has receded before the Teu 
tonic influence, leaving a belt of its peculiar village names 
behind. In the other, the Basque place names, far outside the 
present limits of the spoken Basque, even as far as the Ebro 
River, indicate no less clearly that the speech is on the move 
toward the north, where no such intermediate zone exists.* 
Similarly, all over Russia, Finnic place names still survive as 
witness of a language and people submerged by the immigrant 
Slavs, f 

Then, after the village names have been replaced by the 
newcomers, or else become so far mutilated as to lose their 
identity, there still linger the names of rivers, mountains, bays, 
headlands, and other natural features of the country. Hal 
lowed by folklore or superstition, their outlandish sounds only 
serve the more to insure them against disturbance. All over 

* Broca, 1875, p. 43; Blade, 1869, p. 381. See also chap, viii, infra. 
\ Smirnov, 1892, p. 105. 


England such names are not uncommon, pointing to a remote 
past when the Keltic speech was omnipresent. Nay more, 
not only from all over the British Isles, but from a large area 
of the mainland of Europe as well, comes testimony of this 
kind to a former wide expansion of this Keltic language. Such 
geographical names represent the third and final stage of the 
erosion of language prior to its utter disappearance. Never 
theless, as we shall sho\v, the physical features of men outlive 
even these, so inherent and deep rooted have they become. 
It is indeed true, as Rhys ( 84) , himself a linguist, has aptly put 
it, that " skulls are harder than consonants, and races lurk be 
hind when languages slip away." 

It appears that language rests even more lightly upon men 
than do traditions and folk customs. We find that it disap 
pears first under pressure, leaving these others along with 
physical traits, perhaps, as survivors. There are several rea 
sons for this mobility of speech. One is that languages rarely 
coalesce.* They may borrow and mutilate, but they seldom 
mix if very distinct in type. The superior, or perhaps official, 
language simply crowds the other out by force. Organization 
in this case counts for more than numbers. In this way the 
language of the Isle de France has prevailed over the whole 
country despite its once limited area, because it had an ag 
gressive dynasty behind it. Panslavism in Russia at the pres 
ent time, with the omnipotence of officialism, is, in a similar 
way, crowding the native Finnic and Lithuanian languages 
out of the Baltic provinces ; although less than ten per cent 
of the inhabitants are Russians, f Language, moreover, re 
quires for its maintenance unanimous consent, and not mere 
majority rule ; for, so soon as the majority changes its speech, 
the minority must acquiesce. Not so with folk tales or fire 
side customs. People cling to these all the more pertina 
ciously as they become rare. And still less so with physical 

* Vide interesting discussion of this point in detail in A. H. Keane, 
Ethnology, pp. 198 et seq. Taylor, 1890, p. 275, gives examples of diffi 
culties in pronunciation which seem to be hereditary. 

f Leroy-Beaulieu, i893~ 96, i, p. 70. See also on Little Russia, ibid., p. 
120. On the Tatar adoptions of language by Finns, see p. 360 infra. 


traits of race. Many of these last are not apparent to the eye. 
They are sometimes unsuspected until they have well-nigh 
disappeared. Men mingle their blood freely. They inter 
marry, and a mixed type results. Thus, racially, organization 
avails nothing against the force of numbers. In linguistic 
affairs nothing succeeds like success ; but in physical an 
thropology impetus counts for nothing. 

It is impossible to measure race by the geographical dis 
tribution of arts or customs ; for they also, like language, 
migrate in complete independence of physical traits. With the 
Keltic language spread the use of polished stone implements 
and possibly the custom of incineration, but this did not by 
any means imply a new race of men. The best opinion to-day 
holds the Keltic culture and language to have represented 
merely a dominant aristocracy, forming but a small proportion 
of the population. It is not unlikely that this ruling class in 
troduced new arts along with their speech, although it is still 
not directly proved. At times a change of culture appears, 
directly accompanied by a new physical type, as when bronze 
was introduced into Britain,* or when the European races 
brought the use of iron to America. More often are the ad 
vents of a new culture and a physical type merely contem 
poraneous. Such an event occurred when the domestication 
of animals seemed roughly to coincide with the appearance in 
Europe of a brachycephalic population from the east. No 
one is competent to affirm, notwithstanding this fact, that the 
new race actually introduced the culture, f Of course, con 
tact is always implied in such migration of an art, although 
a few stragglers may readily have been the cause of the spread 
of the custom. This may not be true in respect to the migra 
tion of religions, or in any similar case where determined 
opposition has to be overcome and where conquest means 
substitution ; but in simple arts of immediate obvious appli 
cation, copying takes place naturally. The art spreads in di 
rect proportion to its immediate value to the people concerned. 
No missionaries are needed to introduce firearms among the 

* Thurnam, 1863, p. 129 et seq. 
\ Cf. Mortillet, 1879 a > P- 2 3 2 - 


aborigines. The art speedily outruns race. Moreover, cul 
tures like languages seldom mix as men do. Parts may be 
accepted here and there, but complete amalgamation seldom 
results. The main effect of the contact of two distinct cul 
tures is to produce stratification. The common people become 
the conservators of the old ; the upper classes hold to the new. 
It is a case of folklore and superstition versus progressive 
ideas. Here, as in respect of language, arts and customs be 
come reliable as a test of race only when found fixed in the 
soil or in some other way prevented from migration. 

Always be careful lest you attach too much importance to 
the statements of historical and classical writers in their ac 
counts of migrations and of conquests.* They wrote of men 
organized in tribes ; it is our province to study them individ 
ually in populations. We should beware of the travellers tales 
of the ancients. Pliny describes a people of Africa with no 
heads and with eyes and mouth in the breast a statement 
which to the anthropologist appears to be open to the suspicion 
of exaggeration. Even when conquest has undoubtedly taken 
place, it does not imply a change of physical type in the region 
affected. We are dealing with great masses of men near the 
soil, to whom it matters little whether the emperor be Mace 
donian, Roman, or Turk. Till comparatively recent times 
the peasantry of Europe were as little affected by changes of 
dynasty as the Chinese people have been touched by the re 
cent war in the East. To them personally, victory or defeat 
meant little except a change of tax-gatherers. 

In this connection it should be borne in mind that conquest 
often affected but a small area of each country namely, its 
richest and most populous portions. The foreigner seldom 
penetrated the outlying districts. He went, as did the Span 
iards in South America, where gold was gathered in the great 
cities. France, as we know, was affected very unevenly by 
the Roman conquest. It was not the portion nearest to 
Rome, but the richest though remote one, which yielded to 
the Roman rule to the greatest extent. At all events, the 

* Bertrand, 1873, is fine in criticism of these ; also Bertrand and 
Reinach, 1894, chapter i. 


Roman colonists in Gaul and Brittany have disappeared, to 
leave no trace. The Vandals in Africa have left no sign 
neither hide nor hair, in a literal sense.* Aquitaine was held 
by the English for three centuries, but no anthropological 
evidence of it remains to-day, f The Tatar rule in Russia and 
the Saracen conquest of Spain were alike unproductive of 
physical results, so far as we can discover. Both alike con 
stituted what Bryce aptly terms merely a " top dressing " of 
population. The Burgundian kingdom was changed merely 
in respect of its rulers ; and spots in Italy like Benevento, ruled 
by the Lombards for five hundred years, are, in respect of 
physical characteristics, to-day precisely like all the region 
round about them.J 

The truth is that migrations or conquests to be physically 
effective must be domestic and not military. Wheeler rightly 
observes, speaking of the Eastern question, that " much that 
has been called migration was movement not of peoples, but 
power." Guizot s eighth lecture upon the History of Civiliza 
tion in France contains some wholesome advice upon this 
point. Colonization or infiltration, as the case may be, to be 
physically effective must take place by wholesale, and it must 
include men, women, and children. The Roman conquests 
seldom proceeded thus, in sharp contrast to the people of the 
East, who migrated in hordes, colonizing incidentally on the 
way. The British Isles, anthropologically, were not affected 
by the Roman invasion, nor until the Teutons came by thou 
sands. There is nothing surprising in this. In anthropology, 
as in jurisprudence, possession is nine points of the law. 
Everything is on the side, physically speaking, of the native. 
He has been acclimated, developing peculiarities proper to 
his surroundings. He is free from the costly work of trans 
porting helpless women and children. The immense major 
ity of his fellows are like him in habits, tastes, and circum 
stances. The invader, if he remains at all, dilutes his blood 
by half as soon as he marries and settles, with the prospect 
that it will be quartered in the next generation. He can not 

* Broca, 1876. f Collignon, 1895, p. 71. \ Livi, 18963, p. 166. 


exterminate the vanquished as savages do, even if he would. 
Xay more, it is not to his advantage to do so, for servile 
labour is too valuable to sacrifice in that way. Self-interest 
triumphs over race hatred. The conqueror may indeed kill 
off a score or two of the leading men, and the chroniclers may 
call it exterminating a tribe, but the probability is that all 
the women and most of the men will be spared. In the sub 
sequent process of acclimatization, moreover, the ranks of 
the invading host are decimated. The newcomer struggles 
against the combined distrust of most of his neighbours, as 
well as with the migratory instinct which brought him there 
in the first place. If he excels in intelligence, he may con 
tinue to rule, but his line is doomed to extinction unless kept 
alive by constant re-enforcements. It has been well said that 
the greatest obstacle to the spread of man is man. Collignon 
is right in his affirmation that "when a race is well seated 
in a region, fixed to the soil by agriculture, acclimatized by 
natural selection, and sufficiently dense, it opposes an enor 
mous resistance to absorption by newcomers, whoever they 
may be." 

Population being thus persistent by reason of its inde 
structibility, a peculiar province of our study will be to show 
the relation which has arisen between the geography of a 
country and the character of its people and its institutions. 
Historians have not failed in the past to point out the ways in 
which the migrations and conquests of nations have been 
determined by mountain chains and rivers. They have too 
often been content merely to show that the immediate direc 
tion of the movement has been dependent upon topographical 
features. We shall endeavour to go a step further in indi 
cating the manner in which the real ethnic character of the 
population of Europe has been determined by its environ 
ment, not only directly, but indirectly as well, entirely apart 
from political or historical events as such, and as a result of 
social forces which are still at work. Thus, for example, we 
shall show that the physical character of the population often 
changes at the line which divides the hills from the plains. 
The national boundary may run along the crest of the moun- 


tain chain, while the ethnic lines skirt its base where the eco 
nomic character of the country changes. In other cases, the 
racial may be equally far from the political boundary, since 
the river bed may delimit the state, while the racial divisions 
follow the watershed.* 

Modern political boundaries will, therefore, avail us but 
little ; they are entirely a superficial product ; for, as we in 
sist, nationality bears no constant or necessary relation what 
ever to race. It is an artificial result of political causes to a 
great extent. Political boundaries, moreover, may not even 
be national ; they are too often merely governmental. From 
the moment an individual is born into the world, he finds him 
self exposed to a series of concentric influences which swing 
in upon him with overwhelming force. The ties of family 
lie nearest : the bonds and prejudices of caste follow close 
upon ; then comes the circle of party affiliations and of je- 
ligious denomination. Language encompasses all these about. 
The element of nationality lying outside of them all, is as 
largely the result of historical and social causes as any of the 
others, with the sole exception of family perhaps. Race may 
conceivably cut across almost all of these lines at right angles. 
It underlies them all. It is, so to speak, the raw material 
from which each of these social patterns is made up. It may 
become an agent to determine their intensity and motive, as 
the nature of the fibre determines the design woven in the 
stuff. It may proceed in utter independence of them all, 
being alone freed from the disturbing influences of human 
will and choice. Race denotes what man is; all these other 
details of social life represent what man docs. Race harmon 
izes, at all events, less with the bounds of nationality than 
with any other certainly less so than with those either of 
social caste or religious affiliation. That nearly a half of 
France, while peopled by ardent patriots, is as purely Teu 
tonic racially as the half of Germany itself, is a sufficient ex 
ample of the truth of our assertion. The best illustration of 
the greater force of religious prejudices to give rise to a dis- 

* Regnault, 1892, offers an interesting discussion of the relation of 
topography and race. 


tinct physical type is afforded by the Jews. Social ostracism, 
based upon differences of belief in great measure, has sufficed 
to keep them truer to a single racial standard, perhaps, than 
any other people of Europe. :|: Another example of religious 
isolation, re-enforced by geographical seclusion, may be seen 
among the followers of the mediaeval reformer, Juan Yaldes. 
Persecuted for generations, driven high up into the Alps of 
northwestern Italy, these people show to-day a notable differ 
ence in physical type from all their neighbours.! The Hugue 
not colony about La Rochelle, together with English influ 
ence, seems also to have left its impress in the present blond- 
ness of the department of Charente Inferieure.]: The Arme 
nians also, constituting an island of Christianity surrounded 
by alien beliefs, are, as we shall see, highly individualized phys 
ically. Religious isolation is the cause beyond doubt. 

Political geography is, for all these reasons, entirely dis 
tinct from racial and social geography, as well in its princi 
ples as in its results. Many years ago a course was delivered 
before the Lowell Institute by M. Guyot, the great geogra 
pher, subsequently published under the caption The Earth 
and Man. It created a profound sensation at the time, as it 
pointed out the intimate relation which exists between geog 
raphy and history ; but it was of necessity extremely vague, 
and its results were in the main unsatisfactory. Its value lay 
mainly in its novel point of view. Since this time a com 
pletely new r science dealing with man has arisen, capable of 
as great precision as any of the other natural sciences. It 
has humanized geography, so to speak, even as M. Guyot did 
in his time and generation ; and it has enriched history and 
sociology in a new and unexpected way. 

We have no\v to .bring still other elements anthropology 
and sociology into touch with these other two, to form a 
combination possessed of singular suggestiveness. It affords 
at once a means for the quantitative measurement of racial 

* Renan, 1883, offers a brilliant discussion of this. See also our chapter 
on the Jews, later. 

f Mendini, 1890; Livi, 1896 a, p. 135. 
\ Topinard, 1889 a, p. 522. 



migrations and social movements ; and it yields a living pic 
ture of the population the raw material in and through 
which all history must of necessity work. Studying men as 
merely physical types of the higher animals, we are able to 
trace their movements as we do those of the lower species. 
We may correlate these results with the physical geography 
and the economic character of the environment; and then, 
at last, superpose the social phenomena in their geographical 
distribution. We attempt to discover relations either of cause 
and effect, or at least of parallelism and similarity due to a 
common cause which lies back of them all perhaps in human 
nature itself. Science advances by the revelation of new rela 
tionships between things. In the present case the hope of per 
haps striking a spark, by knocking these divers sciences to 
gether, has induced men to collect materials, often in ignorance 
of the exact use to which they might be ultimately put. To 
show the results which have already been achieved is the task 
to which we have to address ourselves. 

The observations upon which our conclusions for Europe 
are to rest cover some twenty-five million or more individ 
uals, a large fraction being school children, a goodly propor 
tion, however, consisting of conscripts taken from the soil di 
rectly to the recruiting commissions of the various European 
armies. The labour involved in merely collecting, to say 
nothing of tabulating, this mass of material is almost super 
human ; and we can not too highly praise the scientific zeal 
which has made possible our comfortable work of compar 
ing this accumulated data. As an example of the difficulties 
which have been encountered, let me quote from a personal 
letter from Dr. Ammon, one of the pioneers in this work, 
who measured thousands of recruits in the Black Forest of 
Germany. " One naturally," he writes, " is reluctant to under 
take a four or six weeks trip with the commission in winter, 
with snow a metre deep, living in the meanest inns in the little 
hamlets, and moving about every two to five days. The of 
ficial inspectors must not be retarded in their work, as the 
Ministry of War attaches that condition to their permission to 


view the recruits. Many of those rejected for service are 
dismissed by the surgeons at a glance, but I must make meas 
urements on all alike. Only when the doctor stops to make 
an auscultation or to test the vision do I have a moment s 
respite. They are sent to my room from the medical inspector 
at the rate of two hundred in three hours, sometimes two 
hundred and forty ; and on all these men I must make many 
measurements, while rendering instant decision upon the 
colour of the hair and eyes. The mental effort involved in 
forming so many separate judgments in such quick succes 
sion often brings me near fainting at the close of the session." 

Of course, where observations are privately made, to ob 
tain the consent of the owner of the characteristics is the main 
obstacle to be overcome. To make the subject understand 
what is wanted, is impossible ; for it would involve a full dis 
cussion of the Keltic question or of the origin of the Aryans, 
which, after the first one hundred cases, becomes tiresome. 
The colour of the hair and eyes, of course, may be noted in 
passing, and observers may station themselves on crowded 
thoroughfares and easily collect a large mass of material. I 
have myself found profit and entertainment on the Fall River 
boats in running up some columns from my unsuspecting 
fellow-passengers. But to make head measurements is an 
other matter. Dr. Beddoe adopted an ingenious device which 
I will describe in his own w r ords : " Whenever a likely little 
squad of natives was encountered the two archaeologists got 
up a dispute about the relative size and shape of their own 
heads, which I was called in to settle with the calipers. The 
unsuspecting Irishmen usually entered keenly into the de 
bate, and before the little drama had been finished w r ere eagerly 
betting on the sizes of their own heads, and begging to have 
their wagers determined in the same manner." 

The figures gathered in this way from the schools and the 
armies have a peculiar value. They represent all classes of the 
population, but more especially the peasantry in all the nooks 
and corners of Europe wherever the long arm of the Polizci 
Staat reaches. The only difficulty is that research upon adults 
is almost entirely confined to the men ; observations upon 


adult women are exceedingly scarce. Fortunately, such as 
we have tends to agree with those taken upon males in all im 
portant respects. We shall have to note but a few exceptions 
to this law.* The upper classes are less fully represented often 
times than the peasantry, since they attend private schools 
or are better able to evade the military service by money pay 
ment or by educational test. This simplifies the matter, since 
it is the proletariat which alone clearly reflects the influence 
of race or of environment. They are the ones we wish to 
study. In this sense the observations upon these populations 
may aid the sociologist or the historian ; for the greatest ob 
stacle, heretofore, to the prosecution of the half-written his 
tory of the common people has been the lack of proper raw 
materials. There is a mine of information here which has 
barely been opened to view on the surface. 

* Cf. remarks at page 399 infra. 



THE shape of the human head by which we mean the 
general proportions of length, breadth, and height, irrespective 
of the " bumps " of the phrenologist is one of the best avail 
able tests of race known. Its value is, at the same time, but 
imperfectly appreciated beyond the inner circle of professional 
anthropology. Yet it is so simple a phenomenon, both in 
principle and in practical application, that it may readily be 
of use to the traveller and the not too superficial observer of 
men. To be sure, widespread and constant peculiarities of 
head form are less noticeable in America, because of the ex 
treme variability of our population, compounded as it is of all 
the races of Europe; they seem also to be less fundamental 
among the American aborigines. But in the Old World the 
observant traveller may with a little attention often detect 
the racial affinity of a people by this means. 

The form of the head is for all racial purposes best meas 
ured by what is technically known as the cephalic index. This 
is simply the breadth of the head above the ears expressed in 
percentage of its length from forehead to back. Assuming 
that this length is 100, the width is expressed as a fraction of 
it. As the head becomes proportionately broader that is, 
more fully rounded, viewed from the top down this cephalic 
index increases. When it rises above 80, the head is called 
brachycephalic ; when it falls below 75, the term dolicho 
cephalic is applied to it. Indexes between 75 and 80 are char 
acterized as mesocephalic. The accompanying photographs 
illustrate the extent of these differences as they appear upon 
the skull. They are especially notable in the view from the 



top downward. These particular crania, with the indexes of 
73 and 87 respectively, are, it may be observed, typical of the 
general limits of variation which occur among the races of 
Europe at the present time. In very rare instances the cephalic 
index may run in individuals as low as 62, and it has been 

Brachycephalic type. Index 87. 
Zuid-Beveland, Holland. 

Dolichocephalic type. Index 73. 
Zeeland, Holland. 

observed as high as 103 that is to say, the head being broader 
than it is long. In our study, which is not of individuals 
but of racial groups, the limits of variation are of course much 

* See Appendix A for technical details. 

Swiss, Basle. Index 64. index 75. NORWEGIAN, Aamot. 2. 

Index 88.5. HUNGARIAN, Thorda. 4 

.AIT, Scandinavia. Index 94. Index 96. FRENCH, Savoy. 

{Illustrating the relation between the form efface and the proportions of head, 
measured by the cephalic index. ,) 



A factor which is of great assistance in the rapid identifi 
cation of racial types, is the correlation between the propor 
tions of the head and the form of the face. In the majority 
of cases, particularly in Europe, a relatively broad head is 
accompanied by a rounded face, in which the breadth back 
of the cheek bones is considerable as compared with the height 
from forehead to chin. Anthropologists make use of this re 
lation to measure the so-called facial index ; but a lack of 
uniformity in the mode of taking measurements has so far 
prevented extended observations fit for exact comparison.* 
It is sufficient for our purposes to adopt the rule, long head, 
oval face ; short head and round face. Our six living types on 
the opposite page, arranged in an ascending series of cephalic 
indices from 64 to 96, make this relation between the head 
and face more clearly manifest. In proportion as the heads 
become broader back of the temples, the face appears rela 
tively shorter. We are here speaking, be it noted, of those 
proportions dependent upon the bony structure of the head, 
and not in any sense of the merely superficial fleshy parts. A 
rounded face due to full cheeks should be carefully distin 
guished from one in which the relative breadth is due either 
to prominence of the cheek bones or to real breadth of the 
head itself. It is the last of these alone which concerns us 
here. Only a few examples of widespread disharmonism, as 
it is called, between head and face are known. Among these 
are the Greenland Eskimos, which resemble the Lapp shown 
in our portrait in squareness of face, notwithstanding the fact 
that they are almost the longest-headed race known. The 
aborigines of Tasmania are also disharmonic to a like degree, 
most other peoples of the earth showing an agreement be 
tween the facial proportions and those of the head which is 
sufficiently close to suggest a relation of cause and effect. 
In Europe, where disharmonism is very infrequent among the 
living populations, its prevalence in the prehistoric Cro- 
Magnon race will afford us a means of identification of this 
type wherever it persists to-day. At times disharmonism arises 

* Topinard, Elements, p. 917. Weissenberg, 1897, gives a convenient 
outline of the various systems. 


in mixed types, the product of a cross between a broad and 
a long headed race, wherein the one element contributes the 
head form while the other persists rather in the facial pro 
portions.* Such combinations are apt to occur among the 
Swiss, lying as they do at the ethnic crossroads of the con 
tinent. Several clear examples of it are shown among our 
portraits at page 290. 

An important point to be noted in this connection is that 
this shape of the head seems to bear no direct relation to in 
tellectual pow r er or intelligence. Posterior development of the 

cranium does not imply a corresponding backwardness in 
culture. The broad-headed races of the earth may not as a 
whole be quite as deficient in civilization as some of the long 
heads, notably the Australians and the African negroes. On 
the other hand, the Chinese are conspicuously long-headed, 
surrounded by the barbarian brachycephalic Mongol hordes; 
and the Eskimos in many respects surpass the Indians in cul- 

* Boas (Verb. Bed. Anth. Ges., 1895, p. 406) finds among Indian half- 
breeds that the facial proportions of one or the other parent are more apt 
to be transmitted entirely than that an intermediate form results. 


ture. Dozens of similar contrasts might be given. Europe 
offers the best refutation of the statement that the proportions 
of the head mean anything intellectually. The English, as 
our map of Europe will show, are distinctly long-headed. 
Measurements on the students at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology are fairly typical for the Anglo-Saxon peoples. 
Out of a total of 486 men, four were characterized at one ex 
treme by an index below 70 ; the upper limit was marked by 
four men with an index of 87. The series of heads culminated 
at an index of 77, possessed by 72 students. The diagram 
herewith represents the percentage distribution of the several 
indexes. It points to a clear type at a head form quite near 
the lower limits of variation of the human races; those, 
namely, of the African negroes and the Australian aborigines. 
This example, together with a moment s consideration of our 
world map of the cephalic index, will show how impossible 
is any relation between the head form of a people and its 
civilization or average intelligence. Comparisons have been 
instituted in parts of Europe between the professional and un 
cultured classes in the same community for the further elucida 
tion of this fact. The differences in head form are as apt to 
fall one way as another, depending upon the degree of racial 
purity which exists in each class. Dr. Livi * finds that in north 
ern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the 
peasants; in the south the opposite rule prevails. The ex 
planation is that in each case the upper classes are nearer a 
mean type for the country, as a result of greater mobility and 
ethnic intermixture. f In our study of the proportions of the 
head, therefore, as a corollary of this principle, we are measur 
ing merely race, and not intelligence in any sense. How 
fortunate this circumstance is for our various purposes will 
appear in due time. 

* 1896 a, pp. 86-95. 

f We have discussed this more fully in our 18960 and 1896 d. See 
also Boas, 1896; Beddoe, 1894; Broca, 1872 b ; Niederle, 18963, p. 100, 
etc. ; and the works of Ammon, Lapouge, Muffang, and other social 
anthropologists. Venn, 1888, believes to have discovered a tendency 
among his Cambridge students, but our own results belie it. 



Equally unimportant to the anthropologist is the absolute 
size of the head. It is grievous to contemplate the waste of 
energy when, during our civil war, over one million soldiers 
had their heads measured in respect of this absolute size ; in 
view of the fact that to-day anthropologists .deny any consid 
erable significance attaching to this characteristic. Popularly, 
a large head with beetling eyebrows suffices to establish a 
man s intellectual credit ; but, like all other credit, it is en 
tirely dependent upon what lies on deposit elsewhere. Neither 
size nor weight of the brain seems to be of importance. The 
long, narrow heads, as a rule, have a smaller capacity than 
those in which the breadth is considerable ; but the excep 
tions are so common that they disprove the rule. Among 
the earliest men whose remains have been found in Europe, 
there was no appreciable difference from the present living 
populations. In many cases these prehistoric men even sur 
passed the present population in the size of the head. The 
peasant and the philosopher can not be distinguished in this 
respect. For the same reason the striking difference between 
the sexes, the head of the man being considerably larger than 
that of the woman, means nothing more than avoirdupois; 
or rather it seems merely to be correlated with the taller 
stature and more massive frame of the human male. 

Turning to the world map * on the opposite page, which 

* This map is constructed primarily from data on living men, sufficient 
in amount to eliminate the effect of chance. Among a host of other 
authorities, special mention should be made of Drs. Boas, on North 
America ; Soren-Hansen and Bessels, on the Eskimos ; von den Steinen, 
Ehrenreich, Ten Kate, and Martin, on South America; Collignon, 
Berenger-Feraud, Verneau, Passavant, Deniker, and Laloy, on Africa ; 
Sommier and Mantegazza, on northern, Chantre and Ujfalvy, on western 
Asia ; Risley, on India ; Lubbers, Ten Kate, Volz, Micklucho-Maclay, 
and Maurel, on Indonesia and the western Pacific. For special details, 
TV ,/, Balz, on Japan ; Man, on the Andamans ; Ivanovski and Yavorski, 
on the Mongols, etc. For Africa and Australia the results are certain; 
but scattered through a number of less extended investigations. Then 
there is the more general work of Weisbach, Broca, Pruner Bey, and 
others. All these have been checked or supplemented by the large col 
lections of observations on the cranium. It will never cease to be a mat 
ter of regret that observers like Hartmann, Fritsch, Finsch, the Sarasin 



shows the geographical distribution of the several types of head 
form which we have described, the first fact which impresses 
itself is of the violent contrasts in the eastern hemisphere be 
tween Europe-Asia and the two southern continents Africa and 
Australia. A few pages further on in this chapter will be 
found two sheets of portraits representing the differences be 
tween these regions. The broad heads and square faces of 
the Asiatic types are very different from the long oval of the 
dolichocephalic negro, or of the Berber populations north of 
the Sahara, which in head and face so strongly resemble them. 
In profile the posterior development of the negro skull should 
be compared with the bullet-shaped head of the Asiatic. It 
will appear that differences in length are as remarkable as in 
the breadth. With these contrasts in mind, turn to our world 
map. The line of division of head forms passes east and west 
just south of the great continental backbone extending from 
the Alps to the Himalayas. Thus the primitive natives of 
India, the black men of the hill tribes, who are quite distinct 
from the Hindu invaders, form part of this southern long 
headed group. The three southern centres of long-headedness 
may once have been part of a single continent which occupied 
the basin of the Indian Ocean. From the peculiar geograph 
ical localization about this latter centre of the lemurs, a spe 
cies allied to the monkeys, together with certain other mam 
mals, some naturalists have advocated the theory that such 
a continent once united Africa and Australia.* To this hypo 
thetical land mass they have assigned the name Lemuria. It 
would be idle to discuss the theory in this place. Whether 
such a continent ever existed or not, the present geographical 
distribution of long-headedness points to a common deriva 
tion of the African and the Australian and Melanesian races, 
between whom stand as a connecting link the Dravidian or 

brothers, Stanley, and others, offer no material for work of this kind. 
For the location of tribes, we have used Gerland s Atlas fur Volkerkunde. 
It is to be hoped that Dr. Boas s map for North America, now ready for 
publication, may not long be delayed ; our map has benefited from his 
courteous correction. 

* Ernst Haeckel, 1891, gives an interesting map with a restoration of 
this continent as a centre of dispersion for mammals. 

UZBEG, Ferghanah. 



BERBER, Tunis. Dark brunet. Index 69. 

BERBER, Tunis. Dark brunet. Index 72 

SKKKRK, Negro. Index 75. 


aboriginal inhabitants of India. The phenomena of skin 
colour and of hair only serve to strengthen the hypothesis. 

The extremes in head form here presented between the 
north and the south of the eastern hemisphere constitute the 
mainstay of the theory that in these places we find the two 
primary elements of the human species. Other racial traits 
help to confirm the deduction. The most sudden anthropo- 
geographical transition in the world is afforded by the Hima 
laya mountain ranges. Happily, we possess, from Ujfalvy * 
and others, pretty detailed information for parts of this region, 
especially the Pamir. This " roof of the world " is of peculiar 
interest to us as the land to which Max Miiller sought to trace 
the Aryan invaders of Europe by a study of the languages 
of that continent. It is clearly proved that this greatest moun 
tain system in the world is at the same time the dividing line 
between the extreme types of mankind. It is really the human 
equator of the earth. Such is as it should be. For while the 
greatest extremes of environment are offered between the 
steaming plains of the Ganges and the frigid deserts and 
steppes of the north, at the same time direct intercourse be 
tween the two regions has been rendered well-nigh impos 
sible by the height of the mountain chain itself. In each 
region a peculiar type has developed without interference 
from the other. At either end of the Himalayas proper, where 
the geographical barriers become less formidable, and espe 
cially wherever we touch the sea, the extreme sharpness of 
the human contrasts fails. The Chinese manifest a tendency 
toward an intermediate type of head form. Japan shows it 
even more clearly. From China south the Asiatic broad- 
headedness becomes gradually attenuated among the Malays, 
until it either runs abruptly up against the Melanesian dolicho 
cephalic group or else vanishes among the islanders of the 
Pacific. Evidence that in thus extending to the southeast, 
the Malays have dispossessed or absorbed a more primitive 
population is afforded by the remnants of the negritos. These 
black people still exist in some purity in the inaccessible up- 

Les Aryans au Nord et au Sud de 1 Hindou-Kouch. Paris, 1896. 

4 6 


lands of the large islands in Malaysia, and especially in the 
Philippine Archipelago. 

Compared with the extreme forms presented in the Old 
World, the Americas appear to be quite homogeneous and 
at the same time intermediate in type, especially if we except 
the Eskimo ; for in the western hemisphere among the true 
Indians the extreme variations of head form are comprised 
between the cephalic indices of 85 in British Columbia and 
Peru, and of 76 on the southeast coast of Brazil. Probably 
nine tenths of the native tribes of America have average indices 
between 79 and 83. Many American peoples among whom 
customs of cranial deformation prevail, are able artificially to 
raise their indices to 90 or even 95 ; but such monstrosities 
should be excluded for the present, since we are studying 
normal types of man alone. Translated into words, this means 
that the American aborigines should all be classified together 
as, in a sense, a secondary and more or less transitional racial 

With them we may place the great group of men which 
inhabits the islands of the Pacific. These people manifest 
even clearer than do the American Indians that they are an 
intermediate type. They are, however, more unstable as a 
race, especially lacking in homogeneity. They seem to be 
compounded of the Asiatic and Melanesian primary racial 
elements in varying proportions. It is the most discouraging 
place in the world to measure types of head, because of their 
extreme variability. We shall have occasion shortly to com 
pare certain of their characteristics other than the head form 
with those of the people of Europe. This we shall do in the 
attempt to discover whether these Europeans are also a sec 
ondary race, or whether they are entitled to a different place 
in the human species. We shall then see that one can not 
study Europe quite by itself without gaining thereby an en 
tirely false idea of its human history. 

Before proceeding to discuss the place which Europe occu 
pies in our racial series, it may be interesting to point out 
certain curious parallelisms between the geographical localiza 
tion of the several types of head form and the natural dis- 



tribution of the flora and fauna of the earth.* Agassiz a half 
century ago commented upon the similar areas of distribution 
of mammals and of man. His observations are confirmed by 
our data on the head form. Where, as in Africa and Aus 
tralia, there is marked individuality in the lower forms of life, 
there is also to be found an extreme type of the human spe 
cies. Where, on the other hand, realms like the Oriental 
one which covers southeastern Asia and the Malay Archipel 
ago, have drawn upon the north and the south alike for both 
their flora and fauna, several types of man have also immi 
grated and crossed with one another. Often the dividing lines 
between distinct realms for varieties of man, animal, and plant 
coincide quite exactly. The Sahara Desert, once a sea, and 
not the present Mediterranean, as we shall show, divides the 
true negro from the European, as it does the Ethiopian zoo 
logical and botanical realm from its neighbour. Thus do the 
African Berbers in our portraits belong of right to the Euro 
pean races, as we shall soon be able to prove. The facial re 
semblance is enough to render such proof unnecessary. The 
Andes, the Rocky Mountains, and the Himalayas, for a similar 
reason divide types of all forms of life alike, including man. 
Even that remarkable line which Alfred Russel Wallace so 
vividly describes in his Island Life, which divides the truly 
insular fauna and flora from those of the continent of Asia, 
is duplicated among men near by. The sharp division line 
for plants and animals between Bali and Lombok we have 
shown upon the map. It is but a short distance farther east, 
between Timor and Flores, where we suddenly pass from 
the broad-headed, straight-haired Asiatic Malay to the long 
headed and frizzled Melanesian savage to the group which 
includes the Papuans of New Guinea and the Australian.! 

Following out this study of man in his natural migrations 
just as we study the lower animals, it can be shown that the 
differences in geographical localization between the human 

* Beddard, Lyddeker, Sclater, are best on geographical zoology. Hrin- 
ton, 1890 a, p. 95, gives many references on this. 

t A good ethnological map of this region is given in Ratzel, i894- g5, 
vol. i. 

4 8 


and other forms of life are merely of degree. The whole mat 
ter is reducible at bottom to terms of physical geography, 
producing areas of characterization. Where great changes in 
the environment occur, where oceans or mountain chains 
divide, or where river systems unite geographical areas, we 
discover corresponding effects upon the distribution of human 
as of other animal types. This is not necessarily because the 
environment has directly generated those peculiarities in each 
instance ; certainly no such result can be shown in respect of 
the head form. It is because the several varieties of man or 
other mammals have been able to preserve their individuality 
through geographical isolation from intermixture; or con 
trariwise, as the case may be, have merged it in a conglom 
erate whole compounded of all immigrant types alike. In 
this sense man in his physical constitution is almost as much 
a creature of environment as the lower orders of life. Even 
in Europe he has not yet wholly cast off the leading strings 
of physical circumstance, as it is our purpose ultimately to 

By this time it will have been observed that the differences 
in respect of the head form become strongly noticeable only 
when we compare the extremes of our racial series ; in other 
words, that while the minor gradations may be real to the 
calipers and tape, they are not striking at first glance to the 
eye. Let us carefully note that in observing the proportions 
of the head, we have absolutely nothing to do with those fea 
tures by which in Europe w r e are accustomed to distinguish 
nationalities. Nine times out of ten we recognise an Irish 
man, a Swede, or an Italian by means of these lesser details. 
They are in reality more often national or local than wholly 
racial. Let us also rigidly eliminate the impressions derived 
from mere facial expression. Such belongs rather to the 
study of character than of race. It seldom becomes strongly 
marked before middle life, while the more fundamental traits 
are fully apparent much earlier. As a matter of fact, it is the 
modesty of the head proportions not forcing themselves con 
spicuously upon the observer s notice as do differences in the 
colour of the skin, the facial features, or the bodily stature 



which forms the main basis of their claim to priority as a 
test of race. Were this head form as strikingly prominent 
as these other physical traits, it would tend to fall a prey to 
the modifying factor of artificial selection : that is to say, it 
would speedily become part and parcel among a people of a 
general ideal, either of racial beauty or of economic fitness, 
so that the selective choice thereby induced, would soon modify 
the operation of purely natural causes. 

However strenuously the biologists may deny validity to 
the element of artificial selection among the lower animals, 
it certainly plays a large part in influencing sexual choice 
among primitive men and more subtly among us in civiliza- 
tion. Jusl as soon as ;i social group recognises the possession 
of certain physical traits peculiar to itself that is, as soon 
as it evolves what Giddings has aptly termed a " conscious 
ness of kind " its constant endeavour thenceforth is to afford 
the fullest expression to that ideal. Thus, according to Balz, 
the nobility in Japan are as much lighter in weight and more O 

slender in build than their lower classes, as the Teutonic nobil 
ity of Great Britain/isiabove the British average. The Japan 
ese aristocracy in consequence might soon come to consider 
its bodily peculiarities as a sign of high birth. That it would 
thereafter love, choose, and marry unconsciously perhaps, 
but no less effectively in conformity with that idea is be 
yond peradventure. Is there any doubt that where, as in our 
own Southern States, two races are socially divided from one 
another, the superior would do all in his power to eliminate 
any traces of physical similarity to the menial negroes ? Alight 
not the Roman nose, light hair and eyes, and all those promi 
nent traits which distinguished the master from the slave, 
play an important part in constituting an ideal of beauty 
which would become highly effective in the course of time? 
So uncultured a people as the natives of Australia are pleased 
to term the Europeans, in derision, " tomahawk-noses," re 
garding our primary facial trait as absurd in its make-up. 
Even among them the " consciousness of kind " can not be 
denied as an important factor to be dealt with in the theory 
of the formation of races. 


Such an artificial selection as we have instanced is pecul 
iarly liable to play havoc with facial features, for which reason 
these latter are rendered quite unreliable for purposes of racial 
identification. Because they are entirely superficial, they are 
first noted by the traveller and used as a basis of classifica 
tion. A case in point is offered by the eastern Eskimos, who 
possess in marked degree not only the almond eye, so char 
acteristic of the Mongolian peoples, but also the broad face, 
high cheek bones, and other features common among the 
people of Asia. Yet, notwithstanding this superficial resem 
blance, inspection of our world map of the head form shows 
that they stand at the farthest remove from the Asiatic type. 
They are even longer-headed than most of the African negroes. 
The same phenomenon confronts us in our analysis of the 
aborigines of Russia. We shall find many of the dolicho 
cephalic Finns, who are superficially Mongols in every facial 
characteristic. They remain Finns nevertheless, although their 
faces belie it. Equally erroneous is it to assume, because the 
Asiatic physiognomy is quite common among all the aborigines 
of the Americas, even to the tip of Cape Horn, that this con 
stitutes a powerful argument for a derivation of the American 
Indian from the Asiatic stock. We shall have occasion to 
point out from time to time the occurrence of local facial types 
in various parts of Europe. On the principle we have indi 
cated above, these are highly interesting as indications of a 
local sense of individuality; though they mean but little, so 
far as racial origin and derivation are concerned. 

Happily for us, racial differences in head form are too 
slight to suggest any such social selection as has been sug 
gested ; moreover, they are generally concealed by the head 
dress, which assumes prominence in proportion as we re 
turn toward barbarism. Obviously, a Psyche knot or savage 
peruke suffices to conceal all slight natural differences of this 
kind ; so that Nature is left free to follow her own bent with 
out interference from man. The colour of skin peculiar to 
a people may be heightened readily by the use of a little pig 
ment. Such practices are not infrequent. To modify the 
shape of the cranium itself, even supposing any peculiarity 


were detected, is quite a different matter. It is far easier to 
rest content with a modification of the headdress, which may 
be rendered socially distinctive by the application of infinite 
pains and expense. It is well known that in many parts of 
the world the head is artificially deformed by compression 
during infancy. This was notably the case in the Americas. 
Such practices have obtained and prevail to-day in parts 
of Europe.* Bodin tells us that the Belgae were accus 
tomed to compress the head by artificial means. The people 
about Toulouse in the Pyrenees are accustomed, even at the 
present time, to distort the head by the application of band 
ages during the formative period of life. This deformation 
is sometimes so extreme as to equal the Flathead Indian mon 
strosities which have been so often described. Fortunately, 
these barbarous customs are rare among the civilized peoples 
which it is our province to discuss. Their absence, however, 
can not be ascribed to inability to modify the shape of the 
head ; rather does it seem to be due to the lack of apprecia 
tion that any racial differences exist, which may be exag 
gerated for social effect or racial distinction. More important 
to-day are the customs, such as the use of hard cradles, which 
indirectly operate to modify the shape of the cranium. Our 
portraits of Armenians and other peoples of Asia Minor at 
page 4/J4 show the possible effect of such practices. These 
deformations not being clearly intentional, can not be reckoned 
as evidence of a selective process. 

\Yestermarck f develops the interesting law that deforma- 
tive practices generally tend to exaggerate the characteristics 
peculiar to a people. It is true, indeed, that a flattening of 
the occiput seems to be more prevalent among the naturally 

* For a full account of such deformation, vide L Anthropologie, vol. iv, 
pp. 11-27. The illustrations of such deformation, of the processes em 
ployed, and of the effect upon the brain development, are worthy of note. 
Other references concerning Europe are Lagneau, 1872, p. 618 ; Luschan, 
1879 : Lenhossek, 1878 ; Perier, 1861, p. 26 ; Davis and Thurnam, 1865, 
pp. 34, 42; Thurnam, 1863, p. 157; Bertholon, 1892, p. 42; Globus, lix, 
p. 118, after Delisle in Bull. Soc. d Anth., 1886, p. 649. Anutchin, 1887 
and 1892, on Russia, is particularly good. 

f History of Human Marriage, second edition, p. 262. 


brachycephalic aborigines of America and Asia. We have an 
African example of a recognition of the opposite cephalic pe 
culiarity. It seems highly suggestive. The naturally long 
headed Ovambo shave all the head save at the top, it is said, 
in order to bring their prominent occiputs into greater relief. 
One can not deny the effectiveness of such a custom in the 
case of our African portraits in this chapter. They certainly 
exaggerate the natural long-headedness to a marked degree. 
Such phenomena are, however, very rare ; cranial individuality 
is very seldom subject to such modification, being in so far 
free from disturbance by artificial selection. 

Another equally important guarantee that the head form 
is primarily the expression of racial differences alone lies in 
its immunity from all disturbance from physical environment. 
As will be shown subsequently, the colour of the hair and 
eyes, and stature especially, are open to modification by local 
circumstances ; so that racial peculiarities are often obscured 
or entirely reversed by them. On the other hand, the gen 
eral proportions of the head seem to be uninfluenced either 
by climate, by food supply or economic status, or by habits 
of life ; so that they stand as the clearest exponents which 
we possess of the permanent hereditary differences within 
the human species. Ranke, of Munich, most eminent of 
German authorities, has long advocated a theory that there 
is some natural relation between broad-headedness and a 
mountainous habitat.* He was led to this view by the re 
markable Alpine localization, which we shall speedily point 
out, of the brachycephalic race of Europe. Our map of the 
world, with other culminations of this type in the Himalayan 
plateau of Asia, in the Rocky Mountains, and the Andes, may 
seem to corroborate this view. Nevertheless, all attempts to 
trace any connection in detail between the head form and the 
habitat have utterly failed. For this reason we need not stop 
to refute this theory by citing volumes of evidence to the 
contrary, as we might. Our explanation for this peculiar 
geographical phenomenon, which ascribes it to a racial se- 

* Cf. Moschen, 1892, p. 125, for criticism of this. Beitrage zur Anthro- 
pologie Bayerns, i, 1877, pp. 232-234 ; ii, 1879, P- 75- 





lective process alone, is fully competent to account for the 
fact. The environment is still a factor for us of great mo 
ment, but its action is merely indirect. In the present state 
of our knowledge, then, we seem to be justified in ruling out 
environment once and for all as a direct modifier of the shape 
of the head. 

Having disposed of both artificial selection and environ 
ment as possible modifiers of the head form, nothing remains 
to be eliminated except the element of chance variation.* 
This last is readily counterbalanced by taking so many ob 
servations that the fluctuations above and below the mean 
neutralize one another. Variation due to chance alone is no 
more liable to occur in the head than in any other part of 
the body. Rigid scientific methods are the only safeguard 
for providing against errors due to it. It is this necessity 
of making the basis of observation so broad that all error 
due to chance may be eliminated, which constitutes the main 
argument for the study of heads in the life rather than of 
skulls ; for the limit to the number of measurements is deter 
mined by the perseverance and ingenuity of the observer alone, 
and not by the size of the museum collection or of the burial 
place. It should be added that our portraits have been espe 
cially chosen with a view to the elimination of chance. They 
will always, so far as possible, represent types and not indi 
viduals, in the desire to have them stand as illustrations and 
not merely pictures. This is a principle which is lamentably 
neglected in many books on anthropology; to lose sight of 
it is to prostitute science in the interest of popularity. 

The most conspicuous feature of our map of cephalic index 
for western Europe f is that here within a limited area all the 
extremes of head form known to the human race are crowded 
together. In other words, the so-called white race of Europe 
is not physically a uniform and intermediate type in the propor 
tions of the head between the brachycephalic Asiatics and the 
long-headed negroes of Africa. A few years ago it \vas be- 

* Ranke, 1897 b. See also chapter vi for further discussion, 
f See Appendix A for technical details. 


lieved that this was true.* More recently, detailed research 
has revealed hitherto unsuspected limits of variation. They 
are roughly indicated by our portraits of living European 
types at page 39. In the high Alps of northwestern Italy are 
communes with an average index of 89, an extreme of round- 
headedness not equalled anywhere else in the world save in 
the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor. This type of head 
prevails all through the Alps, quite irrespective of political 
frontiers. These superficial boundaries are indicated in white 
lines upon the map to show their independence of racial limits. 
There is no essential difference in head form between the 
Bavarians and the Italian Piedmontese, or between the French 
Savoyards and the Tyrolese. 

From what has been said, it will appear that these Alpine 
populations in purity exceed any known tribes of central Asia 
in the breadth of their heads. Yet within three hundred miles 
as the crow flies, in the island of Corsica, are communes with 
an average cephalic index of 73. \ These mountaineers of in 
land Corsica are thus as long-headed as any tribe of Aus 
tralians, the wood Veddahs of Ceylon, or any African negroes 
of which we have extended observations. A little way farther 
to the north there are other populations in Scotland, Ireland, 
and Scandinavia which are almost as widely different from 
the Alpine peoples in the proportions of the head as are the 
Corsicans. An example of extreme individual variation down 
ward is shown in our Teutonic type at page 39, which has a 
lower index than any recorded for the longest-headed primitive 
races known. Nor is this all. Pass to northern Scandinavia, 
and we find among the Lapps, again, one of the broadest- 

* Sir W. H. Flower, in his classification of human types, asserted it as 
late as 1885 ; it is reaffirmed in Flower and Lyddeker s great handbook 
(1891) ; yet A. Retzius, as early as 1864, in his map of cephalic index, 
practically represented the modern proved facts, which detailed research 
has been slowly confirming ever since. 

f Lapouge, 1897 c, describes, perhaps, the broadest-headed contingent 
in Europe. Jaubert and Mahoudeau are best on Corsica. Bertholon, 
1892, found an average below 74 for 358 Berbers in Khoumirie. Portugal, 
as we shall see, is equally long-headed, according to data furnished by 
Ferraz de Macedo. Cf. Closson, 1896 a, p. 176. 



headed peoples of the earth, of a type shown in our series 
of portraits. 

So remarkably sudden are these transitions that one is 
tempted at first to regard them as the result of chance. Fur 
ther examination is needed to show that it must be due to 
law. Proof of this is offered by the map itself; for it indi 
cates a uniform gradation of head form from several specific 
centres of distribution outward. Consider Italy, for example, 
where over three hundred thousand individuals, from every 
little hamlet, have been measured in detail. The transition 
from north to south is, as we shall see, perfectly consistent. 
The people of the extreme south are like the Africans among 
our portraits, at page 45 in respect of the head form; grad 
ually the type changes until in Piedmont we reach an extreme 
perfectly similar to that depicted on our other page of brachy- 
cephalic Asiatic types. So it is all over the continent. Each 
detailed research is a check on its neighbour. There is no 
escape from the conclusion that we have to do with law. 

Two distinct varieties of man, measured by the head form 
alone, are to be found within the confines of this little conti 
nent. One occupies the heart of western Europe as an out 
post of the great racial type which covers all Asia and most 
of eastern Europe as well. The other, to which we as Anglo- 
Saxons owe allegiance, seems to hang upon the outskirts of 
Europe, intrenched in purity in the islands and peninsulas 
alone. Northern Africa, as we have already observed, is to 
be classed with these. Furthermore, this long-headed type 
appears to be aggregated about two distinct centres of dis 
tribution in the north and south respectively. In the next 
chapter we shall show that these two centres of long-headed- 
ness are again divided from one another in respect of both 
colour of hair and eyes and stature. From the final combina 
tion of all these bodily characteristics we discover that in 
reality in Europe we have to do with three physical types, 
and not two. Thus we reject at once that old classification 
in our geographies of all the peoples of Europe under a single 
title of the white, the Indo-Germanic, Caucasian, or Aryan 
race. Europe, instead of being a monotonous entity, is a 


most variegated patchwork of physical types. Each has a 
history of its own, to be worked out from a study of the living 
men. Upon the combination of these racial types in varying 
proportions one with another the superstructure of nation 
ality has been raised. 

Among other points illustrated by our map of Europe is 
the phenomenon paralleled in general zoology, that the ex 
treme or pure type is normally to be found in regions of 
marked geographical individuality. Such areas of charac 
terization occur, for example, in the Alpine valleys, in Corsica 
and Sardinia, somewhat less so in Spain, Italy, and Scandi 
navia. The British Isles, particularly Ireland, at least until 
the full development of the art of navigation, afforded also a 
good example of a similar area of characterization. Europe 
has always been remarkable among continents by reason of 
its " much-divided " geography. From Strabo to Montes 
quieu political geographers have called attention to the ad 
vantage which this subdivision has afforded to man. They 
have pointed to the smooth outlines of the African continent, 
for example; to its structural monotony, and to the lack of 
geographical protection enjoyed by its social and political 
groups. The principle which they invoked appears to hold 
true in respect of race as well as of politics. Africa is as uni 
form racially as Europe is heterogeneous. 

Pure types physically are always to be found outside the 
great geographical meeting .places. These, such as the gar 
den of France, the valleys of the Po, the Rhine, and the 
Danube, have always been areas of conflict. Competition, 
the opposite of isolation, in these places is the rule; so that 
progress which depends upon the stress of rivalry has fol 
lowed as a. matter of course. There are places where too 
much of this healthy competition has completely broken the 
mould of nationality, as in Sicily, so ably pictured by Free 
man. It is only within certain limits that struggle and con 
flict make for an advance forward or upward. Ethnically, 
however, this implies a variety of physical types in contact, 
from which by natural selection the one best fitted for sur 
vival may persist. This means ultimately the extinction of 



extreme types and the supersession of them by mediocrity. 
In other words, applying these principles to the present case, 
it implies the blending of the long and the narrow heads and 
the substitution of one of medium breadth. The same causes, 
then, which conduce socially and politically to progress have 
as an ethnic result mediocrity of type. The individuality of the 
single man is merged in that of the social group. In fine, con 
trast of race is swallowed up in nationality. This process has 
as yet only begun in western Europe. In the so-called upper 
classes it has proceeded far, as we shall see. We shall, in due 
course of time, have to trace social forces now at work which 
insure its further prosecution not only among the leaders of 
the people, but among the masses as well. The process will 
be completed in that far-distant day when the conception of 
common humanity shall replace the narrower one of nation 
ality ; then there will be perhaps not two varieties of head 
form in Europe, but a great common mean covering the whole 
continent. The turning of swords into ploughshares will con 
tribute greatly to this end. Modern industrial life with its 
incident migrations of population does more to upset racial 
purity than a hundred military campaigns or conquests. Did 
it not at the same time invoke commercial rivalries and build 
up national barriers against intercourse, we might hope to see 
this amalgamation completed in a conceivable time. 



THE colour of the skin has been from the earliest times 
regarded as a primary means of racial identification. The 
ancient Egyptians were accustomed to distinguish the races 
known to them by this means both upon their monuments 
and in their inscriptions. Notwithstanding this long ac 
quaintance, the phenomenon of pigmentation remains to-day 
among the least understood departments of physical anthro 
pology. One point alone seems to have been definitely 
proved : however marked the contrasts in colour between the 
several varieties of the human species may be, there is no cor 
responding difference in anatomical structure discoverable. 

Pigmentation arises from the deposition of colouring mat 
ter in a special series of cells, which lie just between the trans 
lucent outer skin or epidermis and the inner or true skin 
known as the cutis. It was long supposed that these pigment 
cells were peculiar to the dark-skinned races ; but investiga 
tion has shown that the structure in all types is identical. The 
differences in colour are clue, not to the presence or absence 
of the cells themselves, but to variations in the amount of pig 
ment therein deposited. In this respect, therefore, the negro 
differs physiologically, rather than anatomically, from the Eu 
ropean or the Asiatic. Yet this trait, although superficial so 
to speak, is exceedingly persistent, even through considerable 
racial intermixture. The familiar legal test in our Southern 
States in the ante-bellum days for the determination of the legal 
status of octoroons was to look for the bit of colour at the 
base of the finger nails. Under the transparent outer skin 
in this place the telltale pigmentation would remain, despite 
a long-continued infusion of white blood. 


In respect of the colour of the skin, we may roughly divide 
the human species into four groups indicated upon our world 
map. The jet or coal black colour is not very widespread. 
It occurs in a narrow and more or less broken belt across 
Africa just south of the Sahara Desert, with a few scattering 
bits farther south on the same continent. Another centre 
of dissemination of this characteristic, although widely sepa 
rated from it, occurs in the islands southeast of Xew Guinea 
in the Pacific Ocean, in the district which is known from this 
dark colour of its populations as Melanesia. Next succeed 
ing this type in depth of colour is the main body of negroes, 
of Australians, and of the aborigines of India. This second 
or brownish group in the above-named order shades off from 
deep chocolate through coffee-colour down to olive and light 
or reddish brown. The American Indians fall within this class, 
because, while reddish in tinge, the skin has a strong brown 
undertone. In the Americas we find the colour quite vari 
able, ranging all the way from the dark Peruvians and the 
Mexicans to the aborigines north of the United States. The 
Polynesians are allied to this second group, characterized by 
a red-brown skin. A third class, in which the skin is of a 
yellow shade, covers most of Asia, the northern third of Africa, 
and Brazil,* including a number of widely scattered peoples 
such as the Lapps, the Eskimos, the Hottentots and P>ushmen 
of South Africa, together with most of the people of Malaysia. 
Among these the skin varies from a dull leather colour, 
through a golden or buff to a muddy white. In all cases the 
shading is in no wise continuous or regular. Africa contains 
all three types of colour from the black Dinkas to the yellow 
Hottentots. In Asia and the Americas all tints obtain except 
the jet black. There are all grades of transitional shading. 
Variations within the same tribe are not inconsiderable, so 
that no really sharp line of demarcation anywhere occurs. 

The fourth colour group which we have to study in this 
paper is alone highly concentrated in the geographical sense. 
It forms the so-called white race, although many of its mem- 

* K. E. Ranke, Zeits. f. Eth., xxx, 1898, pp. 61-73. 


bers are almost brown and often yellow in skin colour. As 
we shall show, its real determinant characteristic is, para 
doxically, not the skin at all but the pigmentation of the 
hair and eyes. Nevertheless, so far as it may be used in classi 
fication, the very light shades of skin are restricted to Europe, 
including perhaps part of modern Africa north of the Sahara, 
which geologically belongs to the northern continent. There 
is a narrow belt of rather light-skinned peoples running off 
to the southeast into Asia, including the Persians and some 
high-caste Hindus. This offshoot vanishes in the Ganges 
\ alley in the prevailing dark skin of the aboriginal inhabitants 
of India. The only entirely isolated bit of very light skin 
elsewhere occurs among the Ainos in northern Japan ; but 
these people are so few in number and so abnormal in other 
respects that we are warranted in dismissing them from fur 
ther consideration in this place. 

Anthropologists have endeavoured for a long time to find 
the cause of these differences in the colour of the skin.* Some 
have asserted that they were the direct effects of heat ; but 
our map shows that the American stock, for example, is in no 
wise affected by it. A consideration of all the races of the 
earth in general shows no correspondence whatever of the 
colour of the skin with the isothermal lines. The Chinese 
are the same colour at Singapore as at Pekin and at Kam 
chatka. Failing in this explanation, scientists have endeav 
oured to connect pigmentation of the skin with humidity, or 
with heat and humidity combined ; but in Africa, as we saw, 
the only really black negroes are in the dry region near the 
Sahara Desert ; while the Congo basin, one of the most humid 
regions on the globe, is distinctly lighter in tint. Others have 
attempted to prove that this colour, again, might be due to 
the influence of the tropical sun, or perhaps to oxygenation 
taking place under the stimulation of exposure to solar rays. 
This has at first sight a measure of probability, since the colour 
which appears in tanning or freckles is not to be distinguished 

* Waitz : Anthropologie der Naturvolker, vol. i, p. 55 set/., contains 
some interesting remarks on this subject. Topinard, Ranke. De Quatre- 
fages, and all standard authorities devote much attention to it. 


physiologically from the pigment which forms in the main 
body of the skin of the darker races. The objection to this 
hypothesis is that the covered portions of the body are equally 
dark with the exposed ones : and that certain groups of men 
whose lives are peculiarly sedentary, such as the Jews, who 
have spent much of their time for centuries within doors, are 
distinctly darker than other races whose occupations keep 
them continually in the open air. This holds true whether 
in the tropics or in the northern part of Europe. This local 
coloration in tanning, moreover, due to the direct influence 
of the sun is not hereditary, as far as we can determine. Sail 
ors children are not darker than those of the merchant, even 
after generations of men have followed the same profession. 
Each of these theories seems to fail as a sole explanation. 
The best working hypothesis is, nevertheless, that this colora 
tion is due to the combined influences of a great number of 
factors of environment working through physiological pro 
cesses, none of which can be isolated from the others. One 
point is certain, whatever the cause may be that this char 
acteristic has been very slowly acquired, and has to-day be 
come exceedingly persistent in the several races. 

Study of the colour of the skin alone has nothing further 
to interest us in this inquiry than the very general conclusions 
we have just outlined. We are compelled to turn to an allied 
characteristic namely, the pigmentation of the hair and eyes 
for more specific results. There are three reasons which 
compel us to take this action. In the first place, the colora 
tion of the hair and eyes appears to be less directly open to 
disturbance from environmental influences than is the skin ; 
so that variations in shading may be at the same time more 
easily and delicately measured. Secondly ; the colour or, if 
you please, the absence of colour, in the hair and eyes is more 
truly peculiar to the European race than is the lightness of 
its skin. There are many peoples in Europe who are darker 
skinned than certain tribes in Asia or the Americas ; but there 
is none in which blondness of hair and eyes occurs to any con 
siderable degree. It is in the flaxen hair and blue eye that 
the peculiarly European type comes to its fullest physical 


expression. This at once reveals the third inducement for 
us to focus our study upon these apparently subordinate traits. 
Europe alone of all the continents is divided against itself. 
We find blondness in all degrees of intensity scattered among 
a host of much darker types. A peculiar advantage is herein 
made manifest. Nowhere else in the world are two such dis 
tinct varieties of man in such intimate contact with one an 
other. From the precise determination of their geographical 
distribution we may gain an insight into many interesting 
racial events in the past. 

The first general interest in the pigmentation of the hair 
and eyes in Europe dates from 1865, although Dr. Beddoe 
began nearly ten years earlier to collect data from all over the 
continent. His untiring perseverance led him to take upward 
of one hundred thousand personal observations in twenty-five 
years.* During our own civil war about a million recruits 
were examined by Gould ( ti!>) and Baxter (<7r>) , many being im 
migrants from all parts of Europe. The extent of the work 
which has been done since these first beginnings is indicated 
by the following approximate table : 

Number of Observations. 

School children. 







France. . . 

225 oooi 



British Isles 







Criminals etc. . 

United States 


Remainder of Europe. . 




It thus appears that the material is ample in amount. The 
great difficulty in its interpretation lies in the diversity of the 
systems which have been adopted by different observers. It 
is not easy to give an adequate conception of the confusion 
which prevails. Here are a few of the obstacles to be encoun- 

* Mainly published in his monumental Races of Britain, London, and 
Bristol, 1885. 

6 4 


tered. As the table indicates, the countries north of the Alps 
have been mainly studied through their school children. In 
the Latin half of Europe adults alone are included. It is a 
matter of common observation that flaxen hair and blue eyes 
are characteristic of childhood. As it has been proved that 
from ten to twenty per cent of such blond children at maturity 
develop darker hair or eyes, the fallacy of direct comparison 
of these figures for the north and south of Europe becomes 
apparent.* Secondly ; some observers, like Beddoe, rely pri 
marily upon the colour of the hair ; others place greater reli 
ance upon the tints of the iris, as in the case of the Anthropo- 
metric Committee. It is, indeed, certain that brunetness is 
not equally persistent in the two. Dark traits seem to re 
appear with greater constancy in the hair, while a remote 
blond cross more often leaves its traces in the eyes.f Thus 
we have the characteristic blue eye in the dark-haired Breton 
peasantry. The opposite combination that is to say, of dark 
eyes with light hair is very uncommon, as the Anthropo- 
metric Committee ( 8S) found in the British Isles. The norm :1 
association resulting, as we shall see, from a blond cross with 
a primitive dark race is of brownish hair and gray or bluish 
eyes.]: In the third place, it is not easy to correct for the per 
sonal equation of different observers. A seeming brunet in 
Norway appears as quite blond in Italy because there is no 
fixed standard by which to judge. The natural impulse is to 
compare the individual wkh the general population round 
about. The precision of measurements upon the head is 
nowise attainable. Some observers take the colours as they 
appear upon close examination, while the majority prefer to 
record the general impression at a distance. And, finally, after 
the observations have been taken in these different ways, some 

* Consult Anthropometric Committee, 1883, p. 28 ; Virchow, 1886 b, p. 
291 ; Zuckerkandl, 1889, p. 125 ; Livi, 1896 a, p. 67 ; Pfitzner, 1897, p. 477. 
Kordier s observations in Isere, 1895, are particularly good for comparison. 

f Topinard, 1889 a, pp. 515 and 523 ; 1889 c ; Collignon, 1890 a, p. 47 ; Vir 
chow, 1886 b, p. 325. If the hair be light, one can generally be sure that the 
eyes will be of a corresponding shade. Bassanovitch, 1891, p. 29, striking 
ly confirms this rule for even so dark a population as the Bulgarian. 

| Sf iren Hansen, iSSS, finds this true in Denmark also. 


authorities in their computations reject neutral tints which 
are neither clearly blond nor brunet, and give the relative 
proportions of the two types after this elimination. The re 
sultant difficulty in drawing any close comparisons under such 
circumstances can readily be appreciated. 

The general rule is that eyes and hair vary together, both 
being either lightish or dark, as if in correspondence.* Never 
theless, such ideal combinations do not characterize a majority 
of most European populations. Thus, in Germany, of six 
million school children observed on a given day, not one half 
of them showed the simple combination of dark eyes and dark 
hair or of light eyes and light hair.f In the British Isles, 
according to the Anthropometric Committee (>83) , it appears 
that over twenty-five per cent of persons measured have fair 
eyes and dark hair in other words, that the hair and the 
eyes do not accompany one another in type. Of nearly five 
hundred students at the Institute of Technology, sixty-five 
per cent were of this mixed type. Even among the Jews, 
Yirchow found less than forty per cent characterized by the 
same tinge of hair and eyes. In parts of Russia the proportion 
of pure types is scarcely above half; J in Denmark, less than 
forty per cent were consistently pure.* 

Under these trying circumstances, there are two principal 
modes of determining the pigmentation of a given population. 
One is to discover the proportion of so-called pure brunet 
types that is to say, the percentage of individuals possessed 
of both dark eyes and hair. The other system is to study brunet 
traits without regard to their association in the same individual. 
This latter method is no respecter of persons. The population 
as a whole, and not the individual, is the unit. North of the 
Alps they have mapped the pigmentation in the main by types ; 
in France, Norway, Italy, and the British Isles they have chosen 

* Ammon, 1899, p. 157, is fine on this. Among 6,800 recruits in Baden, 
sixty-three percent of blue-eyed men had light hair, while eighty-four per 
cent of dark-eyed men had brown or black hair. Cf. also Livi, 1896 a, p. 
63 ; Weisbach, 1894, p. 237 ; Arbo, 1895 b, p. 58. 

t Yirchow, 1886 b, p. 298. 

| Talko-Hryncewicz, 1897 a, p. 278; Anutchin, 1893, p. 285. 

* Soren Hansen, 1888. 


to work by dissociated traits. Here again is a stumbling-block 
in the way of comparisons. The absolute figures for the same 
population gathered in these two ways will be widely differ 
ent. Thus in Italy, while only about a quarter of the people 
are pure brunet types, nearly half of all the eyes and hair in 
the country are dark. That is to say, a large proportion of 
brunet traits are to-day found scattered broadcast without 
association one with another. In Europe, as a whole, upward 
of one half of the population is of a mixed type in this respect. 
In America the equilibrium is still further disturbed. Nor 
should \ve expect it to be otherwise. Intermixture, migra 
tion, the influences of environment, and chance variation have 
been long at work in Europe. The result has been to reduce 
the pure types, either of blond or brunet, to an absolute 
minority. Fortunately for us, in despair at the prospect of 
reducing such variant systems to a common base, the results 
obtained all point in the same direction whichever mode of 
study is employed. In those populations where there is the 
greatest frequency of pure dark types, there also is generally 
to be found the largest proportion of brunet traits lying 
about loose, so to speak. And where there are the highest 
percentages of these unattached traits, there is also the great 
est prevalence of purely neutral tints, which are neither to 
be classed as blond or brunet. So that, as we have said, in 
whichever way the pigmentation is studied, the results in 
general are parallel, certainly at least so far as the deductions 
in this paper are concerned. Our map on the next page is in 
deed constructed in conformity with this assumption.* 

By reason of the difficulties above mentioned, this map is 
intended to convey an idea of the relative brunetness of the 
various parts of Europe by means of the shading rather than 
by concrete percentages. It is, in fact, impossible to reduce 
all the results to a common base for exact comparison. What 
we have done is to patch together the maps for each country, 
adopting a scheme of tinting for each which shall represent, 
as nearly as may be, its relation to the rest. In the scale at 
the left the shades on the same horizontal line are supposed 

* See Appendix B. 




20-25 percent 


to represent approximately equal degrees of pigmentation. 
The arrangement of the colours in separate groups, it will be 
observed, corresponds to national systems of measurement. 
Thus the five tints used in Germanic countries and the six in 
Italy are separately grouped, and are each distinct from those 
used for the coloration of France. It will be observed that 
these separate national groups often overlap at each end. This 
arrangement indicates, for example, that the darkest part of 
Scandinavia contains about as many brunet traits as the 
lightest portion of Germany, and that they are both lighter 
than any part of Scotland ; or that the fourth zone of brtt- 
netness in Germany contains about as high a proportion of 
dark traits as the lightest part of France, and that they are 
both about as dark areas as the middle zone in England. 
As the diagram shows, central France is characterized by a 
grade of brunetness somewhat intermediate between the 
south of Austria and northern Italy. In other words, the 
increase of pigmentation toward the south is somewhat more 
gradual there than in the eastern Alps. To summarize the 
whole system, equally dark tints along the same horizontal 
line in the diagram indicate that in the areas thus equally 
shaded there are about the same proportions of traits or types, 
as the case may be, which are entitled to be called brunet. 

In a rough way, the extremes in the distribution of the 
blond and brunet varieties within the population of Europe 
are as follows : At the northern limit we find that about one 
third of the people are pure blonds, characterized by light 
hair and blue eyes ; about one tenth are pure brunets ; the 
remainder, over one half, being mixed with a tendency to 
blondness.* On the other hand, in the south of Italy the pure 
blonds have almost entirely disappeared. About one half 
the population are pure brunets, with deep brown or black 
hair, and eyes of a corresponding shade ; and the other half 
is mixed, with a tendency to brunetness. f The half-and-half 
line seems to lie about where it ought, not far from the 

* Topinard, 18890, for Norway; Hultkrantz, 1897, for 699 Swedes 
gives twenty-six per cent pure blonds, 
f Livi, 18963, p. 60. 


Alps. Yet it does not follow the parallels of latitude. A circle, 
described with Copenhagen as a centre, sweeping around near 
Vienna, across the middle of Switzerland, thence up through 
the British Isles, might serve roughly to indicate such a 
boundary. North of it blondness prevails, although always 
with an appreciable percentage of pure brunets. South of 
it brunetness finally dominates quite exclusively. It should 
not fail of note that toward the east there is a slight though 
constant increase of brunetness along the same degrees of 
latitude, and that the western portion of the British Isles is a 
northern outpost of the brunet type. 

Thus we see at a glance that there is a gradual though 
constant increase in the proportion of dark eyes and hair 
from north to south. Gould s data ( ti!l) on our recruits during 
the civil war, for example, represents about sixteen per cent 
of dark hair in Scandinavia, the proportion rising to about 
seventy-five per cent among natives of Spain or Portugal. 
There are none of those sharp contrasts which appeared upon 
our maps showing the distribution of the long and broad heads 
in Europe. On that map the extremes were separated by only 
half a continent in either direction from the Alps ; whereas 
in this case the change from dark to light covers the whole 
extent of the continent. It is as if a blending wash had been 
spread over the map of head form, toning down all its sharp 
racial division lines. Some cause other than race has evi 
dently exerted an influence upon all types of men alike, tend 
ing to obliterate their physical differences. It is not a ques 
tion of Celt, Slav, or Teuton. It lies deeper than these. The 
Czechs in Bohemia are as much darker than the Poles to the 
north of them, both being Slavic ; as the Bavarians exceed 
the Prussians in the same respect, although the last two are 
both Germans. It would be unwarranted to maintain that 
any direct relation of climate to pigmentation has been proved. 
The facts point, nevertheless, strongly in that direction. We 
do not know in precisely what way the pigmental processes 
are affected. Probably other environmental factors are equally 
important with climate. To that point we shall return in a 
few pages. We may rest assured at this writing that our map 


for Europe corroborates in a general way testimony drawn 
from other parts of the earth that some relation between the 
two exists. 

It seems to be true that brunetness holds its own more 
persistently over the whole of Europe than the lighter char 
acteristics. Probably one reason why this appears to be so, 
is because the dark traits are more striking, and hence are 
more apt to be observed. Yet, after making all due allowance 
for this fact, the relative persistency, or perhaps we might say 
penetrativeness, of the brunet traits seems to be indicated. 
Our map shows that, while in Scandinavia seldom less than 
one quarter of all the eyes and hair are dark, in the south 
the blond traits often fall below ten per cent of the total. 
Thus in Sardinia there are only about three per cent of all the 
eyes and hair which are light. The same point is shown with 
added force if we study the distribution of the pure blond 
or brunet types, and not of these traits independently. In 
the blondest part of Germany there are seldom less than seven 
per cent of pure brunet children. Among adults this would 
probably not represent less than fifteen per cent of pure bru- 
nets, to say the least. As our table shows, in Scotland direct 
observations on adults indicate nearly a quarter of the popu 
lation to be pure brunets. On the other hand, the pure 

Percentage of 







North Germany 

7-1 1 

















blonds become a negligible quantity long before we reach 
the bottom of the table at the south. Thus, among two thou 
sand and fifty natives of Tunis in North Africa, true Euro 
peans as \ve must repeat, Collignon * found that, while blond 
hair or eyes were noticeable at times, in no single case was 
a pure blond with both light hair and eyes to be discovered. 
Similarly, in Sardinia, less than one per cent of the popula 
tion was found by Livi to be of this pure blond type.f Dr. 
Ferraz de Macedo has courteously placed the results of an 
examination of eighteen hundred Portuguese men and women 
at our disposition. Less than two per cent of these were char 
acterized by light hair of any shade ; about one fifth were 
black-haired, the remainder being of various dark chestnut 
tints. The interest and significance of this extreme rarity of 
blondness in the south lie in its bearing upon the theory, pro 
pounded by Brinton, that northern Africa was the centre of 
dispersion of the blond invaders of Europe, who introduced a 
large measure of its culture. J We shall return to this theory 
at a later time. It is sufficient here to notice how completely 
this blond type vanishes among the populations of the south 
of Europe and northerr 1 Africa to-day. Such blonds do 
occur; they are certainly not a negligible quantity in some 
districts in Morocco. A portrait of one is given, through the 
courtesy of Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis, in our series at page 278. 
Each one in so dark a general population as here prevails, 
however, is a host itself in the observer s mind. The true 
status is revealed only when we consider men by hundreds 
or even thousands, in which case the real infrequency of 
blond traits becomes at once apparent. 

Thus far we have been mainly concerned with the pig 
mentation of the hair and eyes as a result of climatic or other 
environmental influences. Let us now consider the racial 
aspect of the question. Is there anything in our map which 
might lead us to suspect that certain of these gradations of 

* 1888, P . 3. f 1896 a, P . 60. 

\ Keane, in his recent Ethnology, acquiesces in the same view. 


pigmentation are due to purely hereditary causes? In other 
words, do the long heads and the short heads differ trom one 
another in respect of the colour of the hair and eyes, as well 
as in cephalic index ? In the preceding chapter we took occa 
sion to point out in a general way the remarkable localiza 
tion of the round-headed element of the European population 
in the Alps. The great central highland seemed indeed to 
constitute a veritable focus of this peculiar physical type. In 
this way it divided two similar centres of long-headedness 
Teutonic in the north, Mediterranean in the south one from 
another. This geographical characterization of the broad- 
headed variety entitled it, in our opinion, to be called the 
Alpine type, in distinction from the two others above men 
tioned. It will now be our purpose to inquire whether or not 
the physical traits of pigmentation stand in any definite and 
permanent relation to the three types of head form we 
have thus separated from one another in the geographical 

Many peculiarities in our colour map point to the persist 
ence of racial differences despite considerable similarity of 
environment. Thus the Walloons in the southeastern half of 
Belgium, with a strip of population down along the Franco- 
German frontier, are certainly darker than the people all 
about. Among these Walloons, as our map on page 161 shows, 
brunet traits are upward of a third more frequent than 
among the Flemish in northern Belgium. This is especially 
marked by the prevalence of dark hair in the hilly country 
south of Brussels. The British Isles offer another example of 
local differences in this respect which can not be ascribed to 
environment. Wales and Ireland, Cornwall and part of Scot 
land, as we shall see, are appreciably brunet in comparison 
with other regions near by. The contrast between Normandy 
and Brittany in France is of even greater value to us in this 
connection. Dark hair is more than twice as common in the 
Breton cantons as it is along the English Channel in Xor- 
mandy. These differences can not be due to the Gulf Stream 
mildness of the western climate or to the physical environ 
ment in any other way. In the other direction, among the 



Hungarians, we begin to scent an Asiatic influence in the dark 
population of the southeast of Europe. 

Perhaps the most conspicuous example of the racial fixity 
of this trait of pigmentation is offered by the Jews. They 
have preserved their Semitic brunetness through all adver 
sities.* Socially ostracized and isolated, they have kept this 
coloration despite all migrations and changes of climate. 
In Germany to-day forty-two per cent of them are pure bru- 
nets in a population containing only fourteen per cent of 
the dark type on the average. They are thus darker by thirty 
per cent than their Gentile neighbours. As one goes south 
this difference tends to disappear. In Austria they are less 
than ten per cent darker than the general population ; and 
finally in the extreme south they are even lighter than the 
populations about them. This is especially true of the red- 
haired type common in the East. To discover such differ 
ences requires minute examination. The reward has been 
to prove that pigmentation in spite of climate is indeed a fixed 
racial characteristic among the people of Europe. We are 
therefore encouraged to hope that great racial groups of popu 
lation may still yield us evidence of their relationship or lack 
of it in respect of the colour of their hair and eyes, as well 
as in the head form. 

It must be confessed that ethnically the study of pigmenta 
tion for Europe has heretofore yielded only very meagre and 
somewhat contradictory results. Huxley s famous theory of 
two constituent races, light and dark respectively, intermingled 
all across middle Europe, seems alone at first glance to repre 
sent adequately the facts for these traits. f It is only by 
consideration of other physical characteristics notably the 
head form that we see how complex it is in reality. Xo 
clear-cut demarcation of blond or brunet types is anywhere 
apparent. This we might indeed ascribe to intermixture were 
it not for the sharp definition of the boundaries of head form. 
A second reason for this apparent obliteration of racial char- 

* Consult chapter xiv for details. 

f 1870; his map is reproduced in Ranke s Mensch. It is adopted by 
Flower and Lyddeker as a final classification. 



act.eristics in the matter of pigmentation lies at hand appar 
ently. We hope to be able to prove that, while the Alpine 
racial type is intermediate in the colour of the hair and eyes 
between the Teutonic populations on the north and the Medi 
terranean at the south, at the same time this physical trait 
is open to profound modification by the direct influences 
of environment. We shall hope to prove directly what we 
have already inferred from consideration of our general map 
of Europe namely, that certain factors, either climate, eco 
nomic status, or habits of life, are competent to produce ap 
preciable changes in the colour of the hair and eyes. 

Since, at this point, we are venturing forth upon an un 
charted sea, it behooves us to move slowly. Two theses we 
hope to prove respecting those portions of central Europe 
which are characterized by the broad-headed Alpine type of 
population. The first is that this racial element being the 
most ancient, becomes relatively more frequent in the areas 
of isolation, where natural conditions have been least dis 
turbed by immigrants. In the byways, the primitive__inliab- 
itant ; in the highways, the marauding intruder! This prin 
ciple is as old as the hills. It is certainly true of languages 
and customs, why not likewise of race? We shall be able to 
establish its verity for all parts of Europe in due time. It 
forms the groundwork of our socio-geographical theory. The 
second thesis, no less important, is that this primitive Alpine 
type of population normally tends to be darker in hair and 
eyes than the blue-eyed, flaxen-haired, and long-headed Teu 
tonic peoples on the north ; and that, on the other hand, by 
its grayish hazel eyes and brownish hair, this broad-headed 
type in the highlands of central Europe is to be distinguished 
from its more thoroughly brunet neighbour at the south. 
The geographical evidence afforded by our map of Europe 
all gives tenability to this view that the Alpine type is inter 
mediate in the colour of hair and eyes. It will serve as proof 
provisionally at least. In a succeeding chapter we shall dis 
cuss the matter of the association of separate traits into racial 
types from another point of view. We shall run up against 
some contradictory evidence, to be sure, but satisfactory dis- 



position may be made of this when it appears. In the mean 
time we assume it to be geographically, if not indeed as yet 
anthropologically, proved beyond question. 

What deduction is to be made from these two theses we 
have just outlined? The third side of our logical triangle 
seems to be fixed. If the areas of isolation are essentially 
Alpine by race, and if this ethnic type be truly intermediate 
in pigmentation, the byways, nooks, and corners of central 
Europe ought normally to be more brunet than the high 
ways and open places all along the northern Teutonic border. 
Contrariwise, toward the south the indigenous undisturbed 
Alpine populations ought to be lighter than the heterogene 
ous ones, infused with Mediterranean brunet blood, if we may 
use the term. Since mountainous areas are less exposed to 
racial contagion by virtue of their infertility and unattractive- 
ness, as well as by their inaccessibility or remoteness from 
dense centres of population, we may express our logical in 
ference in another way. \Yhere the Teutonic and the Alpine 
racial types are in contact geographically, the population of 
mountainous or isolated areas ought normally to contain more 
brunets than the people of the plains and river valleys, since 
blond traits have had lesser chance of immigration. The op 
posite rule should obtain south of the Alps. If we find this 
relation to fail us, we shall be led to suspect environmental 
disturbance of a serious kind. Fortunately for our conten 
tion, we are able to prove that it does so fail in various parts 
of Europe, notably in the Black Forest, the Vosges Moun 
tains, and Switzerland. In all of these regions the popula 
tions at considerable altitudes, who ought racially to be more 
brunet than their neighbours, are in fact appreciably more 
blond, and no other reason for this blondness than that it is 
a direct result of physical circumstances is tenable.* 

In order, before dismissing this subject, to make our point 
clear, let us adduce one example in detail tending to prove 
that in mountainous areas of isolation some cause is at work 
which tends to disturb racial equilibrium in the colour of the 
hair and eves. This is drawn from Livi s monumental treatise 

* See pages 234 and 288 infra. 


on the anthropology of Italy. In entire independence of my 
own inferences, he arrived at an identical conclusion that 
blondness somehow is favoured by a mountainous environ 
ment. From a study of three hundred thousand recruits, he 
found that fourteen out of the sixteen compartimcnti into which 
Italy is divided conformed to this law. There was generally 
from four to five per cent more blondness above the four- 
hundred-metre line of elevation than below it.* The true sig 
nificance of these figures is greater than at first appears, for 
we have again to consider the contrasts in the light of racial 
probability. In northern Italy the mountains ought to be 
lighter than the plains, because the Alps are here as elsewhere 
a stronghold of a racial type relatively blond as compared 
with the Mediterranean brunets. Environment and race 
here join hands to produce greater blondness in the moun 
tains. It is in the south of Italy that the two work in opposi 
tion, and here we turn for test of our law. In the south the 
mountains should contain the Mediterranean brunet type in 
relatively undisturbed purity; for the northern blonds are 
more frequent in the attractive districts open to immigration. 
Even here in many cases this racial probability is reversed or 
equalized by some cause which works in opposition to race, 
so that we find comfort at every turn. 

The law which we have sought to prove is not radically 
new. Many years ago Waitz asserted that mountaineers 
tended to be lighter in colour of skin than the people of the 
plains,f educing some interesting evidence to that effect from 
the study of primitive peoples. Among a number of very 
dark populations elsewhere, blonds occur in this way in ele- 

* Antropometria Militare, p. 63 seq.\ also in 1896 b, p. 24. We have 
discussed this in Publications of the American Statistical Association, 
vol. v, pp. 38 and 101 scq. This law is shown by study of provinces also. 
There are sixty-nine of these available for comparison. Twelve of these 
contain no mountains ; thirty-two show manifestly greater blondness in 
both hair and eyes ; fifteen show it partially ; in two, mountain and plain 
are equal ; and in the remaining seven the law is reversed. Several of 
these latter are explainable by local disturbances. 

t 1859-1872, i, p. 49. Prichard hints at the same law, and Peschel 
exemplifies it among primitive peoples 


vated regions. Thus the Amorites in Palestine, and especially 
the numerous blonds in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, 
may conceivably be due to such causes.* It is not certain 
that the true cause lies in the modifying influences of climate 
alone. Much of the data which \ve have here collected does 
not prove this. In fact, climatic changes can not be related 
to some of the variations in blondness which have been out 
lined. It seems as if some other factor had been at work. 
Livi, for example, ascribes the blondness of his mountaineers 
rather to the unfavourable economic environment, to the poor 
food, unsanitary dwellings, and general poverty of such popu 
lations. This explanation fits neatly into our social theory : 
for we assert that the population of mountains is relatively 
pure because there is no incentive for immigration of other 
types. Thus a pure population implies poverty of environ 
ment a poverty which may stand in direct relation to the 
lack of pigmentation. It is yet too early to assert that this is 
the main cause. For the present it will suffice to have proved 
that appreciable differences in pigmentation exist, leaving the 
cause for future discussion. Much interesting material drawn 
from comparisons of urban with rural populations may help 
to throw light upon it. Our main purpose here has been to 
prove that pigmentation is a trait which is affected by environ 
ment. If, as we hope to have shown, the shape of the head is 
not open to such modification, we shall know where to turn 
when conflict of evidence arises. We shall pin our faith to 
that characteristic which pursues the even tenor of its racial 
way, unmoved by outward circumstances. 

* Sayce, 1888 a and 1888 b. Sergi, 18973, p. 296, after a masterly 
analysis, expressly adopts this explanation for the African blonds. 
Majer and Kopernicki, 1885, p. 45, find the mountaineers lighter if the 
mixed types be excluded, but not otherwise. 



THE average stature of man, considered by racial groups 
or social classes, appears, to lie between the limits of four feet 
four inches and five feet ten inches ; giving, that is to say, a 
range of about one foot and a half. The physical elasticity of 
the species is not, however, as considerable as this makes it 
appear. The great majority of the human race is found re 
stricted within much narrower limits. As a matter of fact, 
there are only three or four groups of really dwarfed men, less 
than five feet tall. Our map of the world shows a consider 
able area inhabited by the diminutive Bushmen in South 
Africa. Another large body of dwarfs occurs in New Guinea. 
The line of demarcation in the first case between the yel 
lowish African Bushmen and the true negroes is very 
sharp ; but in the East Indies the very tall and light Poly 
nesians shade off almost imperceptibly in stature through 
Melanesia into the stunted Papuans. Other scattering rep 
resentatives of true dwarf races occur sporadically through 
out the Congo region and in Malaysia, but their total number 
is very small. On the w r hole, considerably more than ninety- 
nine per cent of the human species is above the average height 
of five feet and one inch ; so that we may still further narrow 
our range of variation between that limit and five feet ten 
inches. We thereby reduce our racial differences of stature 
to about nine inches between extremes. These variations in 
size, it will be observed, are less than those which occur among 
the lower animals within the same species. Compare, for ex 
ample, the dachshund, the St. Bernard, the Italian greyhound, 
and the smallest lapdog, and remember that they are all as- 


cribed to the same species ; or that the Shetland pony and 
the Percheron horse are likewise classified together. These 
abnormities are, to be sure, partly the result of artificial selec 
tion by man ; but the same variation holds to a considerable 
extent among the wild animals. 

The bodily height of a group of men is the resultant of a 
number of factors, many of which are as purely artificial as 
those concerned in the domestication of animals. These 
causes are quite as truly social or economic as they are phys 
ical or physiological. Among them we may count environ 
ment, natural or artificial selection, and habits of life. Be 
neath all of these, more fundamental than any, lies the influ 
ence of race which concerns us ultimately. This is overlaid 
and partially obscured by a fifth peculiarity manifested as 
a result of the sportiveness of Nature, whereby a large number 
of variations are due to chance, seemingly not caused by any 
distinct influences whatever. By scientific analysis we may 
eliminate this last factor, namely chance variation. The other 
four causes besides race are more important and deserve con 
sideration by themselves. 

Among savages it is easy to localize the influence of en 
vironment, as it acts directly through limitation of the food 
supply. In general the extreme statures of the human species 
are found either in regions where a naturally short race, like 
the Bushmen of South Africa, are confined within a district 
of great infertility like tlte Kalahari Desert ; or, on the other 
hand, where a naturally tall race, like the Polynesians in the 
Pacific Ocean, enjoys all the material bounties which Nature 
has to bestow. It is probable that the prevalent shortness of 
the Eskimo and other inhabitants of the arctic regions is 
largely due to this factor. It is also likely that the miserable 
people of Terra del Fuego are much shorter than the Pata- 
gonians for the same reason. Scarcity or uncertainty of food 
limits growth. \Yherever the life conditions in this respect 
become changed, in that place the influence of environment 
soon makes itself felt in the average stature of the inhabitants. 
Thus the Hottentots, physically of the same race as the Bush 
men, but inhabiting a more fertile region ; and, moreover, 


possessed of a regular food supply in their flocks and herds, 
are appreciably taller from these causes alone. All the abo 
rigines of America seem to be subject to this same influence 
of the fertility of their environment.* In the Mississippi Val 
ley, for example, they are much taller than in the desert lands 
of Arizona and Xe\v Mexico. f In the mountains on either 
side of the Mississippi basin they are as a rule distinctly 
shorter, although living the same life and belonging to the 
same race. The Creeks and the Iroquois exceed the Pueblos 
by several inches, probably because of the material bounty 
of their environment ; and where we find a single tribe, such 
as the Cherokees, inhabiting both the mountains and the 
plains, we find a deficiency of stature in the mountains quite 
marked by comparison. 

Among civilized peoples likewise this direct influence of 
environment acts through the food supply to afreet the stat 
ure of any given group of men. Thus, in Europe, as among 
the aborigines of America, it may be said that the populations 
of mountainous districts are shorter, as a rule, than those 
which enjoy the fertility of the plains and the river basins. Italy 
has been most carefully studied in this respect, the law being 
established clearly all along the Apennines. J The people in 
the Vosges Mountains* and in the Black Forest || are charac 
terized by relatively short stature, partly for the same reason. 
Our map on page 236 brings this relation into strong relief. In 
this case, however, we shall be able to show that purely ethnic 
tendencies are also responsible in a measure for the phenome 
non. Along the Carpathian chain a similar shortness of stature 
of the mountaineers has been proved, especially in the growing 
period of youth. A In the Austrian Alps the same rule holds 

* D Orbigny, i, P- 95- 

f Boas in Verb. Berl. Anth. Gesell., Sitzung, May 18, 1895, p. 375. 
\ Lombroso, 1879; Zampa, 1881 and 1886, p. 191; Livi, 1883, and 
especially 1896 a, pp. 39-47. 

* Collignon, iSSr, p. 10 ; Brandt, 1898, p. 10. 
| Ecker, 1876, and Ammon, 1890. 

A Majer and Kopernicki, 1877, p. 21, and 1889, p. 50. Lebon, iSSi, p. 
230, in the Podhalian mountaineers, finds an average stature as low 
as 1.59 metres. 


good.* Our map of Switzerland (page 285) brings out very 
clearly the shortness of stature in the Bernese Oberland. Al 
most every other Swiss administrative division overlaps both 
valley and mountain in such a way as to render comparisons 
impossible. The testimony, however, is not at all unanimous. 
In the Bavarian Alps, Ranke f finds the mountaineers apprecia 
bly taller than the peasantry in the plains. Along the north 
ern slopes of the Pyrenees in France, the population in the 
inner valleys is also well above the average for the plains of 
Bearn.J We are able to explain a similar phenomenon all over 
Thuringia,* through the later occupation of the valleys by 
the relatively short Slavs, invaders from the east. 

The influence of environment is, in any case, not at all as 
simple as it w r ould appear. In addition to the direct effect 
of this environment, a selective process is also at work. Only 
thus can we account for the fact that while the populations 
at moderate altitudes seem to be physically depressed by their 
surroundings, those from regions of the greatest elevation 
seem to be rather above the normal stature. | It seems per 
missible, indeed, to assume with Ranke A that only those of 
decided vigour are able to withstand the rigours and priva 
tions in this latter case, leaving an abnormally tall, selected 
population as a result. This may account for the high aver 
age stature found by Garret ( 83) and Longuet ( S3) in Savoy, 

* Weisbach, 1894, p. 234. 

f 1881 ; see our map on p. 227, infra. 

\ Chopinet, 1890; and Collignon, 1895, p. 92. The tallness of the 
Basques we have discussed on p. 201. 

* Reischel, 1889, pp. 138-142. In the British Isles the data of the 
Anthropometric Committee (Final Report, 1883, p. 14) is too limited to 
give force to its generalizations. Scheiber, 1881, p. 257, finds no differ 
ences in Hungary, but the mountains are all too low there in any case. 
Dunant found no such relation either in Geneva or Freiburg ; nor does 
Bedot in Valais apparently. 

|| Collignon, 1895, p. 93, and Livi, 18963, p. 39, confirm this for France 
and Italy respectively. Majer and Kopernicki, 1877, p. 23, found adults 
in the Carpathians taller than in the plains although shorter by six centi 
metres at twenty years of age, this difference gradually diminishing with 

A 1881, p. 14. 


shown on our maps of France. Toldt (<91) finds a high propor 
tion of very tall in the Tyrol also, perhaps for the same reason, 
although here again we run afoul of racial complications of 

\Yherever the geology of a district has produced a soil 
which yields with difficulty to cultivation, or where the cli 
mate is unfavourable to prosperity, the influence is reflected 







1 60-1 


- 1.5 

in the physical characteristics of the population, f All over 
Europe we may locate such " misery spots," one of which 
will, however, serve as an example. It is depicted in the 
accompanying map.J This spot is likewise indicated in the 
south central part of France upon our general map for Eu- 

* Page 101. 

f Durand de Gros, 1868, first suggested such an explanation. His 
later work confirms it, especially with Lapouge, iSgy- gS (rep., p. 61). 
Beddoe, 1867-7)93, discusses it (rep., p. 174). 

$ From Collignon, 18945, pp. 26 et seq. 


g page 96. In this district we find a general average 
ure of five feet and two to three inches a low level not 
uched in France save in a little spot to the south- 
-: of this, where similar conditions prevail. Here in Limou 
sin there is a barren range of low hills which lies along the 
dividing line between the departments of Dordogne, Correze. 
and Haute- Yienne. about half-way between Perigueux and 
Limog-es. The water courses on our map show the location 
hese uplands. They extend over an area about seventy- 
five miles long and half as wide, wherein average human 
misery is most profound. Dense ignorance prevails. There 
is more illiteracy than in any other part of France. The con 
trast in stature, even with the low average of all the surround 
ing region, is clearly marked by the dark tint. There are 
sporadic bits of equal diminutiveness elsewhere to the south 
and west, but none are so extended or so extreme. Two thirds 
of the men are below five feet three inches in height in B 
the communes, and the women are three or more inches sb 
er even than this. One man in ten is below four feet eleven 
inches in stature. This is not due to race, for several racial 
types are equally stunted in this way within the same area. 
It is primarily due to generations of subjection to a harsh 
climate, to a soil which is worthless for agriculture vady 

diet of boiled chestnuts and stagnant water, and to unsanitary 
dwellings in the deep, narrow, and damp valleys. Still 
ther proof may be found to show that thes-. are not 

stunted by any hereditary influence has been sh 

that children born here, but who migrate ar> 
where, are -normal in height: wl ere. but 

who are subject to this environment du~ j 
youth, are ] --.varied.* 

There is a secor> "her 

usin hills. It exten 
\veen the Garonne River and 
-itier. The c. The de- 

- hes 

* C 


away south of Bordeaux. There is no natural drainage slope. 
The subsoil is an impervious clay. In the rainy season, water 
accumulates and forms stagnant marshes, covered with rank 
vegetation. At other times the water dries away, and the 
vegetation dies and rots. Malaria was long the curse of the 
land, (iovernment works are to-day reclaiming much of it 
for cultivation and health, but it will be generations before 
the people recover from the physical degeneration of the past. 
One may follow, as Chopinet " " has done, the boundary of 
this unhealthful area by means of the degenerate physique of 
the peasantry, especially marked in its stature. Influences 
akin to these have undoubtedly been of great effect in many 
other parts of Europe, especially in the south of Italy and Sar 
dinia, where the largest area of short statures in Europe pre 
vails to-day. Meisner is thus able to account for the rela 
tively short population of Stade. in the sandy plains between 
\ lamburg and Bremen.* The Jews in Lithuania are below the 
Jewish average for the fertile l/kraine and Bessarabia for the 
same reason.! even as the Great Russian falls below the Little 
Russians in this respect, as we shall show subsequently. 

Environment thus acts directly upon stature through the 
food supply and economic prosperity. The second modify 
ing influence lies in so-called artificial selection a cause which 
is peculiarly potent in modern social life. The efficiency of 
this force depends upon the intimate relation which exists be 
tween bodily height and physical vigour. Other things being 
equal, a goodly stature in a youth implies a surplus of energy 
over and above the amount requisite merely to sustain life-t 
Hence it follows that, more often than otherwise, a tall popu 
lation implies a relatively healthy one. Our double map, 
of the westernmost promontory of Brittany, opposite page Sf\ 
shows this most clearly. In the interior cantons, shorter on 
the average by an inch than in the population along the sea- 

* I>N). p. 115; t-vii, p. VJ,;. Sot- our map on p. I 

+ ralko-Hryncewic.:. i^)-, pp. ^ and 50-00. 

t Broca. - - KM, although Baxter and Erismann show it to be 

not always true. Chopinet. Myrdacz. and others give many maps, both 
ot stature and disease, which confirm the law regionally at all events. 



coast, there is a corresponding increase of defective or degen 
erate constitutional types. The character of the environment 
is largely responsible for this. The barren, rocky table 
land is strongly contrasted with the " ceinture doree " de 
scribed by Gallouedec (>93) . The fishing industry is of great 
material value to the coast population as well. The parallelism 
between our two maps is broken in but three or four instances. 
The map, in fact, illustrates the truth of our assertion far 
better than words can express it. 

This relation between stature and health is brought to 
concrete expression in the armies of Europe through a rejec 
tion of all recruits for service who fall below a certain mini- 



mum standard of height, generally about five feet.* The re 
sult of this is to preclude the possibility of marriage for all 
the fully developed men, during their three years in barracks ; 
while the undersized individuals, exempted from service on 
this account, are left free to propagate the species meanwhile. 
Is it not apparent that the effect of this artificial selection is 

* Military selection of this kind is first mentioned by Villerme, 1829, 
p. 385 ; the effect of the Napoleonic wars is discussed by Dufau, 1840, p. 
169, and Tschouriloff, 1876, pp. 608 and 655. See also Lapouge, 1896 a, 
pp. 207-242 ; Broca, Sur la pretendue degenerescence de la population 
fransaise, Bull. Acad. de Med., Paris, xxxii, 1867, pp. 547-603 and 839- 
862 ; and Bischoff, Ueber die Brauchbarkeit der in verschiedenen euro- 
paischen Staaten veroffentlichen Resultate des Recruterings-Geschaftes, 
Miinchen, 1867. 


to put a distinct premium upon inferiority of stature, in so 
far as future generations are concerned ? This enforced post 
ponement of marriage for the normal man, not required of the 
degenerate, is even more important than at first sight appears. 
It implies not merely that the children of normal families are 
born later in life that would not be of great moment in itself 
it means far more than this. The majority of children are 
more often born in the earlier half of married life, before the 
age of thirty-five. Hence a postponement of matrimony 
means not only later children but fewer children.* Herein 
lies the great significance of the phenomenon for us. Stand 
ing armies tend in this respect to overload succeeding gener 
ations with inferior types of men. This selection is in opera 
tion akin to the influence which Galton has invoked as a par 
tial explanation for the mental darkness of the Middle Ages. 
This he ascribes to the beliefs and customs by which all the 
finer minds and spirits were withdrawn from the field of mat 
rimony by the Church, leaving the entire future population to 
the loins of the physically robust and adventurous portion of 
the community. Mind spent itself in a single generation of 
search for knowledge; physique, bereft of intellect, was left 
to its own devices among the common people. 

The intensity of this military selection, potent enough in 
time of peace, is of course highly augmented during the prose 
cution of a war. At such periods the normal men are not 
only isolated for an indefinite period ; their ranks are perma 
nently decimated by the mortality at the front. The selective 
influence is doubly operative. Fortunately, we possess data 
which appear to afford illustration of its effects. Detailed 
investigation in various parts of France is bringing to light 
certain curious after-effects of the late Franco-Prussian War. 
We do not always fully realize what such an event means for 
a nation, quite irrespective of the actual mortality and of the 
direct economic expenditure. Every family in the land is af 
fected by it ; and the future bears its full share with the con- 

* Marriage at an average age of twenty years insures an increasing 
population ; if postponed until the age of twenty-nine, population is 
bound to decrease (Beddoe, 1893, p. 15, citing Galton, 1883). 


temporaneous population. In France, for example, during 
the year of the war, there were seventy-five thousand fewer 
marriages than usual. In 1871 upon its conclusion, an un 
precedented epidemic of them broke out, not equalled in ab 
solute numbers since the veterans returned from the front in 
1813, on the cessation of hostilities at that time.* 

Two tendencies have been noted, from a comparison of 
the generations of offspring severally conceived before, dur 
ing, and after the war. This appeared in the conscripts who 
came before the recruiting commissions in 1890^92, at which 
time the children conceived in war times became, at the age 
of twenty, liable for service. In the population during the 
progress of the war the flower of French manhood, then in 
the field, was without proportionate representation. There 
must have been an undue preponderance, not only of stunted 
men rejected from the army for deficiency of stature alone, 
but of those otherwise physically unfitted for service. Hence 
the population born at this time ought, if heredity means any 
thing, to retain some traces of its relatively degenerate deriva 
tion. This is indeed the case. In Dordogne this contingent 
included nearly seven per cent more deficient statures than 
the normal average. f Quite independently, in the distant de 
partment of Herault, Lapouge discovered the same thing. 
He found in some cantons a decrease of nearly an inch in 
the average stature of this unfortunate generation, while ex 
emptions for deficiency of^stature suddenly rose from six to 
sixteen per cent. This selection is not, however, entirely 
maleficent. A fortunate compensation is afforded in another 
direction. For the generation conceived of the men returned 
to their families at the close of the war has shown a dis 
tinctly upward tendency almost as well marked. Those who 
survived the perils and privations of service were presumably 
in many cases the most active and rugged ; the weaker portion 
having succumbed in the meanwhile, either to wounds or sick 
ness. The result was that the generation conceived directly 
after the war was as much above the average, especially 

* De Lapouge, 1896 a, p. 233. f Collignon, 1894 b, p. 36. 

$ 1 894 a, pp. 353 et seq. 


evinced in general physique perhaps more than in stature, as 
their predecessors, born of war times, were below the normal. 

Another illustration of the operation of artificial selection 
in determining the stature of any given group of men ap 
pears in the physique of immigrants to the United States. In 
the good old days when people emigrated from Europe be 
cause they had seriously cast up an account and discovered 
that they could better their condition in life by coming to 
America ; that is, before the days when they came because 
they were overpersuaded by steamship agents, eager for com 
missions on the sale of tickets; or because of the desire of 
their home governments to be rid of them in those days 
investigation revealed that on the average the immigrants 
were physically taller than the people from whom they 
sprang.* This difference, in some instances, amounted to 
upward of an inch upon the average. Among the Scotch, a 
difference of nearly two inches was shown to exist by the 
measurements taken during our civil war. These immigrants 
were a picked lot of men picked, because it required all the 
courage which physical vigour could give to pull up stakes 
and start life anew. This law that natural emigrants, if I may 
use the term, are taller than the stay-at-home average was 
again exemplified during the civil war in another way. It 
was found that recruits hailing from States other than those 
in which they were born were generally taller than those who 
had always remained in the places of their birth that is to 
say, here again physical vigour and the adventurous migra 
tory spirit seemed to stand in close relation to one another. 

In times of peace, perhaps the most potent influence of this 
form of artificial selection bears upon the differences in stature 
which obtain between different occupations or professions.^ 

* Gould, 1869, pp. 126 and 179. Baxter, 1875, i, p. 16, holds age differ 
ences largely accountable for it, however. 

f The only authorities which classify statures by occupations are : 
J. C. Majer, 1862, pp. 365-372, for Franconia ; Beddoe, i867- 9a, p. 150, and 
Roberts, 1878, p. 104, for the British Isles ; J. Bertillon, 1886, p. 13, and 
Needon, 1867 8, on Saxony ; Oloriz, 1896, pp. 47 and 61, for Madrid ; and 
Livi, 1897 a, pp. 14 and 27, on Italy. Schweizerische Statistik, Tab. 10, 
since 1887 are also very good. Lagneau, 1895, is fine on this also. 

9 o 


This is strikingly exemplified by the accompanying table, 
based upon the examination of nearly two hundred thou 
sand Swiss conscripts. An almost uninterrupted increase 
in the proportion of the undersized, with a coincident de 
crease in the relative numbers of the tall men, will be seen to 
take place from the top of the table toward the bottom. While 
nearly half the professional men and ecclesiastics are tall men ; 
but about one tenth of the cobblers, tailors, and basket-weav 
ers, at the opposite extreme, attain the moderate height of 
1.7 metres (five feet seven inches). The table is a complete 
demonstration of this law in itself. It needs no further de 

Stature by Occupations. Switzerland, 1884-91. 
(Schweizerische Statistik, 1894?) 




Under 156 cms. 
(5 ft. 1.4 in.). 

170 cms. and above 
(5 ft. 7 in.). 


Priests or ministers 




University students . . 









Merchants and clerks 



3 1 

Farm labourers 


Spinners and weavers 

Chemical industries 





Chimney-sweeps . . 

1 ailors 

Factory operatives in general 



Two causes may be justly ascribed for this phenomenon 
of differences in stature according to occupation. The first 
one is, as we have said, that of an artificial selection. The 
physically well-developed men seek certain trades or occu 
pations in which their vigour and strength may stand them 
in good stead; on the other hand, those who are by nature 
weakly, and coincidently often deficient in stature, are com 
pelled to make shift with some pursuit for which they are 


fitted. Thus, workers in iron, porters, firemen, policemen, 
are taller as a class than the average, because they are of 
necessity recruited from the more robust portion of the popu 
lation. In marked contrast to them tailors, shoemakers, and 
weavers, in an occupation which entails slight demands upon 
the physical powers, and which is open to all, however weakly 
they may be, are appreciably shorter than the average. More 
over, certain diseases fall upon this second class in a way 
which tends still further to lower the average stature among 
them. Thus, consumption is uncommonly prevalent in these 
particularly sedentary industrial classes, and it is also more 
common among tall youths. It seems, therefore, that this dis 
ease weeds out, as if by choice, those who within this rela 
tively stunted class rise above its average. As an extreme 
example of this selective influence exercised in the choice of an 
occupation we may instance grooms, who as a class are over 
an inch shorter than the British population as a whole. This 
is probably because men who are light in build and short in 
stature find here an opening which is suited to their physique. 
Their weight may nevertheless be often greater than the stat 
ure implies, because of an increase which has taken place late 
in life. The diminutiveness of chimney-sweeps, shown by our 
table for Switzerland, is certainly a result of such a process of 
selection. Sailors also are generally undersized. Gould (>6U) , 
noticing this among both negroes and whites during the civil 
war. ascribed it, however, to the privations and exposure in 
cident to a seafaring life, rather than to any selective process. 

The final effects of this influence of artificial selection are 
highly intensified by reason of the fact that, as soon as the 
choice of occupation is once made, other forces come into 
play which differentiate still further the stature of the several 
classes. This is the last of our modifying influences in re 
spect of stature : namely, the direct effect of habits of life or of 
the nature of the employment* Thus, the weakly youth who 

* Instructive parallels between physical development and morbidity 
in the several occupations may be drawn. Consult our review of Wester- 
gaard and Bertillon (Jour. Soc. de Stat., Paris, Oct. -Nov., 1892) in Pubs. 
Amer. Stat. Ass., iii, iSg2-\)2>, pp. 241-44. 

9 2 


enters a sedentary occupation immediately becomes subjected 
to unfavourable circumstances as a result of his choice. If he 
chooses to take up the tailor s trade because he is physically 
unfitted for other pursuits, all the influences of the trade tend 
to degenerate his physique still further. Among these we 
may count the cramped position in which he works, the long 
hours, the unsanitary surroundings, etc. The physical de 
generacy among bakers and metal-workers seems to be quite 
constant; brewers and butchers, on the other hand, are more 
often tall as a class. Perhaps the best example of all is offered 
by the Jews, of whom we shall speak in detail later. An active 
life conduces to growth and vigour, especially an active life 
in the open air. Denied all these advantages, everything 
operates to exaggerate the peculiarities which were due to 
natural causes in the preceding generation alone. For the 
choice of occupation is to a large extent in Europe a matter of 
hereditary necessity ; as, for example, among the potters and 
lead-miners in Great Britain.* This direct influence of the na 
ture of the employment is probably the second principal cause 
of the great differences in stature which we observe among the 
several social classes in any community. A patent example 
is offered by our data for the British Isles. At the head stand 
the liberal professions, followed in order as our tables show, 
by the farmers and the commercial group, then by the indus 
trial open-air classes, and finally by those who are engaged 
in indoor and sedentary occupations. The difference between 

Average Stature in Inches (British 

No. of ob 

Age (males). 





Open air. 




15 years. 
23 " 




61 .3 

* Anthropometric Committee, 1883, p. 20 ; and Beddoe, i867-*9 a, pp. 182 
and 221. 

f Anthropometric Committee, British Association, 1883, p. 38. Oloriz. 
1896, p. 61, gives for Madrid the following heights in metres for these 
four classes: 1.639, i-6n, 1.607, and 1.598 respectively. 



Averages by Occupations (British Isles).* 

No. of ob 


Stature (inches). 

Weight (pounds). 


Miscellaneous outdoor 






136. 7 










Tailors and shoemakers 


134. c 


Miscellaneous indoor 


132. S 





these last two namely, those who work in the open air and 
those who are confined within doors amounts in Great Brit 
ain to upward of one half an inch upon the average, if we con 
sider masons, carpenters, and day labourers as typical of the 
first class, and tailors and shoemakers of the second. In 
Madrid, according to Oloriz s figures given in our footnote, 
the fourth industrial class is more than an inch and a half 
shorter than the first professional one. As our table shows, 
the differences during the period of growth often amount to 
upward of two inches, greater among girls than among boys. 
As extreme examples of divergencies of this kind, we may 
instance a difference of seven inches between boys of fourteen 
in the well-to-do classes and those who are in the industrial 
schools in Great Britain ; or the difference in average stature of 
four inches and a half between extreme classes of English girls 
at the age of ten years. Later in life this disparity becomes less, 
as it appears that the influence of factory life is more often to 
retard growth than to cause a complete cessation of it.f This 
influence of industrialism must always be borne in mind in 
comparing different districts in the same country. Derby and 
Yorkshire are below the average for England, as our later 
maps will demonstrate, probably for no other reason. \ 

* Beddoe, i867~ 9a, p. 150. 

f Porter, 1894, p. 305, finds the children in St. Louis of the industrial 
classes relatively defective in height at all ages after fourteen. Erismann, 
1888, pp. 65-90, found the same true of factory operatives in Russia ; the 
defectiveness of textile workers was especially marked. Riccardi, 1885, 
p. 123 ; Uhlitzsch, 1892, p. 433 ; Anthropometric Committee, 1883, p. 38 ; 
and Drs. Bowditch, Boas, and West all confirm this. 

\ Favier, 1888, and Carlier, 1893, have analyzed such industrial dis 
tricts in France with similar conclusions. 


Interesting deductions might also be drawn from the rela 
tion of the height to the weight in any class, by which we 
may determine to some degree when and how these degener 
ative influences become effective.* Thus clerks, as a class, are 
above the average stature, but below it in weight. This fol 
lows because these men are recruited from a social group 
where the influences during the period of growth are favour 
able. The normal stature was attained at this time. The un 
favourable circumstances have come into play later through 
the sedentary nature of the occupation, and the result is a 
deficiency in weight. The case of grooms given above is ex 
actly the reverse of this ; for they became grooms because they 
were short, but have gained in weight afterward because the 
occupation was favourable to health. 

These differences in stature, indicative of even more pro 
found differences in general physical development within the 
community offer a cogent argument for the protection of our 
people by means of well-ordered factory laws. The Anthropo- 
metric Committee of the British Association for the Advance 
ment of Science ( 83) declares, as a result of its detailed investi 
gation, that the protection of youth by law in Great Britain 
has resulted in the gain of a whole year s growth for the fac 
tory children. In other words, a boy of nine years in 1873 
was found to equal in weight and in stature one of ten years of 
age in 1833. This is Nature s reward for the passage of laws 
presumably better than the present so-called " beneficent " 
statute in South Carolina which forbids upward of eleven 
hours toil a day for children under the age of fourteen. In 
every country where the subject has been investigated in 
Germany, in Russia, in Austria, Switzerland, or Great Britain 
the same influence is shown. Fortunately, the advance out 
of barbarism is evidenced generally by a progressive increase 
in the stature of the population as an accompaniment of the 
amelioration of the lot of the masses. This is certainly going 
on decade by decade, absolutely if not relatively. Evidence 
from all over Europe is accumulating to show that the 

* Livi, L indice ponderale, Atti Soc. Romana di Antrop., v, fasc. 2, 1896, 
is good on this. 



standard of physical development is steadily rising as a 
whole.* There is no such change taking place among the 
prosperous and well-to-do. It is the masses which are, so to 
speak, catching up with the procession. It offers a conclu 
sive argument in favour of the theory that the world moves 

One of the factors akin to that of occupation which ap 
pears to determine stature is the unfavourable influence of city 
life. The general rule in Europe seems to be that the urban 
type is physically degenerate. This would imply, of course, 
not the type which migrates to the city on the attainment 
of majority, or the type which enjoys an all-summer vacation 
in the country, but the urban type which is born in the city 
and which grows up in such environment, to enter a trade 
which is also born of town life. The differences in stature 
which are traceable to this influence of city life are consider 
able. Glasgow^ and Edinburgh offer an extreme example 
wherein the average stature of the poorer classes has been 
found by Dr. Beddoe ( (i7) to be four inches less than the aver 
age for the suburban districts. The people, at the same time, 
are on the average thirty-six pounds lighter. On the other 
hand, it must be confessed that this unfavourable influence 
of city life is often obscured by the great social selection 
which is at work in the determination of the physical type of 
the population of great cities. While the course of the town 
type by itself is downward, oftentimes the city attracts an 
other class which is markedly superior, in the same way that 
the immigrants of the United States have been distinguished 
in this respect. The problems of urban populations are, how 
ever, complicated by various other processes. Discussion of 

* For France, earlier contentions of Broca and Boudin are confirmed 
by detailed investigations ; as by Garret, 1882, and Longuet, 1885, for 
Savoy ; Hovelacque, 1894 b for the Morvan, and 1896 a, with especial 
clearness, for Provence ; Collignon, 1890 a, for C6tes-du-Nord ; and de 
Lapouge, 1894 a, for Herault. The Anthropometric Committee, 1883, shows 
increasing stature in Great Britain ; J. Bertillon, 1886, p. 12, represents it 
as true in Holland ; while Arbo, 1895 a, asserts an average increase of 
over half an inch in recent years in Norway. Hultkrantz, 1896 a, finds 
the same true in Sweden. 


these we defer to a later chapter, where the entire subject will be 
treated by itself at length. 

It would be interesting to inquire in how far the relative 
height of the sc.rcs is due to a similar selective process. Cer 
tain it is that among us in civilization, women average from 
three to four inches below men in stature, a disparity which 
seems to be considerably less among primitive peoples. Brin- 
ton * has invoked as a partial explanation, at least, for this, 
the influence of the law of sexual division of labour which 
obtains among us. This law commands, in theory, that the 
men should perform the arduous physical labour of life, leav 
ing the more sedentary portion of it to the women. If the 
conscious choice of mates had followed this tendency, its effect 
would certainly be unfavourable to the development of an in 
creasing stature among women, while it might operate to bet 
ter the endowment of men in that respect. It is impossible, 
owing to the paucity of selected, data as to sexual differences, 
to follow 7 this out. The only discoverable law seems to be 
the one formulated by Weisbach, that sexual differences in 
height are more marked in the taller races. Probably this 
difference of stature between the sexes is partially due to some 
other cause which stops growth in the woman earlier than in 
the man. For the clearest evidence is offered by develop 
mental anthropometry that the female of the human species is 
born smaller ; grows more slowly after puberty ; and finally 
attains her adult stature .about two years earlier than man. 
The problem is too complex to follow out in this place. So 
far as our present knowledge goes, the question has no ethnic 

From the preceding array of facts it would appear that 
stature is rather an irresponsible witness in the matter of 
race. A physical trait so liable to disturbance by circum 
stances outside the human body is correspondingly invali 
dated as an indication of hereditary tendencies which lie with 
in. We are compelled for this reason to assign the third place 

* 1890 a, p. 37. Rolleston, 1884, ii, pp. 254 and 354, discusses this, 
adducing most interesting archaeological evidence. Havelock Ellis s 
Man and Woman offers a most convenient summary also. 




to this characteristic in our series of racial tests, placing it 
below the colour of the hair and eyes in the scale. This does 
not mean that it is entirely worthless for our ethnic purposes. 
There are many clear cases of differences of stature which can 
be ascribed to no other cause ; but it bids us be cautious 
about judging hastily. It commands us to be content with 
nothing less than hundreds of observations, and to rigidly 
eliminate all social factors. The best way to do this is to 
take the broad view, by including so many individuals that 
locally progressive and degenerative factors may counter 
balance one another. Turning back to our map of the world, 
it will at once appear that we can not divide the human 
species into definite continental groups characterized by dis 
tinct peculiarities of stature. The so-called yellow Mongolian 
race comprises both tall and short peoples. The aborigines 
of America are, as a rule, tall ; but in the Andes, the basin of 
the Columbia River, and elsewhere they are quite undersized. 
The only two racial groups which seem to be homogeneous 
in stature are the true African negroes and the peoples of 
Indonesia and the Pacific. In Africa the environment is quite 
uniform. In the other cases racial peculiarities seem to be 
deeply enough ingrained to overcome the disturbances due to 
outward factors. The Malays are always and everywhere 
rather short. The Polynesians are obstinately inclined to 
ward tallness. With these exceptions, racial or hereditary 
predispositions in stature seem to be absent. Let us turn to 
the consideration of Europe by itself, and inquire if the same 
rule holds here as well. 

The light tints upon this map * indicate the tall popula 
tions ; as the tint gradually darkens, the people become pro 
gressively shorter. Here again we find that Europe com 
prehends a very broad range of variations. The Scotch, 
with an average height of five feet nine inches, stand on a 
level with the tall Polynesians and Americans, both aboriginal 
and modern white. At the other extreme, the south Italians, 
Sicilians, and Sardinians range alongside the shortest of men, 

* See Appendix, C. 


if we except the abnormal dwarf races of Africa. From one 
to the other of these limits there is a regular transition, which 
again points indubitably to racial law. Two specific centres 
of tall stature appear, if \ve include the minor but marked 
tendency of the Dalmatians, Bosnians, and Montenegrins along 
the Adriatic Sea. The principal one lies in the north, culmi 
nating in the British Isles and Scandinavia. In Britain, eco 
nomic prosperity undoubtedly is of importance, as the level 
of material comfort is probably higher than on the Continent. 
But even making allowance for this fact, it appears that the 
Teutons as a race are responsible for the phenomenon. Our 
map slightly exaggerates, perhaps, the physical superiority in 
the north. Conscription in the southern countries of Europe 
usually takes place at the age of twenty, so that our results 
in this region do not represent fully matured statures. For 
Scandinavia and the British Isles, the ages of men observed 
were greater. Nevertheless this slight correction affects in 
nowise the proposition that the Teutons are a race of great 
height. Wherever they have penetrated, as in northern 
France, down the Rhone Valley, or into Austria, the popula 
tion shows its effects. The light area along the Adriatic, in 
dicating a very tall population, is difficult to account for. 
Deniker (>98) ascribes it to the presence of a gigantic Dinaric 
race ; a point which we shall discuss later. 

Central Europe is generally marked by medium height. 
The people tend to be stocky rather than tall. The same 
holds true as we turn to the Slavic countries in the east of Eu 
rope. Across Austria and Russia there is a progressive al 
though slight tendency in this direction. The explanation of 
the extreme short stature of Sardinia and southern Italy is 
more problematical. Our map points to a racial centre of 
real diminutiveness, at an average of five feet and one or two 
inches. Too protracted civilization, such as it was, is partly to 
blame. It is undeniable that, as Lapouge and Fallot assert, 
while the average height of the other populations of Mediter 
ranean race is low, a goodly proportion of the people are of 
fair stature. It is the presence of a heavy contingent of ab 
normally stunted men which really depresses the average in 



places below mediocrity.* This would seem to indicate phys 
ical degeneracy, rather than a natural diminutiveness as the 
cause. A notable difference of stature confronts us in Africa. 
All along the coast from Morocco to Tunis the Berbers and 
Arabs are finely developed men.f Nor is Spain below the 
general standard for most of France or Switzerland. It is in 
deed difficult to explain the variations in height which we 
meet about the Mediterranean on any other theory than that 
of environmental disturbance, although Livi and Deniker as 
sert it to be purely a matter of race.J 

We may demonstrate the innate tendency of the Teutonic 
peoples toward tallness of stature more locally than by this 
continental method. We may follow the trait from place to 
place, as this migratory race has moved across the map. 
Wherever these " greasy seven-foot giants," as Sidonius Apol- 
linaris called them, have gone, they have implanted their stat 
ure upon the people, where it has remained long persistent 
thereafter. Perhaps the clearest detailed illustration of a per 
sistency of this racial peculiarity is offered by the people 
of Brittany. Many years ago observers began to note the 
contrasts in the Armorican peninsula between the Bretons 
and the other French peasantry, and especially the local dif 
ferences between the people of the interior and those fringing 
the seacoast. The regularity of the phenomenon is made mani 
fest by the map on the next page. This is constructed from ob 
servations on all the youth who came of age during a period 
of ten years from i85o- 59. There can be no doubt of the 

* The theory of a so-called "pygmy" race in Europe, even with the 
support of such distinguished authorities as Kollmann, Sergi, and others, 
seems to me entirely untenable. All populations contain a very few 
dwarf types, as a normal result of variation or degeneracy, as Virchow 
also asserts. To dignify them with the name of a race entirely miscon 
ceives the meaning of the term ; nor does Sergi s hypothesis that these 
dwarfs represent vestiges of immigrants from the pygmy races of central 
Africa seem more probable. Consult Kollmann, in Jour. Anth. Inst., 
1895, p. 117; Sergi, 1895 a, p. 90: Niceforo, 1896. 

f Collignon, 1887 a, p. 208; Bertholon, 1892, p. 10 ; at p. 13 a heavy 
contingent of very short types seems to be present even in Africa. 

\ 1896:1, p. 183. Cf. Appendix, D. 



facts in the case. It has been tested in every way. Other 
measurements, made twenty years later, are precisely parallel 
in their results, as we have already seen (page 86 supra) in the 
case of Finisterre.* 






<5 FT lms) 

S 6-8 


1 14-1 7 






The average stature of the whole peninsula is low, being 
only about five feet five inches ; yet in this " tocJic noire " 
it descends more than a full inch below this. This appreciable 
difference is not wholly due to environment, although the 
facts cited for Finisterre show that it is of some effect. The 
whole peninsula is rocky and barren. The only advantage 
that the people on the coast enjoy is the support of the fish 
eries. This is no insignificant factor, to be sure. Yet we 
have direct proof beyond this that race is here in evidence. 
This is afforded by other physical differences between the 
population of the coast and that of the interior. The people 
of the littoral are lighter in hair and eyes, and appreciably 

* Broca, 1868 a ; and Chassagne, iSSi. 



longer-headed ; in other words, they show traces of Teutonic 
intermixture. In ancient times this whole coast was known 
as the " litns Sa.vonicum" so fiercel} was it ravaged by these 
northern barbarians. Then again in the fifth century, im 
migrants from Britain, who in fact bestowed the name of 
Brittany upon the country, came over in hordes, dispossessed 
in England by the same Teutonic invaders. They were prob 
ably Teutonic also ; for the invaders of Britain came so fast 
that thev literallv crowded themselves out of the little island. 


1.69 METER5 






(Approxi mau; 



The result has been to infuse a new racial element into all the 
border populations in Brittany, while the original physical 
traits remain in undisturbed possession of the interior. The 
Normans to the northeast are, on the other hand, quite purely 


Teutonic, especially marked in their height. In this case en 
vironment and race have joined hands in the final result, but 
the latter seems to have been the senior partner in the affair. 
One more detailed illustration of the persistence of stature 
as a racial trait may be found in the people of the Austrian 
Tyrol. The lower Inn Valley (uppermost in our map) was 
the main channel of Teutonic immigration into a primitively 
broad-headed Alpine country by race, as we shall later see. 
From the south, up the Adige Valley by Trient came the sec 
ond intrusive element in the long-headed brunet Mediterranean 
peoples. This map at once enables us to endow each of these 
types with its proper quota of stature ; for the environment 
is quite uniform, considered as in this map by large districts 
covering valley and mountain alike. Each area contains all 
kinds of territory, so that we are working by topographical 
averages, so to speak. Moreover, the whole population is 
agricultural, with the exception of a few domestic industries in 
the western half. Such differences as arise must be therefore 
in large measure due to race. The regular transition from the 
populations at the northeast with generally a majority of the 
men taller than five feet six inches, to the Italian slopes where 
less than one fifth attain this moderate height, is sufficient proof. 
One of those rare examples of a parallelism of physical traits 
and language is also afforded. Both tall stature and the Ger 
man language seem to have penetrated the country from the 
northeast, crossing the Alps as far as Bozen. Could demon 
stration in mathematics be more certain that here in the Tyrol 
we have a case of an increase of stature due to race alone ? 



IT may smack of heresy to assert, in face of the teaching 
of all our text-books on geography and history, that there is 
no single European or white race of men ; and yet that is the 
plain truth of the matter. Science has advanced since Lin 
naeus single type of Homo Enropccits dibits was made one of 
the four great races of mankind.* No continental group of 
human beings with greater diversities or extremes of physical 
type exists. That fact accounts in itself for much of our ad 
vance in culture. We have already shown in the preceding- 
chapters that entire communities of the tallest and shortest 
of men as well as the longest and broadest headed ones, are 
here to be found within the confines of Europe. Even in 
respect of the colour of the skin, hair, and eyes, responsible 
more than all else for the misnomer " white race," the greatest 
variations occur. f To be sure, the several types are to-day 
all more or less blended together by the unifying influences of 
civilization ; there are few sharp contrasts in Europe such as 

* The progress of classification, chronologically, is indicated in our sup 
plementary Bibliography, under the index title of Races. It is significant 
of the slow infiltration of scientific knowledge into secondary literature 
that the latest and perhaps best geographical text-book in America still 
teaches the unity of the European or " Aryan" race. Zoological authori 
ties also in English seem to be unaware of the present state of our infor 
mation. Thus Flower and Lyddeker in their great work on the mammals 
make absolutely no craniological distinctions. They have not advanced 
a whit beyond the theory of the " oval head " of a half century ago. 

On the latest and most elaborate classification, that by Deniker, con 
sult our Appendix D. 

t Huxley s (1870) celebrated classification into Melanochroi and Xan- 
thochroi is based on this entirely. 



those between the Eskimo and the American Indian, or the 
Malay and the Papuan in other parts of the world. We have 
been deceived by this in the past. It is high time for us to 
correct our ideas on the subject, especially in our school and 
college teaching. 

Instead of a single European type there is indubitable evi 
dence of at least three distinct races, each possessed of a his 
tory of its own, and each contributing something to the com 
mon product, population, as we see it to-day. If this be 
established it does away at one fell swoop with most of the 
current mouthings about Aryans and pre- Aryans ; and espe 
cially with such appellations as the " Caucasian " or the " Indq- 
Germanic " race. Supposing for present peace that it be 
allowed that the ancestors of some peoples of Europe may 
once have been within sight of either the Caspian Sea or the 
Himalayas, we have still left two thirds of our European races 
and population out of account. As yet it is too early to 
discuss the events in the history of these races ; that will claim 
our attention at a later time. The present task before us is 
to establish first of all that three such racial types exist in 

The sceptic is already prepared perhaps to admit that 
what we have said about the several physical characteristics, 
such as the shape of the head, stature, and the like, may all 
be true. But he will continue to doubt that these offer evi 
dence of distinct races because ordinary observation may de 
tect such gross inconsistencies on every hand. Even in the 
most secluded hamlet of the Alps, where population has re 
mained undisturbed for thousands of years, he will be able 
to point out blond-haired children whose parents were dark, 
short sons of tall fathers, and the like. Diversities confront 
us on every hand even in the mo3t retired corner of Europe. 
What may we not anticipate in more favoured places, especially 
in the large cities ? 

Traits in themselves are all right, our objector will main 
tain : but you must show that they are hereditary, persistent. 
More than that, you must prove not alone the transmissibility 
of a single trait by itself, you must also show that combina- 


tions of traits are so handed down from father to son. Three 
stages in the development of our proof must be noted : first, 
the distribution of separate traits; secondly, their association 
into types; and, lastly, the hereditary character of these types 
which alone justifies the term races* We have already taken 
the first step: we are now essaying the second. It is highly 
important that we should keep these distinct. Even among 
professed anthropologists there is still much confusion of 
thought upon the subject so much so, in fact, that some 
have, it seems to us without warrant, abandoned the task in 
despair. Let us beware the example of the monkey in the 
fable. Seeking to withdraw a huge handful of racial nuts 
from the jar of fact, we may find the neck of scientific possi 
bility all too small. We may fail because we have grasped 
too much at once. Let us examine. 

There are two ways in which we may seek to assemble 
our separate physical traits into types that is, to combine 
characteristics into living personalities. The one is purely 
anthropological, the other inferential and geographical in its 
nature. The first of these is simple. Answer is sought to a 
direct question. In a given population, are the blonds more 
often tall than the brunets, or the reverse? Is the greater 
proportion of the tall men at the same time distinctly longer- 
headed or otherwise? and the like. If the answers to these 
questions be constant and consistent, our work is accom 
plished. Unfortunately, they are not always so, hence our 
necessary recourse to the geographical proof: but they at 
least indicate a slight trend, which we may follow up by the 
other means. 

Let it be boldly confessed at the outset that in the greater 
number of cases no invariable association of traits in this 
way occurs. This is especially true among the people of the 
central part of Europe. The population of Switzerland, for 
example, is persistently aberrant in this respect; it is every 
thing anthropologically that it ought not to be. This should 
not surprise us. In the first place, mountainous areas always 

* Consult our Appendix D concerning Deniker s definition of races in 
this connection. 


contain the " ethnological sweepings of the plains," as Canon 
Taylor puts it. Especially is this true when the mountains 
lie in the very heart of the continent, at a focus of racial im 
migration. Moreover, the environment is competent to upset 
all probabilities, as we hope to have shown. Suppose a bru- 
net type from the south should come to Andermatt and settle. 
If altitude, indeed, exerts an influence upon pigmentation, as 
we have sought to prove ; or if its concomitant poverty in the 
ante-tourist era should depress the stature ; racial equilib 
rium is as good as vanished in t\vo or three generations. 
It is therefore only where the environment is simple ; and 
especially on the outskirts of the continent, where migration 
and intermixture are more infrequent ; that any constant and 
normal association of traits may be anticipated. Take a single 
example from many. We have always been taught, since the 
days of Tacitus, to regard the Teutonic peoples the Goths, 
Lombards, and Saxons as tawny-haired, " large-limbed 
giants." History is filled with observations to that effect from 
the earliest times.* Our maps have already led us to infer 
as much. Nevertheless, direct observations show that tall 
stature and blondness are by no means constant companions 
in the same person. In Scandinavia, Dr. Arbo asserts, I 
think, that the tallest men are at the same time inclined to 
be blond. In Italy, on the other edge of the continent, the 
same combination is certainly prevalent. f Over in Russia, 
once more on the outskirts of Europe, \ the tall men are again 
said to be lighter complexioned as a rule. In the British 
Isles,* in Holstein,|[ in parts of Brittany A and southern 
France, in Savoy ,1 and in Wiirtemberg $ it is more often true 

* Herve, 1897, gives many texts. Cf. also references in Taylor, 1890, 
P- 108. f Livi, 1896 a, pp. 74, 76, 143. 

\ Zograf, 1892 a, p. 173 ; though denied by Anutchin, 1893, p. 285, and 
Eichholz, 1896, p. 40. 

* Beddoe, i867- 69 a, p, 171 ; also Rolleston, 1884, i, p. 279. Not true 
so often in Scotland. 

I Meisner, 1889, p. 118 ; but contradictory, p. in ; also 1891, p. 323. 

A Collignon, 18903, p. 15, 

Q Lapouge, 1894 a, p. 498 ; i897- 9S, p. 314. 

$ Garret, 1883, p. 106. 

$ Von Holder, 1876, p. 6 ; Ecker, 1876, p. 259, agrees. 



than otherwise. But if we turn to other parts of Europe we 
are completely foiled. The association in the same individual 
of stature and blondness fails or is reversed in Bavaria,* in 
Baden, f along the Adriatic,]; in Poland,* and in upper Austria 
and Salzburg, as well as among the European recruits ob 
served in America during our civil war. A It seems to be sig 
nificant, however, that when the association fails, as in the 
highlands of Austria ; where the environment is eliminated, 
as in lower Austria, the tall men again become characteristic 
ally more blond than the short ones. In this last case en 
vironment is to blame ; in others, racial intermixture, or it 
may be merely chance variation, is the cause. 

In order to avoid disappointment, let us bear in mind that 
in no other part of the world save modern America is such 
an amalgamation of various peoples to be found as in Europe. 
History, and archaeology long before history, show us a con 
tinual picture of tribes appearing and disappearing, crossing 
and recrossing in their migrations, assimilating, dividing, col 
onizing, conquering, or being absorbed. It follows from this, 
that, even if the environment were uniform, our pure types 
must be exceedingly rare. Experience proves that the vast 
majority of the population of this continent shows evidence of 
crossing, so that in general we can not expect that more than 
one third of the people will be marked by the simplest com 
bination of traits. "We need not be surprised, therefore, that if 
we next seek to add a third characteristic, say the shape of the 
head, to a normal combination of hair and eyes, we find the 
proportion of pure types combining all three traits in a fixed 
measure to be very small indeed. Imagine a fourth trait, 
stature, or a fifth, nose, to be added, and our proportion of 
pure types becomes almost infinitesimal. We are thus reduced 

* Ranke. Beitrage zur Anth. und Urg. Bayerns, v, 1883, pp. 195 seq. ; 
and iSS6- S7, ii, P, 124. 

f Ammon, 1890, p. 14; 1899, pp. 175-184. * Elkind, 1896. 

\ Weisbach, 1884, p. 26. | Weisbach, 1895 b, p. 70. 

A Baxter, 1875. i. PP- 23 and 38 ; with exception of the Germans, 

() In Appendix E, the association of the other primary physical traits 
in individuals is discussed. 



to the extremity in w,hich my friend Dr. Ammon, of Baden, 
found himself, when I wrote asking for photographs of a pure 
Alpine type from the Black Forest. He has measured thou 
sands of heads, and yet he answered that he really had not 
been able to find a perfect specimen in all details. All his 
round-headed men were either blond, or tall, or narrow-nosed, 
or something else that they ought not to be. 

Confronted by this situation, the tyro is here tempted to 
turn back in despair. There is no justification for it. It is 
not essential to our position, that we should actually be able to 



\ " 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 5<10TLAND :: 
-\r ::;::::::: :: 

V i. _.,.--- (NORTHERN ITALY) 

\~-~- \ / ::5::: , 
"i" "~i<<" ::::i: " 
:?:: "?u"^ \ :::::: 


2 - -" 

" " it" 1 * L. 

: ~~ : / 


6 1.70 175 1.80 1 

13-1- INCHIS 15- 

isolate any considerable number, nor even a single one, of 
our perfect racial types in the life. It matters not to us that 
never more than a small majority of any given population 
possesses even two physical characteristics in their proper 
association ; that relatively few of these are able to add a 
third to the combination ; and that almost no individuals show 
a perfect union of all traits under one head, so to speak, while 
contradictions and mixed types are everywhere present. Such 
a condition of affairs need not disturb us if we understand 



ourselves aright. We should indeed e perplexed were it 

Consider how complex the problem really is ! We say the 
people of Scotland are on the average among the tallest in 
Europe. True! But that does not exclude a considerable 
number of medium and undersized persons from among 
them. We may illustrate the actual condition best by means 
of the accompanying diagram.* Three curves are plotted 
therein for the stature of large groups of men chosen at ran 
dom from each of three typical parts of Europe. The one 
at the right is for the tall Scotch, the middle one for the 
medium-sized northern Italians, and the one at the left for 
Sardinians, the people of this island being among the shortest 
in all Europe. The height of each curve at any given point 
indicates the percentage within each group of men, which 
possessed the stature marked at the base of that vertical line. 
Thus eight per cent of the Ligurian men were five feet five 
inches tall (1.65 metres), while nine per cent of the Sardin 
ians were fully two inches shorter (1.60 metres). In either 
case these several heights were the most common, although 
in no instance is the proportion considerable at a given stat 
ure. There is, however, for each country or group of men, 
some point about which the physical trait clusters. Thus the 
largest percentage of a given stature among the Scotch occurs 
at about five feet nine inches and a half. Yet a very large 

* The curve for the Scotch, taken from the Report of the Anthropo- 
metric Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Sci 
ence for 1883, has been arbitrarily corrected to correspond to the metric 
system employed by Dr. Livi in the other curves. A centimetre is 
roughly equal to 0.4 of an inch. It is assumed that in consequence only 
0.4 as many individuals will fall within each centimetre class as in the 
groups of stature differing by inches. The ordinates in the Scotch dia 
gram have therefore been reduced to 0.4 of their height in the original 

The best technical discussion of such curves among anthropologists 
will be found in Goldstein, 1883 ; Stieda, 1883 ; Ammon, 1893 and 1896 c ; 
Livi, 1895 and 1896 a, pp. 22 et seq.; and in the works of Bowditch, Gallon, 
etc. Emme, 1887, gives a pointed criticism of the possible fallacy in mere 
averages. Dr. Boas has contributed excellent material, based upon the 
American Indians for the most part. 


number of them, about five per cent, fall within the group of 
five feet seven inches (1.70 metres) that is to say, no taller 
than an equal percentage of the Ligurians and even in Sar 
dinia there is an appreciable number of that stature. We 
must understand, therefore, when we say that the Scotch are 
a tall people or a long-headed or blond one; that we mean 
thereby, not that all the people are peculiar in this respect even 
to a slight degree, but merely that in this region there are 
more specimens of these speciaj types than elsewhere. Still 
it remains that the great mass of the people are merely neutral. 
This is a more serious obstacle to overcome than direct con 
tradictions. They merely whet the appetite. Our most diffi 
cult problem is to separate the typical wheat from the non 
committal straw ; to distinguish our racial types from the gen 
eral mean or average which everywhere constitutes the over 
whelming majority of the population. 

We have now seen how limited are the racial results at 
tainable by the first of our two means of identification that 
is, the purely somatological one. It has appeared that only 
in the most simple conditions are the several traits constant 
and faithful to one another in their association in the same 
persons. Nor are we justified in asking for more. Our three 
racial types are not radically distinct seeds which, once planted 
in the several parts of Europe, have there taken root ; and, 
each preserving its peculiarities intact, have spread from those 
centres outward until they have suddenly run up against one 
another along a racial frontier. Such was the old-fashioned 
view of races, in the days before the theory of evolution had 
remodelled our ways of thinking when human races were held 
to be distinct creations of a Divine will. We conceive of it 
all quite differently. These types for us are all necessarily 
offshoots from the same trunk. The problem is far more 
complex to us for this reason. It is doubly dynamic. Up 
building and demolition are taking place at the same time. 
r>y our constitution of racial types we seek to simplify the 
matter for a moment to lose sight of all the destructive 
forces, and from obscure tendencies to derive ideal results. 
We picture an anthropological goal which might have 


been attained had the life conditions only been less compli 

Are we in this more presumptuous than other natural 
scientists? Is the geologist more certain of his deductions, 
in his restoration of an ideal mountain chain from the de 
nuded roots which alone bear witness to the fact to-day? In 
this case all the superstructure has long since disappeared. 
The restoration is no less scientific. It represents more clearly 
than aught else, the rise and disappearance, the results and 
future tendencies of great geological movements. We take 
no more liberties with our racial types than the geologist 
with his mountains ; nor do we mean more by our restora 
tions. The parallel is instructive. The geologist is w r ell 
aware that the uplifted folds as he depicts them never existed 
in completeness at any given time. He knows full well that 
erosion took place even as lateral pressure raised the con 
torted strata ; that one may even have been the cause of the 
other. If indeed denudation could have been postponed until 
all the elevation of the strata had been accomplished, then the 
restoration of the mountain chain would stand for a once real 
but now vanished thing. This, the geologist is well aware, was 
not thus and so. In precisely the same sense do we conceive of 
our races. Far be it from us to assume that these three races 
of ours ever, in the history of mankind, existed in absolute 
purity or isolation from one another. As soon might the 
branch grow separate and apart from the parent oak. Xo 
sooner have environmental influences, peculiar habits of life, 
and artificial selection commenced to generate distinct vari 
eties of men from the common clay ; no sooner has heredity 
set itself to perpetuating these ; than chance variation, migra 
tion, intermixture, and changing environments, with a host 
of minor dispersive factors, begin to efface this constructive 
work. Racial upbuilding and demolition, as we have said, 
have ever proceeded side by side. Never is the perfect type 
in view, while yet it is always possible. " Race," says Topi- 
nard ( T9) , " in the present state of things is an abstract con 
ception, a notion of continuity in discontinuity, of unity in di 
versity. It is the rehabilitation of a real but directlv unattain- 


able thing." In this sense alone do we maintain that there 
are three ideal racial types in Europe to be distinguished from 
one another. They have often dissolved in the common popu 
lation ; each particular trait has gone its own way ; so that 
at the present time rarely, if indeed ever, do we discover 
a single individual corresponding to our racial type in every 
detail. It exists for us nevertheless. 

Thus convinced that the facts do not warrant us in ex 
pecting too much of our anthropological means of isolating 
racial types, we have recourse to a second or inferential mode 
of analysis. In this we work by geographical areas rather than 
by personalities. We discover, for example, that the north 
of Europe constitutes a veritable centre of dispersion of long- 
headedness. Quite independently, we discover that the same 
region contains more blond traits than any other part of Eu 
rope, and that a high average stature there prevails. The 
inference is at once natural, that these three characteristics 
combine to mark the prevalent type of the population. If 
one journeyed through it, one might at first expect to find 
the majority of the people to be long-headed and tall blonds ; 
that the tallest individuals would be the most blond, the long 
est-headed most tall, and so on. This is, as we have already 
shown, too good and simple to be true, or even to be ex 
pected. Racial combinations of traits, indeed, disappear in a 
given population as sugar dissolves or rather as certain chem 
ical salts are resolved into their constituent elements when 
immersed in water, From the proportions of each element 
discovered in the fluid, quite free from association, we are 
often able to show that they once were united in the same 
compound. In the same manner, finding these traits float 
ing about loose, so to speak, in the same population, we pro 
ceed to reconstitute types from them. We know that the 
people approach this type more and more as we near the spe 
cific centre of its distribution. The traits may refuse to go 
otherwise than two by two, like the animals in the ark, 
and they may change partners quite frequently: yet they 
may still manifest distinct affinities one for another never 


The apparent inference is not always the just one, although 
it tends to be. Suppose, for example, that one observer 
should prove that sixty per cent of ten thousand natives of 
Holland were blonds ; and another, studying the same ten 
thousand individuals, should prove that a like proportion were 
very tall would this of necessity mean that the Hollanders 
were mainly tall blonds ? Not at all ! It might still be that 
the two groups of traits merely overlapped at their edges. 
In other words, the great majority of the blonds might still 
be constituted from the shorter half of the population. Only 
twenty per cent need necessarily be tall and blond at once, 
even in this simple case where both observers studied the same 
men from different points of view. How much more confus 
ing, if each chanced to hit upon an entirely different set of ten 
thousand men ! This, be it noted, is generally the case in 
practice. Nevertheless, although there is always danger in 
such inferences, we are fortunate in possessing so many paral 
lel investigations that they check one another, and the tenden 
cies all point in one direction. 

These tendencies we may discover by means of curves 
drawn as we have indicated above on page 108. By them 
we may analyze each group in detail. Every turn of the 
lines has a meaning. Thus, the most noticeable feature of 
the Sardinian curve of statures is its narrowness and height ; 
the Ligurian one is broader at the base, with sloping sides ; 
and the Scotch one looks as if pressure had been applied at 
the apex to flatten it out still farther. The interpretation is 
clear. In Sardinia we have a relatively unified type. Nearly 
all of the people are characterized by statures between five 
feet one inch (1.56 metres) and five feet five inches (1.65 
metres). They are homogeneous, in other words : and they 
are homogeneous at the lower limit of human variation in 
stature. The curve is steepest on the left side. This means 
that the stature has been depressed to a point where neither 
misery nor chance variation can stunt still further ; so that 
suddenly from seven per cent of the men of a height of five 
feet one inch and a half (more frequent than any given stat 
ure in Scotland) we drop to two per cent at a half inch shorter 



stature. A moment s consideration shows, moreover, that the 
narrower the pyramid, the higher it must be. One hundred per 
cent of the people must be accounted for somewhere. If they 
are not evenly distributed, their aggregation near the middle of 
the curve will elevate its apex, or its shoulders at least. Thus 
a sharp pyramid generally denotes a homogeneous people. If 
they were all precisely alike, a single vertical line one hundred 
per cent high would result. On the other hand, a flattened 
curve indicates the introduction of some disturbing factor, 
be it an immigrant race, environment, or what not. In this 
case the purity of the Sardinians is readily explicable. They 
have lived in the greatest isolation, set apart in the Mediter 
ranean. A curve drawn for the Irish shows the same phe 
nomenon. Islands demographically tend in the main to one 
or the other of two extremes. If unattractive, they offer ex 
amples of the purest isolation, as in Corsica and Sardinia. 
If inviting, or on the cross-paths of navigation, like Sicily, 
their people speedily degenerate into mixed types. For if 
incentive to immigration be offered, they are approachable 
alike from all sides. The Scotch, as we have observed, are 
more or less mixed in type, and unequally subjected to the 
influences of environment ; so that their curve shows evidence 
of heterogeneity. Scotland combines the isolation of the 
Highlands with a great extent of seacoast. The result has 
been that in including the population of both kinds of ter 
ritory in a single curve we find great variability of stature 

It will repay us to analyze a few more seriation curves, 
for they illustrate graphically and with clearness the complex 
facts in the situation. These diagrams are based not upon 
statures, but upon cephalic indices. The same principles ap 
ply, however, in either case. The first one deals, as will be 
noted, with a very large number of individuals. It illustrates 
the difference in contour between a curve drawn for a 
relatively simple population and one in which several dis 
tinct types are coexistent. The narrowness and height of the 
percentage pyramids for the two extremes of Italy, culmi 
nating at indexes of 79 and 84 respectively, are nota- 


ble.* The two regions are severally quite homogeneous in 
respect of the head form of their population; for the apex of 
such curves rarely exceeds the limit of fourteen per cent reached 
in these instances. The curve for all Italy, on the other hand, 
is the resultant of compounding such seriations as these for 
each district of the country. It becomes progressively lower 


(36 ZOZ Ml 


(3Z5Z6 MEN) 

(Z94-Z71 MEN) 

and broader with the inclusion of each differently character 
ized population. It will be observed, however, that even this 
curve for a highly complex people, preserves vestiges, in its 
minor apexes, of the constituent types of which it is com 
pounded. Thus its main body culminates at the broadened 
head form of the Alpine race ; but a lesser apex on the left- 

* The geographical distribution of these is shown upon our map on 
page 251. 



hand side coincides with the cephalic index of the Mediter 
ranean racial type; that which entirely dominated in the sim 
ple curve for Sicily alone. 

The second diagram contains examples of a number of 
erratic curves. The Swiss one represents a stage of physical 
heterogeneity far more pronounced than that of all Italy, 
which we have just analyzed. Or rather, more truly, it is the 
product of an intermixture upon terms of entire equality of 

/ \ 

a number of types of head form. In Italy, as we have seen, 
the broader head form so far outweighed the Mediterranean 
one, that a single culminating point of maximum frequency 
still remained, with a lesser one corresponding to the minority 
partner. In this second diagram Bavaria represents about the 
same condition as all Italy, with, however, the proportions of 
the two constituent types reversed; for, being north of the Alps, 
the culminating apex of greatest frequency lies toward the 


longer-headed side of the curve. Therein does the predomi 
nant dolichocephaly of the Teutonic race make itself manifest. 
Compared with these curves for Italy and Bavaria, the 
Swiss seriation is seen to be devoid of any real apex at all. 
It represents a population in no wise possessed of distinct 
individuality so far as cephalic index is concerned. Broad 
and long heads are about equally common. This corresponds, 
of course, to the geographical probabilities for two reasons : 
inasmuch as Switzerland not only lies at the centre of the 
continent ; but also, owing to its rugged surface, comprises all 
extremes of isolation and intermixture within its borders. A 
state of heterogeneity absolutely unparalleled seems to be 
indicated by still another of our curves that drawn for 
the Greeks of Asia Minor. It culminates at the most wide 
ly separated cephalic indexes viz., 75 and 88 respectively 
known in the human species. The lower index corre 
sponds to the primitive long-headed Greek stock ; the other 
is probably a result of intermixture with Turks, Armenians, 
and others. Or perhaps it is nearer the truth to say that the 
only bond of unity in the entire series is that of language ; in 
other words, that the broad-headed apex represents Turks, 
Armenians, and others, still physically true to their original 
pattern, yet who have chanced to adopt the speech of the 
Greeks. Here again is the heterogeneous ethnic composition 
of eastern Europe fully exemplified by a seriation curve of 
cephalic index. 

By the second geographical method which we have de 
scribed we constitute our racial types as the archaeologist, 
from a mass of broken fragments of pottery, restores the de 
signs upon his shattered and incomplete vases. Upon a bit 
of clay he discovers tracings of a portion of a conventionalized 
human figure. A full third let us say the head of Thoth 
or some other Egyptian deity is missing. The figure is in 
complete to this extent. Near by is found upon another frag 
ment, a representation of the head and half the body of another 
figure. In this case it is the legs alone which lack. This 
originally formed no part of the same vase with the first bit. 


It is perhaps of entirely different size and colour. Never 
theless, finding that the portions of the design upon the two 
fragments bear marks of identity in motive or pattern, data 
for the complete restoration of the figure of the god are at 
hand. It matters not, that from the fragments in his posses 
sion the archaeologist can reconstruct no single perfect form. 
The pieces of clay will in no wise fit together. The designs, 
notwithstanding, so complement one another that his mind 
is set at rest. The affinity of the two portions is almost as 
clearly defined as the disposition of certain chemical elements 
to combine in fixed proportions ; for primitive religion or 
ornament is not tolerant of variation. 

We copy the procedure of the archaeologist precisely. In 
one population, colour of hair and stature gravitate toward 
certain definite combinations. Not far away, perhaps in an 
other thousand men drawn from the same locality, the same 
stature is found to manifest an affinity for certain types of head 
form. It may require scores of observations to detect the 
tendency, so slight has it become. In still another thousand 
men perhaps a third combination is revealed. These all, how 
ever, overlap at the edges. Granted that an assumption is 
necessary. It is allowed to the archaeologist. Our conclu 
sions are more certain than his, even as the laws of physical 
combination are more immutable than those of mental asso 
ciation. For it was mgrely mental conservatism which kept 
the primitive designer of the vase from varying his patterns. 
Here we have unchanging physical facts upon which to rely. 
Of course, we should be glad to find all our physical traits 
definitely associated in completeness in the same thousand re 
cruits, were it not denied to us. The archaeologist \vould like 
wise rejoice at the discovery of one perfect design upon a 
single vase. Both of us lack entities; we must be contented 
with affinities instead. 

A final step in our constitution of races that is to say, of 
hereditary types is to prove that they are persistent and 
transmissible from one generation to the next.* Of direct 

* Consult in general the works of Perier ; E. Schmidt, 1888 ; Virchow, 
1896; Kollmann, 1898 ; and also Science, New York, 1892, pp. 155 ct scq. 


testimony upon this point so far as concerns normal physical 
characteristics, we possess little that is authoritative ; although 
the anthropological journals abound in examples of the in 
heritance of monstrous peculiarities. Yon Holder * c!a:ms 
to have followed certain traits in Esslingen down through 
four generations. Yon Luschan f gives some interesting data 
concerning the transmission of peculiarities of head form in 
two collaterally related families, although his number of ob 
servations is too limited to form a basis of generalization. 
The same objection applies to Goenner s work ( 95) . An indica 
tion of the possibilities of research along these lines, is offered 
by a very recent study at Stockholm of some six hundred 
women, and an equal number of their new-born infants. J Sev 
eral traces of direct hereditary transmission appear statistically 
to be indicated, especially in respect of the cephalic index. 
The proportions of the mother s head seem even in these new 
ly born children, often with abnormal or deformed crania at so 
tender an age, to betray an appreciable tendency to reappear 
in like form. One of the most valuable contributions by De 
Candolle ( 84) concerns the inheritance of the colour of the iris. 
He found, for example, that where both parents were brown- 
eyed, eighty per cent of the children were characterized by an 
iris of the same shade. The proportion of blue-eyed children 
in the succeeding generation was as high as 93.6 per cent when 
both parents were alike in this respect. When they differed, 
one being blue-eyed the other having a brown iris, the shade 
of the father s eyes seemed to be slightly more persistent (fifty- 
three to fifty-six per cent), but great variability was mani 
fested.* Some interesting calculations by Miss Fawcett (<98) on 
the inheritance of the head form, according to Boas s observa 
tions on American aborigines, are also in progress. Galton s 

* 1876, p. 10. 
t 1889, p. 211. 

\ Johanssen and Westermark, 1897, p. 366. The infantile index, as a 
whole (80.3), however, is far above the mean for the mothers (76.5), prob 
ably in conformity with Boas s (1896) rule that frontal development with 
growth tends to lower the index progressively. 

* Pfitzner, 1897, p. 497, gives other data on pigmentation, based upon 
the population of Alsace. 


studies relating to the transmissibility of stature are also well 
known to English readers. The difficulty in the prosecution 
of extended investigations in this line, is that the lifetime of a 
single observer is too brief to comprehend more than three 
generations at most; and even where this is possible, the unre 
liability of a comparison of the phenomena of childhood with 
old age vitiates many of the conclusions. One law alone, to 
which we have already made reference, seems to be verified. 
It is this ; viz., that types, which are combinations of separate 
traits, are rarely if ever stable in a single line through several 
generations. The physical characteristics are transmitted in 
independence of one another in nine cases out of ten. The 
absolute necessity of studying men in large masses, in order 
to counteract this tendency is by this fact rendered impera 

Our proof of the transmissibility of many of the physical 
peculiarities with which we have here to deal must of neces 
sity be indirect. The science of prehistoric archaeology af 
fords testimony of this kind plentifully. From all parts of 
Europe comes evidence as to the physical characteristics of 
the people from which the living one has sprung. Our vol 
ume abounds in it. Viewed broadly that is to say, taking 
whole populations as a unit the persistence of ethnic pe 
culiarities through generations is beyond question. We know, 
for example, that in the north of Europe, as far back as ar 
chaeology can carry us. men of a type of head form identical 
with the living population to-day were in a majority. Like 
wise the lake dwellers in Switzerland in the stone age, little 
more civilized than the natives of Africa, were true ancestors 
of the present Alpine race. Even since the earliest period of 
history made known to us in Egypt, there has been no appre 
ciable change in the physical character of the population, as 
Sergi * has proved. Prehistoric archaeology thus comes to 
our aid, with cumulative proof that at all events traits are 
hereditary in populations, even if not always plainly so in 
families. In truth, we here enter upon a larger field of in 
vestigation than the anthropological one. The whole topic 

* 1897 a, p. 65. 

Teutonic types. NORWAY. Pure blond. 

21. Alpine type. AUSTRIAN. Blue eyes, brown hair. Index 88. 22. 

23. Mediterranean type. PALERMO, Sicily. Pure brunet. Index 77. 24. 




of heredity opens up before us, too immense to discuss in 
this place. Suffice it to say that in the main no question is 
entertained upon the subject, save in the special cases of arti 
ficially acquired characteristics and the like. Even here, in 
a few isolated cases, as among the Jews, our evidence upon 
this contested question seems to be indubitable.* 

After this tedious summary of methods, let us turn to re 
sults. The table on this page shows the combinations of 
traits into racial types which seem best to accord with the facts. 
It speaks for itself. 

European Racial Types. 





Stature. Nose. 


Used by. 






Tall. Narrow ; 
























Light Hazel- 

Medium, Variable ; Celto- 


(Celtic i. 




rather Slavic, 
broad ; Sarmatian 






Arvernian. Beddoe. 

Occidental Deniker. 

Homo- Lapouge 


Lappanoid Pruner 














broad. Ligurian. 


or bl k 

Ibero- 1 

Insular \ 
Atlanto- [ 


Med. J 

The first of our races is perhaps the most characteristic. 
It is entirely restricted to northwestern Europe, with a centre 
of dispersion in Scandinavia. Each of the other types extends 
beyond the confines of the continent, one into Asia, the other 
into Africa. Lapouge s name of Homo Europccus is by no 
means inapt for this reason. Our portraits, chosen as typical 
by Dr. Arbo of the Norwegian army, show certain of the 



physical peculiarities, especially the great length of the head, 
the long oval face, and the straight aquiline nose. The face 
is rather smooth in outline, the cheek bones not being promi 
nent. The narrow nose seems to be a very constant trait, as 
much so as the tendency to tall stature. This race is strongly 
inclined to blondness. The eyes are blue or light gray, and 
the hair flaxen, tawny, reddish, or sandy. The whole com 
bination .accords exactly with the descriptions handed down 
to us by the ancients. Such were the Goths, Danes, 
Norsemen, Saxons, and their fellows of another place and 
time. History is thus strictly corroborated by natural sci 

A distinctive feature of the Teutonic race, which we have 
not yet mentioned, is its prominent and narrow nose. This 
is notable, in general, as a fact of common observation, but it 
is very difficult of anthropometric proof.* The range of in 
dividual variation in the fleshy parts seems to be very great, 
even in the same race. There is some indication, moreover, 
that the nasal bones are influenced by the structure of the 
face.f The lack of any international agreement as to the sys 
tem of measurement renders statistical comparisons doubly 
difficult. Nevertheless, enough has been done to show that 
from the north of Europe, as we go south, the nose betrays a 
tendency to become flatter and more open at the wings. Espe 
cially where the Alpine and Teutonic types are in contact do 
we find the flatter nos<? of the broad-headed race noticeable. \ 
Arbo * has observed it in the southwestern corner of Norway. 
Houze (<SS) proves it for Belgium in a comparison of Flemings 
and Walloons ; it is certainly true in France that the Teutonic 
elements are more leptorhin (narrow-nosed) than the Alpine. || 
The association of a tall stature with a narrow nose is so close 
as to point to a law. Italy shows a regular increase in fre- 

* In general consult Topinard, 1891 b ; Collignon, 1887 d ; and Hovorka, 
" Die iiussere Nase," Wien, 1893. 

f Collignon, 1883, p. 47 ; 1887 a, p. 237 ; Livi, 1896 a, p. 114. 
\ Topinard, 1885, Elements, p. 305. 

* 1897, p. 57- 

I Collignon, 1883, p. 508; 1892 b, pp. 48 and 54; 1894 a, Calvados, p. 
24; and 1894 b, Dordogne, p. 41. 


quency of the broad and flat nose from north to south; and 
Collignoivs law of the association of the form of nose to stat 
ure seems again to be confirmed.* From this point south, 
even from the Mediterranean coast in Tunis toward the inte 
rior, the broad and open form of nose, extremely developed 
in the negro race, becomes more common. f Our Sardinian 
portraits (page 251), compared with those of the various Teu 
tonic types, will strongly accentuate this change. A distinct, 

Alpine types, Bavaria. 

though distant, affinity of the Mediterranean stock with the 
negro is surely the only inference to be drawn from it. 

Our second racial type is most persistently characterized 
by the shape of the head. This is short and at the same time 
broad. The roundness is accompanied by a broad face, the 
chin full, and the nose rather heavy. These traits are all 
shown more or less clearly in our portraits of the Austrian 
German, and of the two Bavarian peasants. The side views 
in the latter cases show the shortness of the head as con- 

* Livi, 1896 a, pp. 104-112; with maps XIV, XV, in atlas; as also 
Mori, 1897. 

f Collignon, 1887 a, Tunis, pp. 229-232. Even here the tall blonds are 
more leptorhin. 



trasted with the Teutonic type above described. At the same 
time the cranium is high, the forehead straight, sometimes al 
most overhanging. It seems as if pressure had been applied 
front and back, the skull having yielded in an upward direc 
tion. This type is of medium height, decidedly inclined to 
ward stockiness in build. Its whole aspect is rather of solid 
ity than of agility. The colour of the hair and eyes is rather 
neutral, at all events intermediate between the Teutonic and 
Mediterranean races. There is a tendency toward grayish 
eyes, while the hair is more often brown. In these respects, 
however, there is great variability, and the transition to the 
north and south is very gradual. Climate or other environ 
mental influence has in these traits eliminated all sharp divi 
sion lines. These peculiarities appear only when the type is 
found in extreme isolation and purity. 

\Yhat name shall we apply to this second race, character 
ized primarily by its great breadth of head, and which has its 
main centre of dissemination in the Alpine highlands of mid- 
western Europe? The most common name applied to it is 
that of Celtic. This seems without doubt most adequately to 
harmonize the results contributed to our knowledge of the 
subject by the various sciences of history, philology, archaeol 
ogy, and physical anthropology. Nevertheless, a very grave 
objection to its use pertains. To make this clear we must for 
a moment examine historically the so-called Celtic question, 
than which no greater stumbling-block in the way of our clear 
thinking exists. It is imperative to make the matter definite 
before we proceed.* 

The leading ethnologists prior to 1860, reiving entirely 
upon the texts of the classical writers, generally agreed in affili 
ating the Celts of early history with the tall, blond peoples of 
northern Europe. In other words, they interpreted literally 

* In our complete Bibliography, see under "Celts," in the index, a 
chronological outline of the discussion, containing full titles of all papers 
by Broca, Bertrand, and others not specifically given here. Among the 
best references will be found Bertrand and Reinach s masterly work of 
1894; Lagneau, especially 1877 b; Topinard, article " Francais," in the 
Xouveau Dictionnaire de Geographic ; Collignon s extended review (1893 b) 
of Arbois de Jubainville s latest work. Von Holder, 1876, discusses it well. 



Caesar s well-known passage in the Commentaries, " All Gaul 
is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgse inhabit, the 
Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called 
Celts, in ours Gauls, the third." This statement was inter 
preted to mean that the Gauls and Celts were of the same race, 
although of course we see to-day that Caesar was speaking not 
necessarily of races at all, but of peoples or political units. 
Moreover, ammunition for endless controversy was afforded 
by the conflicting statements of other ancient historians, no 
one of them in fact until Polybius, as Bertrand ( T3) has shown, 
really, using the words Celts and Gauls with any discrimina 
tion whatever. 

A new phase of the matter was presented by Broca s cele 
brated researches concerning the physical characteristics of 
the French people in the decade following 1860, especially 
those among the peasants in Brittany. Here \vere the only 
Celtic-speaking people on the continent, and they were of a 
brunet and short race. Then, in 1865, came the monumental 
work of Davis and Thurnam, the Crania Britannica, with added 
proof that a large part of the Celtic-speaking population of 
the British Isles, particularly the Welsh, were equally short 
and of dark complexion. Broca c 4b > and Beddoe < -6;3b > among 
anthropologists at once grasped the situation ; they perceived 
the inconvenience attendant upon the use of the term. Never 
theless, the advocates of the old view of tall blond Celts still 
counted eminent authority among their number, such as von 
Baer, with His < (i4b > and Riitimeyer. 

Proof of a widespread short and dark population through 
central Europe, even in southern Germany, meanwhile accu 
mulated rapidly at the hands of Ecker, von Holder, Welcker, 
and others ; they, however, dodged the issue by applying new 
names to this broad-headed, un-Teutonic population which 
they discovered in the recesses of the Black Forest and the 
Alps. These people they called Ligurian, Sarmatian, Slavic 
or Sion types. Finally, however, the close parallel between 
the area characterized by Celtic place-names, as analyzed 
by Bacmeister or described as Celtic by the ancients, and that 
occupied by this newly discovered physical type, forced an 


issue between the anthropologists on the one hand and the 
philologists and old-fashioned ethnographers on the other. 
The years 1873- 74 brought the matter to a head. It was 
a battle of the giants indeed, marked especially by the brilliant 
flashes between Bertrand and Arbois de Jubainville, Omalius 
d Halloy and Lagneau, with Broca, master of them all, against 
the field. The controversy extended over a number of years, 
Henry Martin,* Rawlinson ( 77) , and others being involved; 
they, with the ethnographers, still contending for the tall 
blondness of the Celts of history. Whatever be the present 
state of opinion among students of other cognate sciences ; 
there is practically to-day a complete unanimity of opinion 
among physical anthropologists, that the term Celt, if used at 
all, belongs to the second of our three races viz, the brachy- 
cephalic, darkish population of the Alpine highlands. Such 
is the view of Broca, Bertrand, Topinard, Collignon, and all 
the French authorities. It is accepted by the Germans, Yir- 
chow (<95) , Kollmann,f and Ranke \ as well; by the English, 
foremost among them Dr. Beddoe,* and by the most compe 
tent Italians, j 

Despite the agreement among anthropologists as to the 
connotation of the term Celt, its use involves us in intermi 
nable difficulty, so long as the word is applied separately to 
a definite language. The philologers properly insist upon 
calling all those who sp^ak the Celtic language, Celts. With 
less reason the archaeologists follow them and insist upon as 
signing the name Celt to all those who possessed the Celtic 
culture ; while the physical anthropologists, finding the Celtic 
language spoken by peoples of divers physical types, with 

* 1878 ; and especially in Bull. Soc. d Anth., 1877, p. 483. 
t 1877, P- 154- 

\ Der Mensch, 1890, ii, pp. 261-268, is conclusive. 

* See also Rudler, 1880, for a very good summary. Dissident alone is 
Lapouge, L Anthropologie, iii, p, 748. Cf. Zampa, 1892, on Italy. Hoyos 
Sainz and Aranzadi, 1894, p. 429, may be right in asserting the Celtic 
invaders of Spain to be blond. They would certainly appear so, com 
pared with the Iberians, while yet being dark alongside the Teutonic 

I Cf. Sergi, 1883 b, p. 139, and 1895 a, p. 93. 


equal propriety hold that the term Celt, if used at all, should 
be applied to that physical group or type of men which in 
cludes the greatest number of those who use the Celtic lan 
guage. This manifestly would operate to the exclusion of those 
who spoke Celtic, but who differed from the linguistic major 
ity in physical characteristics. The practical result of all this 
was, for example, that anthropologists called the tall and blond 
people of northern France and Belgium, Gauls or Kymri ; and 
the broad heads of middle and southwestern France, Celts ; 
while Caesar, as we saw, insisted that the Celt and the Gaul 
were identical. The anthropologists affirmed that the Celtic 
language had slipped off the tongues of some, and that others 
had adopted it at second hand. Their explanation held that 
the blond Belgse had come into France from the north, bring 
ing the Celtic speech, which those already there- speedily 
adopted ; but that they remained as distinct in blood as before. 
These anthropologists, therefore, insisted that the Belgae de 
served a distinctive name, and they called them Gauls, since 
they ruled in Gaul ; in distinction from the Celts, who, being 
the earlier inhabitants, constituted the majority of the Celtic- 
speaking people. This was a cross-division with the philolo 
gists, who called the Belgae Celts, because they brought the 
language ; reserving the name Gaul, as they said, for the na 
tives of that country; but both philologists and anthropolo 
gists alike differed from the historians, who held to Caesar s 
view that the Gauls and the Celts were all one. 

Still greater confusion arises if we attempt to discuss the 
origin of the people of the British Isles, where this Celtic 
question enters again. Thus the people of Ireland and Wales, 
of Cornwall and the Scottish Highlands, together with the 
Bretons in France, would all be Celtic for the linguist because 
they all spoke the Celtic language. For the anthropologist, 
as we shall see, the Breton is as far from the Welsh as in 
some respects the Welsh are from the Scotch. And after all, 
the best opinion to-day is entirely in accord with Belloguet s 
original suggestion of thirty years ago, that the Celts of the 
historians never, in fact, formed more than the ruling class 
all through central Europe. 


It is not for us to say the final word upon these moot 
points. If we have shown what confusion may result from 
the use of this term, Celt, or Kelt if you please, we are content. 
Our own view is that the linguists are best entitled to the 
name Celt: but that they should be utterly denied the use of 
the word race. Then, if we can adopt a distinctive word for 
the first stage of iron culture, such as that of Hallstatt, long 
used by the Germans and recently adopted by Bertrand and 
Reinach as applicable to the civilization most generally co 
ordinated with the Celtic language, our terminology will be 
adequate to the present state of knowledge. The word Alpine 
seems best to fit this second racial type which we have isolated. 
This name, proposed by Linnaeus, has been revived with profit 
by De Lapouge. It seems to be free from many objections to 
which others are open. Especially is it important to avoid 
misunderstandings by the use of historical names, such as 
Ligurian or Iberian.* In many respects Deniker s name of 
Nordic would be better than Teuton, which we have applied to 
our first type, for this reason. Geographical names are least 
equivocal. We shall, therefore, everywhere call the broad- 
headed type Alpine. It centres in that region. It everywhere 
follows the elevated portions of western Europe. It is, there 
fore, pre-eminently a mountain type, whether in France, Spain, 
Italy, Germany, or Albania ; it becomes less pure in propor 
tion as we go east from the Carpathians across the great 
plains of European Russia. \ By the use of it we shall care 
fully distinguish between language, culture, and physical type. 
Thus the Celtic language and the Hallstatt culture may spread 
over the Alpine race, or -rice rersa. As. in fact, each may mi 
grate in independence of the others, so in our terminology we 
may distinctly follow them apart from one another. No con 
fusion of terms can result. 

We now come to the last of our three races, which is gen 
erally known as the Mediterranean or Iberian type. It pre 
vails everywhere south of the Pyrenees, along the southern 

* Cf. page 261, infra. 

\ The significance of the term Slavic and of Celto-Slavic, applied to 
this race, is discussed in our chapter on Russia. 


I2 9 

coast of France and in southern Italy, including Sicily and 
Sardinia. Once more we return to a type of head form almost 
identical with the Teutonic. Our portraits (facing page 121) 
exemplify this clearly, in the oval face and the prominent oc 
ciput of this third type. The cephalic index drops from 87 
and above in the Alps to about 75 all along the line. This 
is the primary fact to be noted.* Coincidently, the col 
our of the hair and eyes becomes very dark, almost black. 
The figure is less amply proportioned : the people become light, 
slender, and rather agile, t As 
to the bodily height of this third 
race two varieties are to-day 
recognised: the group north of 
the Mediterranean is exceeding 
ly short, while the African Ber 
bers are of goodly size.J Au 
thorities are, however, divided 
as to the significance of this. 
It has been shown that while 
the average height of the Sar 
dinians, for example, is low, a 
considerable number, and those 
of the purest type in other re 
spects, are of goodly stature. 
( )ur seriation curve on page 108 
illustrates this persistency of a 
taller contingent very well. La- 
pouge < 1)4a) 7 especially, discov 
ers a marked tendency in south 
ern France away from this excessive shortness. It may indeed 
be that, as we have already suggested, too protracted civiliza 
tion is responsible for this diminutiveness on the northern 

Mediterranean Type, Corsica. 
Index 72.3. 

* A subdivision of this type, the Cro-Magnon, preserves the same head 
form, as we shall show, but the face becomes much broader. Collignon 
recognises these two as subvarieties of a common race. 

f Collignon, 1883, p. 63. 

^ Deniker calls them Ibero-Insular and Atlanto-Mediterranean, re 
spectively. Consult our Appendix D on his system. 



shore of the Mediterranean. At all events, despite this sub 
division, the substantial unity of the southern dolichocephalic 
group is recognised by all authorities.* 

It would be interesting at this time to follow out the in 
tellectual differences between these three races which we have 
described. The future social complexion of Europe is largely 
dependent upon them. The problem is too complicated to 
treat briefly. In a later chapter, devoted expressly to modern 
social problems, we shall return to it again. Our physical 
analysis is now complete. The next task is to trace the origin 
of nationalities from the combination of these elements. 

* Sergi, 1895 a, best proves this fact and summarizes its characteristics. 



It is difficult to give satisfactory references on the anthropology of 
France as a whole. It has seemed more expedient, owing to the richness 
of the literature, to give specific authorities for each of the distinct quar 
ters of the country, as they have been separately treated. 

SEVERAL reasons combine to make France the most inter 
esting country of Europe from the anthropological point of 
view. More is known of it in detail than of any other part 
of the continent save Italy. Its surface presents the greatest 
diversity of climate, soil, and fertility, Its population, con 
sequently, is exposed to the most varied influences of environ 
ment. It alone among the other countries of central Europe 
is neither cis- nor trans-Alpine. It is open to invasion from 
all sides alike. Lying on the extreme west coast of Europe, 
it is a place of last resort for all the westward-driven peoples 
of the Old World. All these causes combine to render its 
population the most heterogeneous to be found on the con 
tinent. It comprises all three of the great ethnic types 
described in our preceding chapter, while most countries are 
content with two. Nay, more, it still includes a goodly living 
representation of a prehistoric race which has disappeared al 
most everywhere else in Europe.* 

Thirty years ago observers began to perceive differences in 

* It would be ungracious not to acknowledge publicly my great 
indebtedness to the foremost authority upon the population of France, 
Major Dr. R. Collignon, of the Ecole Superieure de Guerre, at Paris ; and 
to Prof. G. V. de Lapouge, of the University of Rennes, in Brittany, as 
well. Invaluable assistance in the preparation of this and the following 
chapter has been rendered by each. No request, even the most exacting, 
has failed of a generous response at their hands. 



central France between the people of the mountains and of 
the plains. As early as 1868 Durand de Gros noted that in 
Aveyron, one of the southern departments lying along the 
border of a mountainous area, the populations of the region 
thereabout were strongly differentiated. On the calcareous 
plains the people were taller, of light complexion, with blue 
or grayish-blue eyes, and having fine teeth. In the upland 
areas of a granitic formation, the people were stunted, dark 
in complexion, with very poor teeth. These groups used dis 
tinct dialects. The peasants differed in temperament : one 
was as lively as the other was morose ; one was progressive, 
the other was backward in culture and suspicious of innova 
tions. This same observer noted that the cattle of the two 
regions were unlike ; on the infertile soils they were smaller 
and leaner, differing in bodily proportions as well. He natu 
rally, therefore, offered the same explanation for the differ 
ences of both men and cattle namely, that they were due to 
the influences of environment. He asserted that the geology 
of the districts had determined the quality of the food and its 
quantity at the same time, thereby affecting both animal and 
human life. When this theory was advanced, even the fact 
that such differences existed, was scouted as impossible, to say 
nothing of the explanation offered for them. As late as 1889 
\ve find Freeh, a German geologist, in ignorance of the modern 
advance of anthropology, strongly impressed by these same 
contrasts of population, and likewise ascribing them to the 
direct influence of environment as did the earlier discoverer. 
These differences, then, surely exist even to the unpractised 
eye. We must account for them ; but we do it in another 
way. The various types of population are an outcome of their 
physical environment. This has, however, worked not di 
rectly but in a roundabout way. It has set in motion a species 
of social or racial selection, now operative over most of Eu 
rope. Since it is most clearly expressed in France, an addi 
tional reason appears for according a primary place to this 
country in our analysis. 

Before we proceed to study the French people, we must 
cast an eye over the geographical features of the country. 



These are depicted in the accompanying map, in which the 
deeper tints show the location of the regions of elevation 
above the sea level. At the same time the cross-hatched lines 
mark the areas within which the physical environment is un- 
propitious, at least as far as agriculture the mainstay of 
economic life until recent times is concerned. These lines 



tlfvaXion above je&levrl 
I o - 7.00 metcri 

| l-5oo 
!H over Soo 
I Mountainous 

r| Primitive ^eologiw.! formatxin 
y^a with infertile soil 

indicate the boundary of the regions of primitive geological 
formation, those in which the granitic substrata are overlaid 
by a thin and stony soil. 

A glance is sufficient to convince us that France is not 
everywhere a garden.* Two north and south axes of fertility 
* Collijrnon, 1890 b, is suirgestive on this. 


divide it into three or four areas of isolation. These differ 
in degree in a way which illustrates the action of social forces 
with great clearness. Within these two axes of fertility lie 
two thirds of all the cities of France with a population of 
fifty thousand or over. The major one extends from Flanders 
at the north to Bordeaux in the southwest. Shaped like an 
hourglass, it is broadened about Paris and in Aquitaine, being 
pinched at the waist between Auvergne and Brittany. The 
seventy-five miles of open country which lie between Paris 
and Orleans have rightly been termed by Kohl * " the Meso 
potamia of France." This district is not only surpassingly 
fertile; it is the strategic centre of the country as well. At 
this point the elbow of the Loire comes nearest to the Seine 
in all its course. An invader possessed of this vantage ground 
would have nearly all of France that was worth having at his 
feet. If the Huns under Attila, coming from the East in 451, 
had captured Orleans, as Clovis did with his Frankish host at 
a later time, the whole southwest of France would have been 
laid open to them. The Saracens, approaching from the south 
along this main axis of fertility had they been victorious at 
Tours, could in the same way have swarmed over all the north 
and the east, and the upper Rhone Valley would have been 
within reach. The Normans in their turn, coming from the 
northwest, must needs take Orleans before they could enter 
the heart of the country. Finally, it was for the same reason 
that the English fought for the same city in 1429, and the 
Germans took it twice, in 1815 and again in 18/0. This dis 
trict, then, between Paris and Orleans, is the key to the geo 
graphical situation, because it lies at the middle point of this 
backbone of fertility from north to south. 

The second axis, lying along the river Rhone, is of some 
what less importance as a centre of population because of its 
extreme narrowness. Yet it is a highway of migration be 
tween the north and the south of Europe, skirting the Alps; 
and it is easily accessible to the people of the Seine basin by 
the low plateau of Langres near the city of Dijon. This ren- 

* 1874, p. 140 </ ,r<v/. His analysis of the geographical features of 
France is very suites live also. 


ders it the main artery of communication from Paris to the 
Mediterranean. Down its course Teutonic blood has flowed. 
The culture of the south has spread into northern Europe 
in the contrary direction.* Such is the normal exchange be 
tween the two climates in human history, the world over. 
The great fertility of the Rhone axis, moreover, is in strong 
contrast to the character of the country upon either side. 
Judged by its population, it merits the important position we 
have here assigned to it. 

The two axes of fertility above described set apart three 
areas in France which exhibit the phenomena of social isola 
tion in different degrees. East of the Rhone lies Savoy, ex 
ceedingly mountainous, with a rigorous Alpine climate, and of 
a geological formation yielding with difficulty to cultivation. 
This region combines two safeguards against ethnic invasion. 
In the first place, it is not economically attractive ; for the 
colonist is unmoved by those charms which appeal to the 
tourist to-day. We reiterate, the movement of peoples is 
dependent upon the immediate prosperity of the country for 
them. It matters not whether the invading hosts be colonists, 
coming for permanent settlement, or barbarians in search of 
booty ; the result is the same in either case. Savoy, there 
fore, has seldom attracted the foreigner. It could not offer 
him a livelihood if he came. In the second place, whenever 
threatened with invasion, defence of the country was easy. 
Permanent conquest is impossible in so mountainous a dis 
trict. Combining both of these safeguards in an extreme de 
gree, Savoy, therefore, offers some of the most remarkable 
examples of social individuality in all France. 

The second area of isolation lies between our two north 
and south axes of fertility that is to say, between the Rhone 
on the east and the ( laronne on the southwest. It centres in 
the ancient province of Auvergne, known geographically as 
the Massif Ccntralc. This comprises only a little less than 
two thirds of France south of Dijon. In reality it is an out 
post of the Alps cut off from Savoy by the narrow strip of the 

* Cf. Montelius, 1891. 


Rhone Valley. Much of it is a plateau elevated above two 
thousand feet, rising into mountains which touch three thou 
sand feet in altitude. Its climate is unpropitious ; its soil is 
sterile ; impossible for the vine, and in general even for wheat. 
Rye or barley alone can be here successfully raised. At the 
present time this region is almost entirely given over to graz 
ing. It has vast possibilities for the extractive arts ; but 
those meant nothing until the present century. For all these 
reasons Auvergne presents a second degree of isolation. It 
was until recently entirely devoid of economic attractiveness ; 
but it is not rugged enough in general to be inaccessible or 
completely defensible as is Savoy. 

Brittany or Armorica, the third area of isolation, is per 
haps somewhat less unattractive economically than Auvergne. 
It is certainly less rugged. Extending in as far as the cities 
of Angers and Alengon, it is saved from the extreme infer 
tility of its primitive rock formation by the moisture of its cli 
mate. Neither volcanic, as are many parts of Auvergne, nor 
elevated seldom rising above fourteen hundred feet it cor 
responds to our own Xew England. For the farmer, it is 
more suited to the cultivation of Puritan religious propensities 
than to products of a more material kind. It is the least ca 
pable of defence of the three areas of isolation ; but it redeems 
its reputation by its peninsular position. It is off the main 
line. It is its remoteness from the pathways of invasion by 
land which has been itS ethnic salvation. 

In order to show the effect which this varied environment, 
above described, has exerted upon the racial character of the 
French people, we have arranged a series of three parallel 
maps in the following pages, showing the exact distribution 
of the main physical traits. For purposes of comparison cer 
tain cities are located upon them all alike, including even the 
map of physical geography as well. A cross in the core of 
Auvergne in each case : the Rhine shown in the northeast ; 
the location of Paris, Lyons, 1> el fort, etc., will enable the 
reader to keep them in line at once. It should not fail of 
notice, in passing, that maps like these are constructed from 
averages for each department as a unit. These last are mere- 

25. Teutonic type. COTENTIN, Normandy. Blond. Index 79. 26. 


Alpine type, L ANDES. Brunei. Index 90. 


Index 76. MONTPELLIER. Brunet. 30. 
Mediterranean types. 




ly administrative districts, entirely arbitrary in outline, and 
entirely in dissonance with the topography of the country. 
The wonder is that, in view of this, the facts should still shine 
out so clearly. Thus all the Rhone departments lie half up 
among the mountains on the east. Their averages are there 
fore representative neither of the mountains nor the valleys. 
Between Dijon and Lyons the departments completely span 
the narrow valley, entirely obliterating its local peculiarities. 

Earlier in our work we have seen that the several physical 
traits which betoken race vary considerably in their power of 
resistance to environmental influences. This resistant power 
is greatest in the head form ; less so in the pigmentation and 
stature. As we are now studying races, let us turn to our most 
competent witness first. This is a reversal of the chronologi 
cal order in which knowledge of the anthropology of France 
has progressed. Its peculiarities in the matter of stature were 
the very first to be studied; the facts concerning that were 
proved thirty years ago. Study of the head form has been the 
latest of all to awaken- interest ; yet it has rendered definite 
testimony of paramount importance. It will be remembered, 
from our third chapter, that we measure the proportions of 
the head by expressing the breadth in percentage of the length 
from front to back. This is known as the cephalic index. 
\Ye have also seen, thereafter, that a high index that is, 
a broad head is the most permanent characteristic of the 
so-called Alpine race of central Europe. This type is bounded 
on the north by the long-headed and blond Teutons, on the 
south by a similarly long-headed Mediterranean stock, which 
is, however, markedly brunet. It is with all three of these 
racial types that we have to do in France. Passing over all 
technicalities, our map of cephalic index shows the location 
of the Alpine racial type by its darker tints ; while, in pro 
portion as the shades become lighter, the prevalence of long 
and narrow heads increases. 

The significance of these differences in head form to the 
eye is manifested by the three portraits at hand. The northern 
long-headed blond type, with its oval face and narrow chin, 
is not unlike the Mediterranean one in respect of its cranial 



conformation. Ours is, I am informed by Dr. Collignon, 
a good type of the Norman peasant, with lightish though not 
distinctly blond hair and eyes. The Alpine populations of 
central France are exemplified by rather an extreme type in 



87 an" 88 





is map after Collignon, 96 a, is slightly modified from his earlier ones published 
in go b, and also in Appendix to Bertrand and Reinach, 91. It is more authori 
tative being based upon nearly twice the original number of observations. Latei 
researches of his own in the southwest ; of Lapouge in Herault Aveyron and 
Brittany ; Brandt in Alsace-Lorraine, Hovelacque and Herve, Labit and c ers, 
confirm his results here shown. 

our middle portrait, in which the head is almost globular, while 
the face is correspondingly round. Such extremes are rare. 
They indicate the tendency, however, with great distinctness. 
The contrast between the middle type and those above and 


below it is well marked. Even with differences but half as 
great as those between our portrait types, it is no wonder that 
Durand de Gros and other observers should have insisted that 
they were real and not the product of imagination. 

Recalling the physical geography of the country, as we 
have described it, the most patent feature of our map of ce 
phalic index is a continuous belt of long-headedness, which 
extends from Flanders to Bordeaux on the southwest. It 
covers what we have termed the main axis of fertility of 
France.* A second strip of long-headed population fringes 
the fertile Mediterranean coast, with a tendency to spread up 
the Rhone Valley. In fact, these two areas of long-headed 
populations show a disposition to unite south of Lyons in a 
narrow light strip. This divides the dark-coloured areas of Al 
pine racial type into two wings. One of these centres in the 
Alpine highlands, running up to the north ; the other, in Au- 
vergne, extends away toward the Spanish frontier on the 
southwest. At the present time let us note that this intrusive 
strip of long heads cutting the Alpine belt in two, follows the 
exact course of the canal which has long united the head 
waters of the Loire with the Rhone. It is an old channel of 
communication between Marseilles and Orleans. Foreigners, 
immigrating along this highway, are the cause of the phe 
nomenon beyond question. 

The long-headed populations, therefore, seem to follow the 
open country and the river valleys. The Alpine broad-headed 
type, on the other hand, is always and everywhere aggregated 
in the areas of isolation. Its relative purity, moreover, varies 
in proportion to the degree of such isolation enjoyed, or en 
dured if you please. In Savoy and Auvergne it is quite un 
mixed ; j in Brittany only a few vestiges of it remain, as we 
shall soon see. These few remnants are strictly confined with 
in the inhospitable granitic areas, so that boundaries geograph 
ical and physical correspond very closely. The spoken Celtic 

* Atgier, 1895, finds an even lower index (So) in Indre and Vienna. 
This would still more accentuate the contrasts here shown. 

f Hovelacque, i877- 79, is good on Savoy ; Lapouge, iS97- 9S, on Au 


tongue has also lingered here in Brittany for peculiar reasons, 
which we shall soon discuss. The main one is the isolation 
of the district, which has sheltered the Alpine race in the 
same way. For it is now beyond question that the Breton. 
the Auvergnat, and the Savoyard are all descendants of the 
same stock. The facial resemblance between the Bretons and 
the Auvergnats is said to be particularly noticeable.* In near 
ly every case the Alpine race is found distributed, as Collignon 
says, " by a mechanism, so to speak, necessary, and which by 
the fatal law of the orographic condition of the soil ought 
to be as it is." In the unattractive or inaccessible areas the 
broad-headedness centres almost exclusively ; in the open, fer 
tile plains the cephalic index falls as regularly as the eleva 
tion. So closely is this law followed, that Collignon affirms 
of the central plateau, that wherever one meets an important 
river easily ascended, the cephalic index becomes lower and 
brachycephaly diminishes. 

The two-hundred-metre line of elevation above the sea 
seems most nearly to correspond to the division line between 
types. This contour on our map on page 133 is the bound 
ary between the white and first shaded areas. Compare this 
map with that of the cephalic index, following round the edge 
of the Paris basin, and note the similarity between the two. 
There is but one break in the correspondence along the east 
ern side. This exception it is which really proves the law. 
It is so typical that it vvill repay us to stop a moment and 
examine. We have to do, just south of Paris, on our map of 
cephalic index, with that long tongue of dark tint, that is of 
relative broad-headedness, which reaches away over toward 
Brittany. It nearly cuts the main axis of Teutonic racial 
traits (light-tinted) in two. This is the department of Loiret, 
whose capital is Orleans. It is divided from its Alpine base 
of supplies by the long-headed department of Yonne on the 
east. This latter district lies on the direct route from Paris 
over to Dijon and the Rhone Valley. Teutonic peoples have 
here penetrated toward the southeast, following as always 

* Topinard, 1897, p. 100. 


the path of least resistance. Why, you will ask, is Loiret 
about Orleans so much less Teutonic in type? The answer 
would doubtless appear were the country mapped in detail. 
The great forest of Orleans, a bit still being left at Fontaine- 
bleau, used to cover this little upland between the Seine and 
the Loire, east of Orleans. It was even until recently so thinly 
settled that it was known as the Gatinais, or wilderness.* Its 
insular position is for this reason not at all strange. The 
Teutons have simply passed it by on either side. Those who 
did not go up the Seine and Yonne followed the course of 
the Loire. Here, then, is a parting of the ways down either 
side of Auvergne. 

Another one of the best local examples illustrating this law 
that the Alpine stock is segregated in areas of isolation and of 
economic disfavour is offered by the Morvan.f This manz ais 
pays is a peninsula of the Auvergne plateau, a little southwest 
of the city of Dijon. It is shown on our geographical map 
(page 133). Here we find a little bit of wild and rugged coun 
try, about forty miles long and half as wide, which rises abruptly 
out of the fertile plains of Burgundy. Its mountains, which rise 
three thousand feet, are heavily forested. The soil is sterile 
and largely volcanic in character ; even the common grains 
are cultivated with difficulty. The limit of cultivation, even 
for potatoes or rye, is reached by tilling the soil one year 
in seven. This little region contains at the present time" a 
population of about thirty-five thousand less to-day than 
fifty years ago. L T ntil the middle of the century there was 
not even a passable road through it. It affords, therefore, 
an exceedingly good illustration of the result of geographical 
isolation in minute detail. Its population is as strongly con 
trasted with that of the plains round about as is its topography. 
The people, untouched by foreign influence to a considerable 

* Cf. Gallouedec, 1892, p. 384, on the neighbouring Sologne, west of 
Orleans, also. While its infertility has always been an unfavourable ele 
ment, its proximity to Orleans, focus of all military disturbances, has 
been even more decisive. 

t Hovelacque and Herve, 1894 b, give an ideal anthropological study 
of this interesting bit of country. 


extent, have intermarried, so that the blood has been kept 
quite pure. The region is socially interesting as one of the few 
places in all France where the birth rate long resisted the de 
pressing influences of civilization. For years it has been con 
verted into a veritable foundling asylum for the city of Paris. 
Its mothers, famous wet-nurses, have cared for innumerable 
waifs besides their own offspring. This isolated people is 
strongly Alpine, as our portraits show herewith, the boy on 
the right being a peculiarly good type ; the other one has a 
strain of Teutonic narrow-headedness from all appearances. 
Beyond a doubt here is another little spot in which the Alpine 
race has been able to persist by reason of isolation alone.* 

T^pes in the Morvan. 

The law which holds true for most of France, then, is that 
the Alpine race is confined to the areas of isolation and eco 
nomic unattractiveness. A patent exception to this appears 
in Burgundy the fertile plains of the Saone, lying south of 
Dijon. A strongly marked area of broad-headedness cuts 
straight across the Saone Valley at this point. A most de 
sirable country is strongly held by a broad-headed stock, al 
though it is very close to the Teutonic immigration route up 

* It should be noted that this relation does not appear upon our map 
of head form, because this represents merely the averages for whole 
departments. The Morvan happens to lie just at the meeting point of 
three of these, so that its influence upon the map is entirely scattered. 



along the Rhine. Here we have a striking example of the re 
version of a people to its early type after a complete military 
conquest. It serves as an apt illustration of the impotency of 
a conquering tribe to exterminate the original population. 
The Burgundians, as we know, belonged to a blond and tall 


1831-60 AFTER BROCA 68 A 

NOTE. Savoy, for which Broca had no data, owing to its recent annexation, appears 
to occupy about the relative place here assigned to it. We have interpolated it 
for unity in comparison, following Garret and Longuet s data. It will be ob 
served that our statistical representation is entirely different from the one originally 
employed by Broca. This present mode of grouping is the only one which 
graphically corresponds to the facts in the case. For other details and maps con 
sult Levasseur, 89, I, pp. 377-397. 

race of Teutonic lineage, who came to the country from the 
north in considerable numbers in the fifth century.* The 
Romans welcomed them in Gaul, forcing the people to grant 
them one half of their houses, two thirds of their cultivated 

* Lagneau, 1874 a, is good on this. Boudin first proved its existence a 
half century ago ; it was afterward confirmed by Broca. 


land, and a third of their slaves. For about a thousand years 
this district of Burgundy took its rule more or less from the 
Teutonic invaders : and yet to-day it has largely reverted to 
its primitive type of population. It is even more French 
than the Auvergnats themselves. The common people have 
virtually exterminated every trace of their conquerors. Even 
their great height, for which the Burgundians have long been 
celebrated, is probably more to be ascribed to the material 
prosperity of the district than to a Teutonic strain. This 
physical peculiarity of the people of this region appears clearly 
upon both our maps of stature. The peasantry are among the 
tallest in all France to-day. According to our first map, in the 
region about Dijon short men under five feet one inch and a 
half in height are less frequent than almost anywhere else 
in the country. The same tallness appears, as we shall see, 
among the western Swiss ; those who inhabit the ancient 
Burgundian territory. This latter fact would lead us to sus 
pect that race was certainly an important element in the mat 
ter. The complexity of the problem is revealed when we 
compare this Teutonic giantism of the people with their ex 
treme Alpine broad-headedness. A curiously crossed type 
has been evolved, found in Alsace-Lorraine as well. Here in 
Burgundy the present currents of migration are quite strong. 
Perhaps they may account for it in part. One factor con 
tributing to the result we observe, is that the fertile country 
of the Saone Valley is* open to constant immigration from 
Switzerland and the surrounding mountains. The Rhine has 
drawn off the Teutons in another direction, and political ha 
treds have discouraged immigration from the northeast. The 
result has been that the Alpine type has been strongly re- 
enforced from nearly every side, while Teutonic elements have 
been gradually eliminated. The tallness of stature once due 
to them may nevertheless have persisted, because of the great 
fertility of the district:* 

* By reference to Deniker s map in our Appendix D, it will appear 
that he attributes this curious cross of a tall stature with brachycephaly 
to the presence of his so-called Adriatic or Dinaric race. This we have 
discussed in describing his classification elsewhere. 


Another and perhaps even more potent explanation for 
this localization of the Alpine type in Burgundy also lies at 
hand. This fertile plain is the last rallying point of a people 
repressed both from the north and the south. The general 
rule, as Canon Taylor puts it, is that the " hills contain the 
ethnological sweepings of the plains." This holds good only 
until such time as the hills themselves become saturated with 
population, if I may mix figures of speech. Applying this 
principle to the present case, it appears as if the original Al 
pine stock in Burgundy had been encroached upon from two 
sides. The Teutons have overflowed from the north; the 
Mediterranean race has pressed up the Rhone Valley from 
the south. Before these two the broad-headed Alpine type 
has, as usual, yielded step by step, until at last it has become 
resistant, not by reason of any geographical isolation or ad 
vantage, but merely because of its density and mass. It has 
been squeezed into a compact body of broad-headedness, and 
has persisted in that form to the present time. It has rested 
here, because no further refuge existed. It is dammed up 
in just the same way that the restless American borderers 
have at last settled in force in Kansas. Being in the main 
discouraged from further westward movement, they have at 
last taken root.* In this way a primitive population may 
conceivably preserve its ethnic purity, entirely apart from geo 
graphical areas of isolation as such. 

What is the meaning of this remarkable differentiation of 
population all over France? Why should the Alpine race be so 
hard-favoured in respect of its habitat? Is it because prosper 
ity tends to make the head narrow ; or, in other words, because 
the physical environment exerts a direct influence upon the 
shape of the cranium ? Were the people of France once com 
pletely homogeneous until differentiated by outward circum 
stances? There is absolutely no proof of it. Nevertheless, 
the coincidence remains to be explained. It holds good in 
every part of Europe that we may have to examine in Swit- 

* Perhaps the peculiar concentration of Russians about Moscow de 
scribed by Zograf, 1892 a, may be a similar phenomenon of social ag 



zerland, the Tyrol, the Black Forest, and now here in great 
detail for all France. Two theories offer a possible and com 
petent explanation for it all. One is geographical, the other 

The first theory accounting for the sharp differences of 
population between the favourable and unpropitious sections 
of Europe, is that the population in the uplands, in the nooks 
and corners, represents an older race, which has been eroded 
by the modern immigration of a new people. In other words, 
the Alpine race may once have occupied the land much more 
exclusively, being the primitive possessor of the soil. From 
the north have come the Teutonic tribes, from the south the 
Mediterranean peoples, in France just as in other parts of 
Europe. The phenomenon, according to this theory, is mere 
ly one of ethnic stratification. 

A second explanation, much more comprehensive in its 
scope and pregnant with consequences for the future, is, as 
we have said, sociological. The phenomenon may be the out 
come of a process of social selection, which rests upon racial 
or physical differences of temperament. This theory is ad 
vanced by the so-called school of social anthropologists, whose 
theories we shall have to consider in our later chapter on 
Social Problems. Briefly stated, the explanation is this : In 
some undefined way the long-headed type of head form is 
generally associated with an energetic, adventurous tempera 
ment, which impels fhe individual to migrate in search of 
greater economic opportunities. The men thus physically 
endowed are more apt to go forth to the great cities, to the 
places where advancement in the scale of living is possible. 
The result is a constant social selection, which draws this 
type upward and onward, the broad-headed one being left in 
greater purity thereby in the isolated regions. Those who ad 
vocate this view do not make it necessarily a matter of racial 
selection alone. It is more fundamental for them. It con 
cerns all races and all types within races. This is too com 
prehensive a topic to be discussed in this place. Personally, 
I think that it may be, and indeed is, due to a great process of 
racial rather than purely social selection. I do not think it yet 


proved to be other than this. The Alpine stock is more primi 
tive, deeper seated in the land ; the Teutonic race has come 
in afterward, overflowing toward the south, where litV offers 
greater attractions for invasion. In so doing it has repelled 
or exterminated the Alpine type, either by forcible conquest or 
by intermixture, which racially leads to the same goal. 





Before we proceed further let us examine the other phys 
ical traits a moment. Our map of the distribution of brunet- 
ness shows these several Alpine areas of isolation far less dis 
tinctly than that of the cephalic index.* It points to the 

* Topinard (1886 b, 1887, 1889 a, 1889 b, and 1893 a) is the authority 
on this. Many maps showing the exact proportions of each trait, together 
with their combinations in each department, are given. Pommerol, 1887 ; 


disturbing influence of climate or of other environment. If 
the law conducing to blondness in mountainous areas of in 
fertility were to hold true here as it appears to do elsewhere, 
this factor alone would obscure relations. Many of the popu 
lations of the Alpine areas should, on racial grounds, be 
darker than the Teutonic ones ; yet, being economically dis 
favoured, on the other hand, they tend toward blondness. 
The two influences of race and environment are here in oppo 
sition ; to the manifest blurring of all sharp racial lines and 
divisions. Despite this disturbing influence, the Auvergnat 
area appears as a great wedge of pigmentation penetrating 
the centre of France on the south. This is somewhat broken 
up on the northern edge, because of the recent immigration 
of a considerable mining population into this district which 
has come from other parts of the country. The Rhone Val 
ley appears as a route of migration of blondness toward the 
south. Little more than these general features can be gath 
ered from the map of colour, except that the progressive bru- 
netness as we advance toward the south is everywhere in evi 
dence. Were we to examine the several parts of France in 
detail we should find competent explanations for many fea 
tures which appear as anomalous as, for example, the ex 
treme blondness upon the southwest coast of Brittany. 

Comparing our map of stature on the next page with our 
earlier one on page 143, it will appear that the facts in the case 
are beyond controverty. Two authorities, working at an in 
terval of twenty years apart and by entirely different statis 
tical methods, arrive at identical conclusions. The relatively 
tall stature all through the historically Tetitonized portion of 
the country needs no further explanation ; it is indubitably a 
matter of race. The tallness of the population of the Rhone 
Valley is probably due to a double cause.* The Teutons fol 
lowed it as a path of invasion, while relative fertility still fur- 

Hordicr, 1895 ; and other local observers referred to in our other footnotes- 
give more details concerning special localities. 

* Cf. Hovelacque, 1896 a, on the recent augmentation of stature in 
Provence. Lapouge, 18943, ascribes the relative tallness of Herault to 
ethnic immigration down the Rhone. 



ther accentuated its contrast with the mountainous districts 
on either side, as in the Garonne Valley as well. Our three 
areas of isolation appear upon both our maps. Savoyards, 
Bretons, and particularly Auvergnats are relatively much 
shorter than the populations round about them. In this case 
the process is again cumulative; for the infertile regions pro- 



All Conscripts 1858-67- After 

J. Bertillon 

5ize of Grde5 indicates 
Relative Frequency of 

TALL 0.679- 1.705 M} 


(I.6Z5-I.651 M) 

ductive of decreased bodily height at the same time tend to dis 
courage immigration for the Teutonic race, which always car 
ries a tall stature wherever it goes. The main axis of fertility 
from Paris to Bordeaux, which was so clear upon our map of 
cephalic index, does not appear for two reasons. The area 
about Limoges and Perigueux, with the shortest population of 
all, is the seat of a prehistoric people which we shall describe 



shortly ; and north of it toward Orleans, local causes such as 
the Sologne and the infertility of the Limousin hills, which we 
examined in detail in our chapter on Stature, are in evidence. 
Perhaps the fertility of Charente and Bordelais, contrariwise, 
is responsible for the light shade that is to say, the tall stat 
ure which we observe just north of the Garonne mouth on 
our map.* As a whole, while less useful for detailed analysis, 
owing to such disturbance by local causes, our stature maps 
yet afford proof of the influence of racial causes to a marked 

Brittany and Normandy are two of the most interesting re 
gions in Europe to the traveller and the artist. The pleasing 
landscapes and the quaint customs all serve to awaken inter 
est. To the anthropologist as well the whole district pos 
sesses a marked individuality of its own. Within it lie the two 
racial extremes of the French people the old and the new 
closely in contact with one another. Attention was first at 
tracted to the region because of the persistence of the Celtic 
spoken language, now vanished everywhere else on the main 
land of Europe quite extinct, save as it clings for dear life 
to the outskirts of the British Isles. Here again, we find an 
ethnic struggle in process, which has been going on for cen 
turies, unsuspected by the statesmen who were building a 
nation upon these shifting sands of race. This struggle de 
pends, as elsewhere i France, upon the topography of the 
country. The case is so peculiar, however, that it will repay 
us to consider it a little more in detail, f 

The anthropological fate of Brittany, this last of our three 
main areas of isolation, depends largely upon its peninsular 
form. Its frontage of seacoast and its many harbours have 
rendered it peculiarly liable to invasion from the sea ; while 
at the same time it has been protected on the east by its re- 

* Collignon, 1896 b, p. 166. 

f On Brittany and Normandy an abundant literature exists : given in 
our complete Bibliography, under those index-subjects most important, 
are those of Broca, 1868 a ; Lagneau, 1875 b ; Chassagne, 1881 ; Collignon, 
1890 a and 1894 a; Lapouge, 1895 a and 1896 b ; and Topinard, 1897. 


moteness from the economic and political centres and high 
ways of France. This coincidence and not a greater purity 
of blood has preserved its Celtic speech. Since the foreigners 
have necessarily touched at separate points along its coast, 
concerted attack upon the language has been rendered impos 
sible. This fact of invasion from the sea has not divided its 
people into the men of the mountain, distinct from those of 
the plain a differentiation of population, by the way, as old as 
the reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes. The contrast has arisen 
between the seacoast and the interior. This differentiation is 





NOTE. This map is compounded from Collignon s sketches in his 90 a and 94 a. 



heightened by the relative infertility of the interior uplands, 
compared with the " ccinturc dorcc " along parts of the coast.* 
The people of the inland villages contain a goodly proportion 
of the Alpine stock; although, as our maps show, it is more 
attenuated than in either Savoy or Auvergne. To the eye 
this Alpine lineage in the pure Breton appears in a roundness 
of the face, a concave nose in profile, and broad nostrils. 
Along the coast intermixture has narrowed the heads, light 
ened the complexion, and, perhaps more than all, increased 

* Gallouedec, 1893- 94. 


the stature.* Our portraits illustrate this contrast, if we take 
the Norman types as characteristic of the coast population. 
Our Normans show plainly the elongated face and the high 
and thin nose so peculiar to them. The varying degrees of 
ethnic intermixture and their distribution will be seen from 
an examination of our maps. Concerning those of stature at 
pages 86 and 100 we have already spoken in detail. The dark 
shading in both cases indicates the primitive population; the 
lighter ones betray intermixture. 

In view of the nature of these physical changes induced 
by ethnic crossing along the seacoast, we must look to the 
Teutonic race for the lineage of the invaders. They must, 
on the whole, have been light and long-headed. History, in 
this case, comes to our aid. The Saxon pirates skirted the 
whole coast around to the mouth of the Loire. In fact, they 
were so much in evidence that part of it was known to the 
old geographers as the litns Sa.ronicnm. The largest colony 
which has left permanent traces of its invasion in the character 
of the present population although Caesar assured us that he 
exterminated it utterly is located in Morbihan. This depart 
ment on the south coast of the peninsula, as our map of rela 
tive brunetness on page 147 showed, is one of the blondest in 
all France. Its capital, Yannes, derives its name from the 
Venetes, whose confederation occupied this area. Both Strabo 
and Diodorus of Sicily asserted that these people belonged 
to the Belgse (Teutonic* stock), although modern historians 
of Gaul seem inclined to deny it. Our anthropological evi 
dence is all upon the side of the ancient geographers, f It 
should be observed, however, that there are certain indications 
in the Breton peasantry of a blond cross at a very early pre 
historic period. Nowhere is the Alpine race found in such 
purity as in our other areas of isolation. The persistence of 
the " frank blue Breton eye " is in itself a heritage from this 
primitive blond ethnic element, dating perhaps, as Broca as 
serts, from many centuries before the Christian era. 

* Topinard, 1897, gives very good descriptions of these types, 
f Lagneau, 18755, p. 627; Collignon, 1890 b, p. 221; and Beddoe, 
1893, p. 31. 



From a different source, although due indirectly to these 
same Teutonic barbarians, are derived the physical character 
istics of the people in the north of Brittany near Dinan, in 
the valley of the Ranee. Its location appears upon both of our 
maps of Brittany (pages 100 and 151). This little district is very 
distinct from the surrounding country. The landscape also is 
peculiar in many respects. The cottages are like the English, 
with hedgerows between the several plots of ground. All these 
outward features corroborate the anthropological testimony 
that this was a main settlement of the people who came over 
from Cornwall in the fifth century, ousted by the Anglo-Saxons. 
They, in fact, gave the name Brittany to the whole district. 
They spoke the Celtic language in all probability, but were 
absolutely distinct in race. They seem to have been largely 
Teutonic. The Saxons soon followed up the path they laid 
open, so that the characteristics of the present population are 
probably combined of all three elements. At all events, to 
day the people are taller, lighter, narrower-nosed, and longer- 
headed than their neighbours.* A similar spot of narrow- 
headedness appears upon our map at Lannion. The people 
here are, however, of dark complexion, short in stature, char 
acterized by broad and rather flat noses. Here is probably 
an example of a still greater persistence in ethnic traits than 
about Dinan ; for the facts indicate that here at Lannion, ante 
dating even the Alpine race, is a bit of the prehistoric popula 
tion which we shall shortly seek to identify and locate. 

Normandy is to-day one of the blondest parts of France. 
It is distinctly Teutonic in the head form of its people. In 
fact, the contrast between Xormandy and Brittany is one of 
the sharpest to be found in all France. The map of cephalic 
index on page 151 shows the regularly increasing long-headed- 
ness as we approach the mouth of the Seine. In the Norman 
departments from thirty to thirty-five per cent of the hair 
colour is dark; in the adjoining department of C6tes-du-Nord 
in Brittany, the proportion of dark hair rises from forty to 

* Collignon, 1892 b, p. 45 ; Taylor, 1863, p. 89. Meitzen, 1895, Atlas, 
Anlage 66 b, shows the Teutonic forms of settlement in this part of 


sixty and in some cases even to seventy-five per cent.* In 
stature the contrast is not quite as sharp, although the people 
of the seacoast appear to be distinctly taller than those far in 
land. The ordinary observer will be able to detect differences 
in the facial features. Our page of portraits, as we have said, 
illustrates this clearly. The Norman nose is high and thin ; 
the nose of the Breton is broader, opening at the nostrils. 
This difference is no less marked than the contrast in the 
contour of the face and the general proportions of the 

Normandy, on the whole, is an example of a complete eth 
nic conquest. At the same time while a new population has 
come, the French language has remained unaffected, with the 
exception of a spot near the city of Bayeux, where the Saxons 
and Normans together combined to introduce a bit of the 
Teutonic tongue. This conquest of Normandy has taken 
place within historic times. It is probably part and parcel 
of the same movement which Teutonized the British Isles ; 
for it appears that the Normans were the only Teutonic in 
vaders who can historically be traced to this region. Wher 
ever they left the country untouched, the population ap 
proaches the Alpine type, being darker, broader-headed, and 
shorter in stature. This indicates that the tribes, such as the 
Caletes (the city of Caux), the Lexovii (Lisieux), and the 
Baiocasses (Bayeux) in Csesar s time were probably of this 
latter type ; in other wflrds, that the district was Alpine in 
population until the Normans came with Rollo in the tenth 
century. Freeman f takes note of the marked tallness of the 
modern population of Bayeux, ascribing it to the intensity of 
the Norman occupation. The Romans appear to have allowed 
the Saxons to settle at places along the seacoast, but they 
had never penetrated deeply into the interior. The " Otlinga 
Saxonica," the dotted area upon our map of place names, for 
example, dates from the third century. 

The correspondence between the map of Norman place 
names and that of cephalic index is sufficiently close to attest 

* Collignon, 1894 a, p. 20. See also Lagneau, 1865 ; and Beddoe, 1882 b. 
f Norman Conquest, i, p. 119. 



to the value of each.* One of the common features of the 
Teutonic village names is " ville," from " weiler," meaning an 
abode ; not, as has been asserted, from " villa," of Romance 
origin. This suffix appears, for example, in HacomnV/e, or 
in a corrupted form in Hardivilliers. Another common end 
ing of place names is bocnf, as in Marboeuf. Collignon has 
traced a considerable number of such place names of Nor- 
man origin, all of which point to the Cotentin that distinct 
peninsula which juts out into the English Channel as a cen 
tre of Norman dispersion. Certain it is that Cherbourg at 





its extremity shows the Norman element at its maximum 
purity. Our Norman portraits are taken from this region as 
being most typical. Probably this was a favourite base of 
supplies, protected by its isolation and in close proximity to 
the island of Jersey, which the Normans also held. The 
Saxon colony near Caen was a factor also which determined 
this location. The extension of the Normans to the west 

* Canon Taylor, 1863, is best on this ; his map we have reproduced by 
permission of the publishers. Collignon, 18943, p. 14, gives corrobora 
tive testimony. 


seems to have been stopped by the human dike set up by the 
English and Saxons about Dinan, and by " Norman Switzer 
land," the hilly region just east of it. Follow the similarity 
between the boundary of long and narrow heads on our map 
of cephalic index of Brittany, and the cross-hatched lines and 
tints on the map of physical geography (pages 133 and 151). 
Note how they both cut across diagonally from northwest 
to southeast, parallel to the course of the Seine. Here the 
economic attraction in favour of the invasion of Brittany 
ceased, and at the same time the displaced natives found a 
defensible position. Prevented from extension in this direc 
tion, the Normans henceforth turned toward the Seine, where, 
in fact, their influence is most apparent at the present time. 
They also pushed to the south into Berri, occupying the pres 
ent departments of Cher and Indre in force.* Probably the 
wedge of relative blondness, appearing upon our map on page 
147, which seems to penetrate nearly to Orleans, may be due to 
this later Norman immigration. Paris and Orleans, the Mecca 
of all invaders, toled them away, and Brittany was saved. 

The northeastern third of France and half of Belgium are 
to-day more Teutonic than the south of Germany. This is 
clearly attested by the maps which show the distribution of 
each of the physical characteristics of race, especially, as we 
have seen, that of stature. It should not occasion surprise 
when we remember the mcessant downpour of Teutonic tribes 
during the whole historic period. It was a constant proces 
sion of Goths from all points of the compass of Franks, 
Burgundians, and others. France was entirely overrun by 
the Franks, with the exception of Brittany, by the middle of 
the sixth century. All through the middle ages this part of 
Europe was not only ethnically Teutonic : it was German Jn^ 
language and customs as well. The very name of the country 
is Teutonic. It has the same origin as Franconia in southern 
Germany. In 813 the Council of Tours, away down south, 
ordained that every bishop should preach both in the Romance 

* Hovelacque and Herve, 1893. Collignon suggests that the low 
index in Cher is also due to Norman influence. 



DEUX-SEVRES. Index 87. Index 


35. Cephalic Index 67. MONTPELLIER. 





and the Teutonic languages.* The Franks preserved their 
German speech four hundred years after the conquest ; even 
to-day after the cession of Alsace-Lorraine, a last vestige of 
Teutonic language, the Flemish, still persists on French ter 
ritory along the Belgian frontier. Charlemagne was a Ger 
man ; his courtiers were all Germans ; he lived and governed 
from outside the limits of modern France. The Abbe Sieyes 
uttered an ethnological truism when, in the course of the 
French Revolution, he cried out against the French aristoc 
racy : " Let us send them back to their German marshes 
whence they came ! " Even to-day the current of migration 
between France and Germany sets strongly to the south, as 
it has ever done, in virtue of economic laws deeper than na 
tional prejudice or hostile legislation.! 

Why is Belgium entitled to a separate national existence 
among the states of modern Europe? Ireland and even 
Wales have tenfold stronger claims to political independence 
on the score both of race and religion. One half of this little 
state is topographically like Holland ; the other is not to be 
distinguished in climate, geography, or soil from Alsace-Lor 
raine that shuttlecock among nations. Belgium is father to 
no national speech. The Flemings can not hold common 
converse with their fellow-countrymen, the Walloons ; for the 
first speak a corrupted Dutch, the second an archaic French 
language. Nor are the people more highly individualized in 
the anthropological sense. In fact, in a study of races Bel 
gium is not to be considered apart from either northern France 
or southwestern Germany. It is closely allied to both. Of 
course, even despite the lack of all these elements of national- 

" Et ut easdem homilias quisque aperte transferre studeat in rusti- 
cam Romanam linguam aut Theotiscam (German) . . . quo facilius cuncti 
possint intelligere quaie dicuntur." Hardouin, p. 1026, article xvii. Cf. 
Revue Mens. de 1 Ecole d Anth., x, 1898, pp. 301-322. 

t Kitchen, History of France, i, pp. 118 et seq. Taylor, Words and 
Places, 1893, p. 94, gives place names by map. See also Lagneau, 1874 b. 
Levasseur, 1889, i, p. 393, as also Andree, 1879 b, give convenient map of 
languages and dialects. Meitzen, 1895, i, pp. 516 and 532, with map in 
Atlas 66 a, traces this German intrusion by the village types. Turquan 
and Levasseur show the course of immigration. 


ity, there is still a reason for the separate political existence 
of the Belgians. There must have been, for the sense of na 
tionality is very intense among them. There is no sign of its 
abatement at the present time. It has made them a dominant 
power in Africa and elsewhere abroad. Their nationality is 
a geographical as well as an historical product. We shall 
deal with that presently. In the meantime we must consider 
the Belgians together with the whole population of northern 
France. It is befitting to do so ; for Caesar informs us that 
the Belgae in his time controlled the whole region.* Roman 
Gaul, properly speaking, extended only as far north as the 
Seine and the Marne. In Caesar s time the frontier of Bel 
gium the land of the Belgae lay near Paris. Has its reces 
sion to the north produced any appreciable change upon 
the people? Certainly not in any physical sense, as we shall 
attempt to point out. 

The movement of population racially has been strongly 
influenced by the geography of the country. Were it not for 
the peculiar conformation of this part of Europe, there would 
be no geographical excuse for the existence of Belgium as 
a separate political entity, as \ve have said ; and northern 
France would be far more thoroughly Teutonized than it is 
to-day. In order to make this clear, we must recall the to 
pography of the district for a moment, f From the Alps in 
western Switzerland a spur of mountainous country of very 
indifferent fertility, kncAvn as the Ardennes plateau, extends 
far out to the northwest, its axis lying along the Franco-Ger 
man frontier, as indicated upon our map at page 133. This 
area is triangular in shape with its apex touching Switzer 
land, the Rhine forming its eastern edge, and its base lying 
east and west across Belgium a little north of Brussels. This 
base is the geographical boundary between Flanders and the 
rugged uplands. Near the southern point, this Ardennes 

* The Celtic question, involving the ethnic affinities of the Belgae, is 
discussed in Chapter VI. Henri Martin, Arbois de Jubainville, and Des- 
jardins assert the Gauls to be Celts ; while Thierry, Bertillon, and Lagneau 
as strenuously deny it. 

f Auerbach, 1890. 


plateau rises into the Vosges Mountains. The major part of 
it consists of an elevated table-land, of little use in agriculture. 
Its uplands are heavily forested ; its valleys are deep and very 
narrow. This plateau is divided from the main body of the 
Alps by a low pass about twenty-five miles wide, known as 
the Gap of Belfort. This has always formed the main path 
way of communication between the valleys of the Seine, the 
Rhone, and the Rhine, from the time of Attila to that of the 
Emperor William I. It is the strategic key to central Eu 
rope. The only other routes from France to Germany cut 
straight across the rugged and difficult Ardennes plateau, 
following the valleys either of the Meuse or the Moselle. 
These valleys are both extremely fertile, but narrow and easy 
of defence. Sedan commands the one and Metz the other. 
This depression at Belfort has played quite a unique part in 
the natural history of Europe as well as in its military cam 
paigns. It is the only route by which southern flora and 
fauna could penetrate to the north, since they could not trav 
erse the Alpine highlands. The parallel is continued by the 
constant counter-migration of southern culture over the same 
way, evinced in archaeology and history. It is not surprising 
that in anthropology this Gap of Belfort should be equally 

The Ardennes plateau is the core of a considerable popu 
lation, which is primarily of the Alpine racial type.f It is an 
anthropological table-land of broad-headedness, surrounded 
on every side except the south, where it touches the Alps, by 
more dolichocephalic populations. Turn for a moment to 
our map on page 231. Notice the core of brachycephalic 
population in the Yosges and stretching out in two wings, 
either side of Metz on the Moselle. Gradually over in Bel 
gium on the northwest this disappears at the edge of the 
plateau among the Flemings, as we shall see in a moment. 
.Observe how it is eroded on the east along the Rhine Valley; 
and toward Paris, beginning in Marne and Haute-Marne, 

* Kohl, 1841, p. 140 ; Marshall, 1889, p. 256 ; and Montelius, 1891. 
f Consult Collignon, 1881, 1883, 1886 b, 1890 b, and 1896 a ; also Hove- 
lacque, 1896 b. For further references, see chapter on Germany. 



toward the fertile plains of the Isle of France.* The Ger 
manic tribes in their ceaseless wanderings are the cause of that 
phenomenon beyond question. It is evident that for Teuton- 
ism to enter France, it must pass through the Gap of Belfort, 
around north through Flanders, or follow the valleys of the 
Meuse or the Moselle. All three of these it has certainly done 
in the anthropological sense. It has overflowed along each 
of these channels, traversing the Alpine racial barrier. It has 
done even more. Its influence is manifest even in the nooks 
and byways. For the people of the whole region are well 


HUB 100 - 300 

200 - 



above the average French in stature. They are quite Teu 
tonic in this respect. This we shall again emphasize in speak 
ing of Germany later. But the invaders have not been able 

* This is shown in detail in the excellent study of the department of 
Ardennes by Labit, 1898, whose maps show both the increasing brachy- 
cephaly and the variations of stature along the edge of the plateau. 



to efface that most persistent trait of the primitive population 
the broad, round head. Here, as in the Black Forest just 
across the Rhine, this physical characteristic remains as a 
witness of priority of title to the land. 

In Belgium itself, lying on the northwestern edge of the 
Ardennes plateau, the contrast between the upland and the 

Figures indicate the Average 
5ta.ture in cms. after Houze 87 
35.40O observations 



After VdnderKtndere 79 
6o6.698 Observations. 

plain is so distinct, and it coincides so closely with the racial 
boundary between the Flemings and the Walloons, that it 
merits special attention.* Language here follows closely in 
the footsteps of race. As our three maps of the country show 
in detail, the Walloons in the uplands are broader-headed than 
the Flemings. They are distinctly shorter in stature. Our 
map shows how much more infrequent blond types are among 

* Authorities upon Belgium are Houze, 1882, Ethnogenie de la Bel- 
gique ; also his work of 1887 and 1888 ; Vanderkindere, 1879, Enquete 
anthropologique sur la couleur en Belgique. Linguistic boundaries in 
Belgium are mapped by Vandenhoven, 1844; Bockh, 1854; and Bramer, 

1 62 


them than among the Flemings. It is curious to notice this 
Teutonism of Flanders and the Low Countries. It denotes 
the utter extermination of all traces of the Spaniards, despite 
their whilom political activities. Belgium is sharply divided, 
therefore, into halves, following the topographical boundary 
of the plateau exactly, except in the department of Hainaut, 
where Walloons are found in the plains. The two halves of 
Belgium thus indicated differ in politics, language, and in 
many social customs. One, Flanders, is cultivated largely by 


80 1 
81 j 



739 Observation:) AfOr Houje 82. 


Correction for Crdm&I. Indites = 2, units. 

tenant farmers, the other tilled by peasant proprietors. So 
clearly drawn is the line of division that many interesting socio 
logical problems may best be investigated here. These, for 
the moment, we pass by. For us, at this time, the significance 
of the division is, to put it in Dr. Beddoe s words (>72) , that 
" the Walloons and their hilly, wooded country are a Belgic 
cliff against which the tide of advancing Germanism has 
beaten with small effect, while it has swept with comparatively 
little resistance over the lowlands of Flanders and Alsace, and 


penetrated into Normandy and Lorraine." Had it not been 
for this geographical area of isolation, political boundaries 
would have been very different from those of to-day. Belgium 
is a piece-of-pie shaped stop-gap between France and Germany. 
Being internationally neutralized in the military sense, it pro 
tects the main line of communication over the plains of Flan 
ders between its two powerful neighbours. This is, in the eyes 
of the natural scientist, its main excuse for separate existence as 
a political entity. The Franco-German hatred is nothing but a 
family quarrel, after all, from our point of view. It is a reality, 
nevertheless, for historians. The only country whose popula 
tion is really homogeneous is the tiny duchy of Luxemburg 
in the very centre of the plateau, scarcely more than a dot on 
the map. It deserves its independence for a like reason with 
Belgium. Were Alsace-Lorraine also a neutralized and sepa 
rate kingdom, the prices of European government bonds 
would be considerably higher than they are to-day. 

Let us now return to France again. We have still to cover 
the most interesting part of all in many ways. Csesar s third 
division of Gaul from the Loire River southwest to the Pyre 
nees was inhabited, as he tells us, by the^Acmitani. Strabo 
adds that these people were akin to the TTSerTans of Spain, both 
in customs and race. Detailed study, however, reveals a popu 
lation far less homogeneous than these statements of the an 
cients imply.* 

A glance at our map of the physical geography of France, 
on page 133, shows that this southwestern section is centred 
in the broad, fertile valley of the Garonne. From Bordeaux 
in every direction spreads one of the most productive regions 
in France, favoured alike in soil and in climate. Ascending 
the river valley, it narrows gradually until we reach a low 
pass, leading over toward the Mediterranean. This little axis 
of fertility, along which will run the projected canal to unite 
the two seacoasts of France, divides the plateaus of Auvergne 
from the highlands which lie along the Pyrenees. In this 

* Authorities on this part of France are Lagneau, 1872 ; Castaing 
1884; and especially Collignon, 18945, 1895, and 1896 a. 


latter region fertility decreases as we approach the Spanish 
frontier in proportion to the increase in altitude, although 
most of the region is fairly capable of supporting a consider 
able population. The only extensive area which is extreme 
ly unfavourable in character is the seacoast department of 
Landes, along the Bay of Biscay south of Bordeaux. This re 
gion is a vast sandy plain, but little raised above the sea level. 
It is a flat district underlaid by an impermeable clay subsoil, 
which is, except in midsummer, a great fen covered with rank 
marsh grasses. Without artificial drainage, it is unfit for cul 
tivation, so that it remains to-day one of the most sparsely 
populated sections of the country.* As a whole, then, the 
southwest of France presents the extremes of economic at 
tractiveness, at the same time being devoid of those geograph 
ical barriers which elsewhere have strongly influenced the 
movements of races. 

The first impression conveyed by the general map of the 
cephalic index for all France on page 138 in respect of this 
particular region above described, is that here at last all cor 
respondence between the nature of the country and the char 
acter of the population ceases. A wedge of the broad-headed 
Alpine stock centreing in the uplands of Auvergne pushes its 
way toward the southwest to the base of the Pyrenees. This 
Alpine offshoot extends uninterruptedly from the sterile pla 
teau of Auvergne, straight across the fertile plains of the Ga 
ronne and deep into the swamps and fens of Landes. While 
the geographical trend of the country is from southeast to 
northwest parallel to the Garonne, the population seems to be 
striped at right angles to it namely, in the direction of the 
Paris-Bordeaux axis of fertility. At the northwest appears 
the lower edge of the broad-headedness of the area of Brit 
tany ; then succeeds a belt of long heads from Paris to Bor 
deaux, to the south of which comes the main feature a cen 
tral strip of the Alpine type pushing its way to the extreme 
southwest, as we have said. The middle portrait at page 137 
is a good example of the last-named round-headed type, which 

* Chopinet, 1897, well describes this region and its people. 


forms the bulk of the population. We are confronted by a 
racial distribution which appears to be utterly at variance with 
all the laws which elsewhere in France determine the ethnic 
character of its population. 

One point is certain : either conditions have changed won 
derfully since Strabo s time, or else the old geographer was 
far from being a discriminating anthropologist, when he de 
scribed the people of Aquitaine as uniformly Iberians, both 
in race and in customs. A large element among them is as 
far removed from the Spaniards in race as it is possible in 
Europe to be. There is, as our map shows, a strip all along 
the Mediterranean which is Iberically narrow-headed and oval- 
faced, of a type illustrated in our portraits. Especially is this 
true in the department of Pyrenees- Orientales, shown on our 
map by the banded white area. This is the only part of 
Erance where the Catalan language is spoken to-day, as we 
took occasion to point out in our second chapter. This popu 
lation in Roussillon, while truly Iberian in race, is Provencal 
in language ; all the other peoples of Aquitaine differ from the 
Spaniards in both respects. 

As regards the physical characteristics other than the head 
form, the population of Aquitaine is quite uniformly dark. 
On the whole, the brunet type outnumbers the blonds. About 
one seventh of the hair and eyes is light, whereas in Nor 
mandy blondness is represented by about one third of the 
traits.* In stature the general average is very low, well to 
ward the shortest in Europe. 

Turn back for a moment to the map of head form on page 
138, and notice the curious light-tinted area in the heart of 
this southwestern region. It seems to be confined to four de 
partments, lying between Limoges on the northeast and Bor 
deaux at the southwest. This peculiar little island of long- 
headedness has for years been a puzzle to anthropologists. It 
is a veritable outcrop of dolichocephaly close to the great body 
of broad-headedness which centres in Auvergnc. f It lies, to 

* Collignon, 1894 b, p. 20. Cf. map p. 147 supra. 

f Atgier, 1895, finds a lower index than Collignon in Indre and Vienna, 
as we have said. The transition thence to the brachycephaly of Brittany 
on the north is quite sudden. 


be sure, at the southwestern extremity of that axis of fertility 
from Paris to Bordeaux which we have already described. 
In conformity with the law of differentiation of populations 
which holds all through the north, a long-headed people is 
found in the plains. The trouble here is that the people 
are altogether too extreme in type. The general law is out- 
proved by it. The remoteness of this spot from any other 
great centre of long-headedness constitutes the main point 
of interest. Such a trait ought to have been derived either 
from the north or the south of Europe. Teutonic inter 
mixture is not a competent explanation for two reasons. In 
the first place, the heads are often more Teutonic in form 
than those of the peoples of direct Germanic descent along the 
Belgian frontier ; nay more, in some cantons the people outdo 
the purest Scandinavians in this respect. This region is also 
separated from all Teutonic centres across country by several 
hundred miles of broader-headed peoples. That disposes of 
the theory of colonization from the north across France. 
Could the Teutons have come around by sea, then, follow 
ing the litns Sa.roiiicinn already described? Obviously not 
so ; for, as we shall see, the deepest pit of long-headedness 
lies far inland, about the city of Perigueux. If this be due to 
immigrants, they certainly could not have come in ships. Is 
it possible, then, that the people of these departments could 
have come from the south, an offshoot of the Mediterranean 
type? If so, they must* have come over the Pyrenees or else 
across the low pass down the course of the Garonne. In 
either case a dike of brachycephaly must have been heaped 
up behind them, cutting off all connection with any Spanish 
base of racial supplies. And then, after all, we do not place 
too much reliance in any case upon theories of such whole 
sale bodily migration that populous departments among the 
largest in France are completely settled in a moment. Hu 
man beings in masses do not, as my friend Major Livermore 
has put it, play leap-frog across the map in that way, save 
under great provocation or temptation. We look for slow- 
moving causes, not cataclysms, just as the geologists have 
long: since learned to do. 



The reality of this peculiar island of long-headedness is 
best shown by the map on the next page, in which the same re 
gion is charted in great detail. The head form is here given 
by cantons, small administrative divisions intermediate be 
tween the department and the commune or township. The 
location of the capital cities of Limoges and Perigueux, on 
both maps, will enable the reader to orient himself at once. 
The " key " shows the boundaries of the departments. It is 
clear that a series of concentric circles of increasing long- 
headedness that is, of light tints upon the map point to a 
specific area where an extreme human type is prevalent. 

History offers no clew to the situation. The country in 
question, in Csesar s time, was occupied by a number of tribes 
of whose racial affinity we know nothing. On the west dwelt 
the Santones by the present city of Saintes (ancient Saintonge). 
The city of Perigueux, which gave its name to the ancient 
province of Perigord, marks the territory of the Petrocorii of 
Roman times. The province of Limousin to the northeast 
of it was the home of the Lemovici, with their capital at the 
modern city of Limoges. Around the ancient city at Bor 
deaux lay the Bituriges and their allies the Medulli (Medoc).* 
Along the east lay the Arverni, whence the name Auvergne; 
together with a number of minor tribes, such as the Cadurci, 
giving name to the district of Quercy to-day. Unless the 
population has shifted extensively, contrary to all ethnological 
experience, the people whose physical origin is so puzzling 
to us included the tribes of the Lemovici and especially the 
Petrocorii. For these two covered the main body of narrow- 
headedness shown upon our map, extending over two thirds 
of the department of Dordogne, and up into Haute-Vienne 
and Charente beyond the city of Angouleme. It appears as 
if we had to do with two tribes whose racial origin was pro 
foundly different from that of all their neighbours. The fron 
tier on the southeast, between the Petrocorii and the Arverni, 
seems to-day to have been the sharpest of all. In places there 
is a sudden drop of over five units in cephalic index at the 

* Collignon, 1894 b, p. 69 ; 1895, pp. 74 and 85. 



boundary lines. This means a change of type almost as great 
as that indicated between our several portrait types at page 
156. This is especially marked at the frontiers of the two 
modern departments of Correze and Dordogne, as our " key " 
map shows. This racial boundary finds no parallel in distinct 
ness elsewhere in France, save between the Bretons and Xor- 
mans. In this present case, the people are distinct because 
the modern boundaries coincide exactly with the ancient eccle 
siastical and political ones. For centuries the Arverni in Cor 
reze have turned their backs upon the Petrocorii in Perigord 
on fete days, market days, at the paying of taxes, or examina 
tion of conscripts. This they did as serfs in the middle ages, 



and they do it to-day as freemen when they go to the polls to 
vote. Each has looked to its capital city for all social inspi 
ration and support. The result has been an absence of inter- 



K. El 

course, with its attendant consequences. Artificial selection 
has sharpened the contrasts imposed in the first instance 
by differences of physical descent. It is one of those rare 
cases where political 
boundaries are com 
petent to perpetuate 
and even to accen 
tuate natural pecul 
iarities due to race. 

Let us now con 
centrate our atten 
tion upon these two 
peoples clustering 
about the modern 
cities of Perigueux 




and Limoges re 
spectively separa 
ted alike from all 
their neighbours by their long-headedness. Closer inspection 
of the map reveals that each of these two cities is to-day the 
kernel of a distinct subcentre of dolichocephaly; for two very 
light-coloured areas surround each city, the two being separated 
by a narrow strip of darker tint upon our map. Along this latter 
line the cephalic index rises appreciably. Thus, for example, 
while only 78 about Limoges, and 76 or 77 in Dordogne, it 
rises on this boundary line to 80 and 81. In other words, 
a bridge of relative broad-headedness cuts across the map, 
setting apart the descendants of the Lemovici, at Limoges, 
from those of their contemporaries, the Petrocorii, about Peri 
gueux. This means that we have to do with two distinct 
spots of long-headedness a small one about Limoges, and a 
major one extending all about Perigueux and Angouleme. 
There can be no doubt about this division. The boundary is 
a purely natural one, and deserves a moment s attention. 

This frontier between Limousin and Perigord lies along 
the crest of the so-called " hills of Limousin," made famil 
iar to us already in another connection. It marks the water 
shed between the two great river systems of western France, 


the Garonne and the Loire. Turn back for a moment to 
our stature map of Limousin, on page 83, which indicates 
the courses of these streams. Here is a true parting of the 





164- = 1 635 - 1.64-SJ 

65.4 oner 1.6 

L65 B! 


waters ; for the Charente flows directly to the sea on the west ; 
the affluents of the Loire run to the north ; and the Vezere, 
part of the system of the Garonne, to the south. These hills 



of Limousin are the western outposts of the granitic area of 
Auvergne ; and just here the country changes abruptly to a 
calcareous formation along the south and west. The district 
is accounted the very poorest in all France. Its soil is worth 
less even for grazing; the water is bad and the climate harsh 
and rigorous. 

These hills of Limousin, as we pointed out in our 
former discussion, are, so to speak, a veritable watershed 
of stature as well.* The bridge of relative broad-headed- 
ness we have described as lying along this line is but one 
among several peculiarities. The people of these hills are 
among the shortest in all Europe. Imagine a commu 
nity whose members are so dwarfed and stunted by misery 
that their average stature is only about five feet two inches ! 
Many cantons exist in which over thirty per cent of the men 
are under five feet three inches tall ; and a few where two 
thirds of them all are below this height, with nearly ten per 
cent shorter than four feet eleven inches. About three men 
in every eight were too diminutive for military service, as 
Collignon measured them. With women shorter than this 
by several inches, the result is frightful. Around this area 
we find concentric circles of increasing stature as the river 
courses are descended and the material prosperity of the people 
becomes greater. Within it the regular diet of boiled chest 
nuts and bad water, with a little rye or barley ; the miserable 
huts unlighted by windows, huddled together in the deep and 
damp valleys ; and the extreme poverty and ignorance, have 
produced a population in which nearly a third of the men are 
physically unfit for military service. This geographical bar 
rier, potent enough to produce so degenerate a population, 
lies, as we have said, exactly along the boundary between the 
descendants of the Lemovici about Limoges and the Petro- 
corii about Perigueux. To make it plain beyond question, 
we have marked the stunted area upon our map of cephalic 
index. The correspondence is exact. It also shows beyond 
doubt that this short stature is a product of environment and 

* Collignon, 18945, p. 26 et seq.; also 1896 a, p. 165. 


not of race ; for our degenerate area overlies all types of head 
form alike, whether Alpine or other. 

Here, then, is an anthropological as well as a geographical 
boundary, separating our long-headed tribes from one an 
other. Without going into details, let it suffice to say that 
complexions change as well. To the north and east about 
Limoges the blond characteristics rise to an absolute ma 
jority, especially among the women ; in the contrary direction 
about Perigueux, the proportion of brunets increases consid 
erably. In short, the general association of characteristics is 
such as to prove that among the Lemovici there is a consid 
erable infusion of Teutonic blood. They are the extreme van 
guard of the Germanic invaders who have come in from the 
northeast. That accounts at once for their long-headedness. 
Similar to them are the populations west of Bordeaux in Me- 
doc (vide key map). They also are remnants of the same 
blond, tall, long-headed type ; but they have come around by 
sea. They are part of the Saxon hordes which have touched 
all along the coast of Brittany. These last people, settled in 
the beautiful Medoc and Bordelais wine country, protected by 
their peninsular position, are among the tallest peasantry of 
the southwest. They are, without doubt, the legitimate de 
scendants of the Medulli and of the Bituriges Vivisci of early 
times. But between these two colonies of the Teutons, about 
Limoges and in Medoc respectively, lies the one whose origin 
we have not yet traced? The Petrocorii about Perigueux, 
who are they? If they also are of Teutonic descent, why 
are they not blond ? This they most certainly are not : for 
a noticeable feature of the population of Dordogne is the 
high proportion of black hair, rising in some cantons to 
twenty-seven per cent.* This is very remarkable in itself, 
as even in Italy and Spain really black hair is much less fre 
quent. This characteristic for a time gave colour to the 
theory that this great area of dolichocephaly was due to the 
relics of the Saracen army of Abd-er-Rhaman, shattered by 
Charles Martel at the battle of Tours. It is not improbable 

* Collignon, 18945, p. 23. 



4 1 - BERBER, Tunis. Eyes and hair very dark. Index 69. 42. 




that some Berber blood was thereby infused into the peas 
antry ; but this explanation does not suffice to account for 
other peculiarities, which a detailed investigation reveals.* 

The most curious and significant trait of these long-headed 
people in Dordogne remains to be mentioned. A harmonic 
long and narrow head ought normally to be accompanied by 
an elongated oval visage. In the Teutonic race especially, the 
cheek bones are not prominent, so that an even smooth outline 
of the face results. Inspection of our Norman faces, or of 
any other Teutonic peoples \vill exemplify this. In the Dor 
dogne population, on the other hand, the faces in many cases 
are almost as broad as in the normal Alpine round-headed 
type. In other words, they are strongly disharmonic. To 
make this clear, compare the heads shown on the opposite page 
of portraits.! Notice at once how the Cro-Magnon head is 
developed posteriorly as compared with the Alpine type. This 
is noticeable in nearly every case. Observe also how in the 
front view the cranium narrows at the top like a sugar loaf, 
at the very place where the Alpine type is most broad. Yet 
despite this long head, the face is proportioned much more 
like the broad-visaged Alpine type than after the model of 
the true Mediterranean ones at page 156. These latter are 
truly normal and harmonic dolichocephalic types. This Cro- 
Magnon one is entirely different. 

In our Dordogne peasant there are many other minor fea 
tures which need not concern us here. The skull is very low- 
vaulted ; the brow ridges are prominent ; the nose is well 
formed, and less broad at the nostrils than in the Alpine type. 
These, coupled with the prominent cheek bones and the pow 
erful masseter muscles, give a peculiarly rugged cast to the 
countenance. It is not, however, repellent ; but more often 
open and kindly in appearance.^ The men are in no wise pe- 

* G. Lagneau, 1867 a. 

f For the French Cro-Magnon portraits I am indebted to Dr. Collignon 
himself. These are the first, I think, ever published, either here or in 
Europe. The African type is loaned by Dr. Bertholon, of Tunis. It is 
described in his paper of 1891. 

J Cf. Verneau s description in Bull. Soc. d anth., 1876, pp. 408-417. 


culiar in stature. They are of medium height, rather stocky 
than otherwise. In this latter respect they show the same 
susceptibility to environment as all their neighbours ; they 
are tall in fertile places and stunted in the less prosperous dis 
tricts. Lying mainly south of the dwarfed areas of Limousin, 
they are intermediate between its miserable people and their 
taller neighbours in the vine country about Bordeaux. Let 
it be clearly understood that they are not a degenerate type at 
all. The peasants are keen and alert; often contrasting favour 
ably with the rather heavy-minded Alpine type about them. 

The people we have described above agree in physical char 
acteristics with but one other type of men known to anthro 
pologists. This is the celebrated Cro-Magnon race, long ago 
identified by archaeologists as having inhabited the southwest 
of Europe in prehistoric times.* As early as 1858 human re 
mains began to be discovered by Lartet and others in this 
region. Workmen on a railway in the valley of the Vezere, 
shown on our map, unearthed near the little village of Les 
Eyzies the complete skeletons of six individuals three men, 
tw r o women, and a child. This was the celebrated cave of Cro- 
Magnon. In the next few years many other similar archaeo 
logical discoveries in the same neighbourhood were made. A 
peasant in the upper Garonne Valley, near Saint-Gaudens, 
found a large human bone in a rabbit hole. On excavating, 
the remains of seventeen individuals were found buried to 
gether in the cave of Aurignac. At Laugerie Basse, again 
in the Vezere Valley, a rich find was made. In the cave of 
Baumes-Chaudes, just across in Lozere, thirty-five human 
crania with portions of skeletons were unearthed. These were 
the classical discoveries. The evidence of their remains has 
been completely verified since then from all over Europe. 
In no district, however, are the relics of this type so plentiful 
as here in Dordogne. Eight sepulchral caves have been dis- 

* Authorities on this are E. and L. Lartet, 1861 ; and subsequently : De 
Quatrefages and Hamy, 1882. pp. afietseq.; alsoVerneau, 1886, and Hamy, 
1891, especially. Bertrand and Reinach, 1891, give a suggestive map 
showing-the areas of greatest frequency of Cro-Magnon remains. Its cor 
respondence with Collignon s map of cephalic index is very close. Con 
sult also Salmon, 1895, and Herve, 18945. 



covered within as many miles of the village of Les Eyzies alone 
in the Yezere Valley. Because of the geographical concen 
tration of a peculiar type in this region, it has become known 
by the name of the Cro-Magnon race, since in the cave of this 
name the most perfect specimens were found. 

The geographical evidence that here in Dordogne we have 
to do with the real Cro-Magnon race, is fully sustained by 
a comparison of the physical characteristics of the crania here 
discovered in these caves in the valley of the Vezere, with the 
peculiar living type we have above described. The original 
Cro-Magnon race was extremely dolichocephalic ; as long 
headed, in fact, as the modern African negroes or the Aus 
tralians. The cranial indices varied from 70 to 73, correspond 
ing to a cephalic index on the living head between 72 and 75. 
This was and is the starting point for the theory that the 
Mediterranean populations are an offshoot and development 
from the African negro. The only other part of Europe 
where so low an index has been located in the living popula 
tion is in Corsica, where it descends almost to this level.* The 
people of Dordogne do not to-day range quite as long-headed 
as this, the average for the extreme commune of Champa- 
gnac being 76. This difference need not concern us, how 
ever, for within the whole population are a large proportion 
with indexes far below this figure. Close proximity to the 
very brachycephalic Alpine type, just over the line in Correze, 
would account for a great deal larger difference even than 
this. Probability of direct descent becomes almost certainty 
when we add that the Cro-Magnon head was strongly dishar- 
monic, and very low-skulled. The modern population does 
not equal its progenitors in this last respect, but it approaches 
it so distinctly as to show a former tendency in this direction. 
The skull was elongated at the back in the same way a dis 
tinguishing trait which appears prominently upon comparison 
of the profile view of a modern Cro-Magnon type with that 
of its Alpine neighbours, as we have already observed. The 
brows were strongly developed, the eye orbits were low, the 

* Cf. page 54 supra. 



chin prominent. The noted anthropologist, De Quatrefages, 
prophesied what one of these types ought to look like in the 
flesh. I give his description in his own words, that its agree 
ment with the facial type above represented may be noted : 
" The eye depressed beneath the orbital vault; the nose straight 
rather than arched, the lips somewhat thick, the maxillary (jaw 
and cheek) bones strongly developed, the complexion very 
brown, the hair very dark and growing low on the forehead a 
whole which, without being attractive, w r as in no way repulsive." 
The prehistoric antiquity of the Cro-Magnon type in this 
region is attested in two distinct ways. In the first place, the 
original people possessed no knowledge of the metals; they 
were in the same stage of culture as, perhaps even lower than, 
the American aborigines at the coming of Columbus. Their 
implements were fashioned of stone or bone, although often 
cunningly chipped and even polished. They were ignorant of 
the arts, either of agriculture or the domestication of ani 
mals, in both of which they were far below the culture of 
the native tribes of Africa at the present day. Additional 
proof of their antiquity was offered by the animal remains 
found intermingled with the human bones. The climate must 
have been very different from that of the present; for many 
of the fauna then living in the region, such as the reindeer, 
are now confined to the cold regions of northern Europe. To 
be sure, the great mammals, such as the mammoth, mastodon, 
the cave bear, and hyena* had already become extinct. They 
were contemporaneous with the still more ancient and uncul 
tured type of man, whose remains occur in a lower geological 
stratum. This Cro-Magnon race is not of glacial antiquity, 
yet the distribution of mammals was markedly different from 
that of to-day. Thus of nineteen species found in the Cro- 
Magnon cave, ten no longer existed in southern Europe. 
They had migrated with the change of climate toward the 
north. The men alone seem to have remained in or near 
their early settlements, through all the changes of time and 
the vicissitudes of history. It is perhaps the most striking 
instance known of a persistency of population unchanged 
through thousands of years. 


It should not be understood that this Cro-Magnon type 
was originally restricted to this little region alone. Its geo 
graphical extension was once very wide. The classical skull 
of Engis, in Belgium, so well described by Huxley,* was of 
this type. It has been located in places all the way from 
Tagolsheim and Bollwiller in Alsace to the Atlantic on the 
west. Ranke f asserts that it occurs to-day in the hills of 
Thuringia, and was a prevalent type there in the past. Its 
extension to the south and west was equally wide. According 
to Verneau, it was the type common among the extinct 
Guanches of the Canary [stands. Collignon ( 87 * ) and Ber- 
tholon "" have identified it in northern Africa. Our third 
Cro-Magnon portrait is representative of it among the Berbers. 
From all these places it has now disappeared more or less com 
pletely. Only in two or three other localities does it still form 
an appreciable element in the living population. There is one 
outcrop of it in a small spot in Landes, farther to the south 
west ; and another away up north, in that peculiar population 
at Lannion J which we mentioned in our description of Brit 
tany, with a promise to return to it. So primitive is the popu 
lation here, in fact, that nearly a third of the population to-day 
is of this type. On the island of Oleron off the west coast 
there seems to be a third survival.* A very ancient type has 
also been described by Virchow || in the islands of northern 
Holland, which is quite likely of similar descent. 

In all these cases of survival above mentioned, geograph 
ical isolation readily accounts for the phenomenon. Is that 
also a competent explanation for this clearest case of all in 
our population in Dordogne? Why should these peasants 
be of such direct prehistoric descent as to put every ruling 
house in Europe to shame? Has the population persisted 
simply by virtue of numbers, this having been the main centre 
of its dispersion in prehistoric times ? Or is it because of pe 
culiarly favourable circumstances of environment? It certain- 

* 1863 and 1897. f Der Mensch, 1887, ii, p. 446. 
\ See maps, pp. 100 and 151 supra. 

* Collignon, 1890 a, p. 58 ; and 1895, p. 95. 
|| 1876 a. 


ly is not due to isolation alone ; for this region has been over 
run with all sorts of invaders, during historic times at least, 
from the Romans to the Saracens and the English. Nor is 
it due to economic unattractiveness ; for, be it firmly fixed 
in mind, the Cro-Magnon type is not localized in the sterile 
Limousin hills, with their miserable stunted population. It 
is found to-day just to the southwest of them in a fairly open, 
fertile country, especially in the vicinity of Bordeaux. These 
peasants are not degenerate ; they are, in fact, of goodly height, 
as indeed they should be to conform to the Cro-Magnon 
type. In order to determine the particular cause of this 
persistence of an ancient race, we must broaden our hori 
zon once more, after this detailed analysis of Dordogne, and 
consider the whole southwest from the Mediterranean to Brit 
tany as a unit. It is not impossible that the explanation for 
the peculiar anomalies in the distribution of the Alpine stock 
hereabouts may at the same time offer a clew to the problem 
of the Cro-Magnon type beside it. 

The main question before us, postponed until the conclu 
sion of our study of the Dordogne population, is this : Why 
has the Alpine race in the southwest of France, in direct op 
position to the rule for all the rest of Gaul, spread itself out 
in such a peculiar way clear across the Garonne Valley and 
up to the Pyrenees ? It lies at right angles with the river val 
ley instead of along it. In other words, why is not the Alpine 
type isolated in the unattractive area of Auvergne instead of 
overflowing the fertile plains of Aquitaine? The answer is, I 
think, simple. Here in this uttermost part of France is a last 
outlet for expansion of the Alpine race, repressed on every 
side by an aggressive alien population. It has merely ex 
panded along the line of least resistance. The Alpine type in 
Auvergne, increasing in numbers faster than the meagre means 
of support offered by Nature, has by force of numbers pushed 
its way irresistibly out across Aquitaine, crowding its former 
possessors to one side. Certainly this is true in the Pyrenees. 
For here at the base of the mountains the population changes 
suddenly, as we shall see in our next chapter on the Basques. 
On the other side at the north lies, as we have just seen, a 


second primitive population, less changed from the prehis 
toric type than any other in Europe. This Cro-Magnon race 
has been preserved apparently by the dike of the Limousin 
hills with their miserable population ; for these hills have cut 
across the Paris-Bordeaux axis of fertility and have stopped 
the Teutonic race at the city of Limoges from expanding far 
ther in this direction that is to say, economic attraction hav 
ing come to an end, immigration ceased with it. The in 
trusive Teutonic race has therefore been debarred from this 
main avenue of approach by land into Aquitaine. The com 
petition has been narrowed down to the Alpine and Cro- 
Magnon types alone. Hence the former, overflowing its 
source in Auvergne, has spread in a generally southwestern 
direction with slight opposition. It could not extend itself 
to the south; for the Mediterranean type was strongly in 
trenched along the seacoast, and was in fact pushing its way 
over the low pass into Aquitaine from that direction. The 
case is not dissimilar to that of Burgundy. In both instances 
a bridge of Alpine broad-headedness cuts straight across a 
river valley open to a narrow-headed invasion at both ends. 
It is not improbable that in both, this bridge is a last remnant 
of broad-headedness which would have covered the whole val 
ley had it not been invaded from both sides by other com 

Enough has been said to show the complexity of the racial 
relations hereabouts. We have identified the oldest living 
race in this part of the world. The most primitive language 
in Europe the Basque is spoken near by. It will form the 
subject of the next chapter. 



THE Basques, or Euskaldnnak, as they call themselves, on 
account of the primitive character of their institutions, but 
more particularly because of the archaic features of their lan 
guage, have long attracted the attention of ethnologists. Few 
writers on European travel have been able to keep their hands 
off this interesting people. Owing to the difficulty of ob 
taining information from the original Basque sources, a wide 
range of speculation has been offered for cultivation. Interest 
for a long time mainly centred in the language ; the physical 
characteristics were largely neglected. The last ten years 
have, however, witnessed a remarkable change in this respect. 
A series of brilliant investigations has been offered to science, 
based almost entirely upon the study of the living population. 
As a consequence, this people has within a decade emerged 
from the hazy domain of romance into the clear light of scien 
tific knowledge. Muchyet remains to be accomplished ; but 
enough is definitely known to warrant many conclusions both 
as to their physical origin and ethnic affinities.* 

* The best modern authorities on the Basques are R. Collignon, 
Anthropologie du sud-ouest de la France, Mem. Soc. d Anth., serie iii, i, 
1895, fasc. 4 ; De Aranzadi y Unamuno, El pueblo Euskalduna, San Sebas 
tian 1889 ; Hoyos Sainz and De Aranzadi, Un avance a la antropologia de 
Espana, Madrid, 1892 ; Oloriz y Aguilera, Distribucion geografica del indice 
cefalico en Espana, Madrid, 1894 ; Broca, Sur 1 origine et la repartition de 
la langue Basque, Revue d Anth., serie i, iv, 1875. De Aranzadi has also 
published a most interesting criticism of Collignon s work in the Basque 
journal, Euskal-Erria, vol. xxxv, 1896, entitled Consideraciones acerca de 
la raza Basca. For ethnography the older standard work is by T. F. 
Blade, Etude sur 1 origine des Basques, Paris, 1869. The works of Wcb- 


Thirty years ago estimates of the number of people speak 
ing the Basque language or Enskara ran all the way from 
four to seven hundred thousand. Probability pointed to about 
a round half million, which has perhaps become six hundred 
thousand to-day; although large numbers have emigrated of 
recent years to South America, and the rate of increase in 
France, at least, is very slow. About four fifths of these are 
found in the Spanish provinces of Vizcaya (Biscay), Xavarra, 
Guipuzcoa, and Alava, at the western extreme of the Pyrenean 
frontier and along the coast. (See map, page 170.) The re 
mainder occupy the southwestern third of the department of 
Basses-Pyrenees over the mountains in France. The whole 
territory covered is merely a spot on the European map. It 
is by quality, therefore, and not in virtue either of numbers or 
territorial extension, that these people merit our attention. 
In the preceding chapter we aimed to identify the oldest liv 
ing population in Europe a direct heritage from prehistoric 
times. We found it to lie about the city of Perigueux in the 
department of Dordogne, east of Bordeaux. Here, less than 
two hundred miles to the southwest, is probably the most primi 
tive spoken language on the continent. Is there any connec 
tion discoverable between the two? Whence did they come? 
Why are they thus separated? Which of the two has mi 
grated? Or have they each persisted in entire independence 
of the other? Or were they never united at all? Such are 
some of the pertinent questions which we have to answer. 

These people derive a romantic interest from the persist 
ence with which, both in France and Spain, they have main 
tained until the last decade their peculiar political organi 
zation, despite all attempts of the French and Spanish sover 
eigns through centuries to reduce them to submission.* Their 

ster, Dawkins, Monteiro, and others are of course superseded by the recent 
and brilliant studies above outlined. 

To my constant friend Dr. Collignon I am obliged for the portrait 
types of French Basques reproduced in this chapter. 

* Herbert, 1848, pp. 316-322 ; Blade, 1869, p. 419 et seq.\ Louis-Lande, 
1878, p. 297 ; and more recently, W. T. Strong, The Fueros of northern 
Spain, in Political Science Quarterly, New York, viii, 1893, pp. 3i7~334- 


political institutions were ideally democratic, worthy of the 
enthusiasm bestowed by the late Mr. Freeman upon the Swiss 
folk-moot. In Yizcaya, for example, sovereignty was vested 
in a biennial assembly of chosen deputies, who sat on stone 
benches in the open air under an ancestral oak tree in the 
village of Guernica. This tree was the emblem of their liber 
ties. A scion of the parent oak was always kept growing near 
bv, in case the old tree should die. These Basques acknowl 
edged no political sovereign ; they insisted upon complete per 
sonal independence for every man ; they were all absolutely 
equal before their own law ; they upheld one another in exer 
cising the right of self-defence against any outside authority, 
ecclesiastical, political, or other; they were entitled to bear 
arms at all times by law anywhere in Spain ; they were free 
from all taxation save for their own local needs, and from all 
foreign military service: and in virtue of this liberty they were 
accorded throughout Spain the rank and privileges of hidalgos 
or noblemen. 

Along with these political privileges many of their social 
customs were equally unique.* On the authority of Strabo, 
it was long asserted that the custom of the couradc existed 
among them a practice common among primitive peoples, 
whereby on the birth of a child the father took to his bed as 
if in the pains of labour. This statement has never been 
substantiated in modern times ; although the observance, found 
sporadically all over the earth, probably did at one time exist 
in parts of Europe. Diodorus Siculus asserted that it was 
practised in Corsica at the beginning of the Christian era. 
There is no likelier spot for it to have survived in Europe 
than here in the Pyrenees ; but it must be confessed that no 
direct proof of its existence can be found to-day, guide books 
to the contrary notwithstanding.! The domestic institutions 
are remarkably primitive and well preserved. Every man s 
house is indeed his castle. As Herbert puts it in his classical 

* Cordier, iSGS- Gg ; Blade, 1869, 419-444, also 525. Demolins, 1897, 
and Dumont, 1892, are particularly good on their present demography, 
economic institutions, etc. 

f Cf. Hovelacque, Etudes de Linguistique, 1878, pp. 197 ef seq. 


Review of the Political State of the Basque Provinces, speak 
ing of Yizcaya : " Xo magistrate can violate that sanctuary ; 
no execution can be put into it, nor can arms or horse be 
seized; he can not be arrested for debt or subjected to im 
prisonment without a previous summons to appear under the 
old oak of Guernica." The ties of blood are persistently up 
held among all the Basques. Communal ownership within 
the family is frequently practised. The women enjoy equal 
rights before the law in manv places. Customs varv from 

o * -* 

place to place, to be sure, and primitive characteristics are not 
always confined to the Basques alone. They are, however, 
well represented, on the whole. In some places the eldest 
daughter takes precedence over all the sons in inheritance, 
a possible relic of the matriarchal family which has disappeared 
elsewhere in Europe. Demolins ( 07) gives a detailed analysis 
of one of these communal families, presided over by the eldest 
daughter. It would lead us astray to enlarge upon these 
social peculiarities in this place. It will be enough in passing 
to mention the once-noted mystery plays, the folklore, the 
dances, the week consisting of but three days (as Webster as 
serts), and a host of other facts, each capable of inviting atten 
tion from the ethnological point of view. Many of these, 
according to Dumont ( " J2) , have now become things of the past, 
owing to the persistent opposition of the clergy, to whom the 
people are entirely subservient. Their dislike of town life is 
even to-day proverbial.* The only detail which it will repay 
us to elaborate is the language. To that we turn for a moment. 
To the ordinary observer many peculiarities in the Basque 
language are at once apparent : .r. y. and z seem to be unduly 
prominent to play leading parts, in fact. There are more 
consonants alone, to say nothing of the vowels and double 
characters, than there are letters in our entire alphabet. For 
the linguist the differences from the European languages are 
of profound significance. The Basque conforms in its struc 
ture to but two other languages in all Europe, each of which 
is akin to the linguistic families of Asia and aboriginal Amer- 

* Jour. Anth. Inst., ii, 1872, p. 157. 

1 84 


ica. It is formally like the Magyar or Hungarian; but this 
we know to be an immigrant from the east within historic 
times. It is also fashioned after the model of the speech of 
the Finns in Russia. These people are likewise quite foreign 
to western Europe ; they are akin to tribes which connect them 
with the Asiatic hordes. The Basque alone of the trio is mys 
terious as to its origin ; for it constitutes a linguistic island, 
surrounded completely by the normal population and lan 
guages of Europe. 

In place of inflection, the Basque makes use largely of the 
so-called principle of agglutination.* The different meanings 
are expressed by the compounding of several words into one, 
a device not unknown, to be sure, in Aryan tongues ; but in 
the Basque this is carried much further. The verb habitually 
includes all pronouns, adverbs, and other allied parts of speech. 
The noun comprehends the prepositions and adjectives in a 
like manner. As an example of the terrific complexity pos 
sible as a result, Blade gives fifty forms in the third person 
singular of the present indicative of the regular verb to give 
alone. Another classical example of the effect of such agglu 
tination occurs in the Basque word meaning " the lower field 
of the high hill of Azpicuelta," which runs . 


This simple phrase is an even match for the Cherokee word 
instanced by Whitney : 

" Winitawtigeginaliskawlungtanawneletisesti" 

meaning " they will by this time have come to the end of 
their (favourable) declaration to you and me." Sayce \ gives 
a similar example of agglutination from the Eskimo : 

" Aglekkigiartorasuarnipok" 

whose significance is " he goes hastily away and exerts him- 

* On language consult Pruner Bey, 1867 ; Gerland, 1888, in Grober s 
Grundriss ; Blade, 1869, pp. 237 et seq. ; and the recent researches of Van 
Eys, Vinson, Von der Gabelentz, and others. Titles of these will be 
found in our extended Bibliography. 

f Contemporary Review, April, 1876, p. 722. 


self to write." This agglutinative characteristic, common to 
primitive languages the world over, justifies the proverb 
among the French peasants that the devil studied the Basque 
language seven years and learned only two words. The prob 
lem is not rendered easier by the fact that very little Basque 
literature exists in the written form ; that the pronunciation 
is peculiar ; and that the language, being a spoken one, there 
by varies from village to village. There are in the neighbour 
hood of twenty-five distinct dialects in all. No wonder a cer 
tain traveller is said to have given up the study of it in despair, 
claiming that its words were all " written Solomon and pro 
nounced Nebuchadnezzar." 

Several features of this curious language psychologically 
denote a crudeness of intellectual power. The principle of 
abstraction or generalization is but slightly developed. The 
words have not become movable " type " or symbols, as the 
late Mr. Romanes expressed it. They are sounds for the ex 
pression of concrete ideas. Each word is intended for one 
specific object or concept. Thus there is said to be a lack of 
such simple generalized words as " tree " or " animal." There 
are complete vocabularies for each species of either, but none 
for the concept of tree or animal in the abstract. They can 
not express " sister " in general ; it must be " sister of the 
man " or " sister of the woman." This is an unfailing char 
acteristic of all undeveloped languages. It is paralleled by 
Spencer s instance of the Cherokee Indians, who have thirteen 
distinct words to signify the washing of as many different 
parts of the body, but none for the simple idea of " washing " 
by itself. The primitive mind finds it difficult to conceive of 
the act or attribute absolved from all connection with the ma 
terial objects concerned. Perhaps this is why the verb in the 
Basque has to include so many other parts of speech. The 
Arabic language is similarly primitive. It has words for yel 
low, red, green, and other tints, but no term exists to express 
the idea of " colour," apart from the substance of the thing 
on which, so to speak, the colour lies. 

A second primitive psychological characteristic of the 
Basque is found in the order of the words. These follow the 


natural sequence of ideas more closely than in European lan 
guages. The importance of the idea determines precedence. 
Thus, instead of saying " of the man," the Basque puts it 
" man, the, of." Nouns are derived from one another in this 
manner. From burn, head, comes bnruk, " head-for-the," or 
bonnet. Many of the words thus contain traces of their deri 
vation, which have long since vanished from the Aryan. 
Sayce gives some good examples. Thus orzanz, thunder, 
comes from orz, cloud, and azanz, noise. The word for month 
is illabctc, derived from illargi-betc, meaning " moon-full." 
And the word for moon is again divisible into il, death, and 
argi, light. In this manner we can trace the process of reason 
ing which induced the combination in many more cases than 
in our own languages. We have still some, like tzi ilight; or 
hidalgo, which in Spanish signifies " son-of-somebody," a no 
bleman ; but these are the exception. 

Probably the most primitive element in the Basque is the 
verb, or the relative lack of it.* It was long asserted that no 
such part of speech existed in it at all. This, strictly speaking, 
is not true. Most of the verbs are, however, really nouns : 
" to give " is in fact treated as if it were " donation " or the 
" act of giving." It is then declined quite like a noun, or 
varied to suit the circumstances. This is indeed truly primi 
tive. Romanes has devoted much time to proving that the 
verb requires the highest power of abstraction of all our parts 
of speech. Certain it is that it is defective in most primitive 
languages, from the Chinese up. Its crudity in the Basque 
is undeniable evidence of high antiquity. 

The archaic features of these Basque dialects in the days 
when language and race were synonymous terms led to all 
sorts of queer theories as to their origin and antiquity. Blade 
describes these in great detail. Flavius Josephus set a pace 
in identifying the people as descendants of Tubal-Cain and 
his nephew Tarsis. In the middle ages they were traced to 
nearly all the biblical heroes. Such hypotheses, when com 
parative philology developed as a science, gave way to a num- 

* Vinson, iSys- gs, is an authority. 


her of others, connecting the Basques with every outlandish 
language and bankrupt people under the sun. Vogt ( 63) and 
De Charency ;7) connected them directly with the American 
Indians, because of the similarity in the structure of their lan 
guage. Then De Charency (<S9) changed his mind and derived 
them from Asiatic sources. Sir William Betham ( 42) made 
them kin to the extinct Etruscans, a view r to which Retzius 
subscribed. Bory de Saint-Vincent proved that they were the 
sole survivors of the sunken continent of Atlantis ; of the type 
of the now extinct Guanches of the Canary Islands. Avezac 
said they were Sicani ; Molon that they were Turanian.* 
Max Miiller gives some evidence of similarity to the Lapps, 
the Finns, and the Bulgarians. Others said the ancient Egyp 
tians were related to them. We have no space to mention 
more. Little by little opinion crystallized, especially among 
the historians, about the thesis originally upheld by Wilhelm 
von Humboldt, ( I7) that the Basque was a survival of the an 
cient Celt-Iberian language of Spain ; and that these people 
were the last remnants of the ancient inhabitants of that penin 
sula. Pictet was the only linguistic dissident from this view, 
holding that the Basques were of even greater antiquity ; 
being in fact the prehistoric race type of Europe, antedating 
the Aryan influx altogether. More recently we have Fita s (>93) 
identification of the Basques with the Picts, a theory apparent 
ly not repugnant to such distinguished authority as Rhys (>92) ; 
together with Bertholon s ( 9G) sustained attempt to trace a re 
lationship to the ancient Phoenicians. As for affinity to the 
Hamitic or Berber languages of northern Africa, von der 
Gabelentz (<93) proves it, while Keane ( 96) as strenuously de 
nies the possibility.! So much, then, for the conclusions of 
the philologists. Not very satisfactory, to be sure ! 

It will be observed that all these theories rested upon the 
assumption that racial derivation could be traced by means 
of language. A prime difficulty soon presented itself. Some 
thirty years ago the Basque language was found by Broca (>75) 

* Nicolucci, 1888, p. 4; Issel, 1892, ii, p. 76. 

f Cf. Boyd Dawkins s (1874 b) attempt to prove Berber, Basque, and 
Breton affinity ; with Webster s criticism, 1875. 


to be drifting toward the north, despite the apparent immo 
bility of the people themselves. It seemed to be losing ground 
rapidly in Spain, with no indication of doing so, rather the re 
verse, in France. Nor was this apparently a new development. 
Everything denoted that it had been going on for many years. 
The mode of proof is interesting as Broca used it. There are 
two independent sources of evidence. In the first instance 
the place names all over Navarra as far south as the Ebro 
River are of Basque origin. The language, as our map at page 
j:8|show r s, does not to-day extend nearly as far. This indi 
cates that the Basque speech prevailed when the villages, the 
mountains, and the rivers were named. No such zone of place 
names lies outside the speech line in France, save in one can 
ton, just over the Pyrenees. There the Basque place names 
extend out as far as the broad white line upon our larger and 
more detailed map on the next page. The inward bend of the 
curve of present speech at this place points to a retrogression 
of language. Everywhere else in France the division line of 
place names coincides very closely with that of speech. 

No less important proof that Basque is losing ground in 
Spain but holding its own in France is at hand. Notice on 
the map that the Spanish language is to-day in vise consider 
ably within the Basque limit. In other words, there is an in 
termediate zone in Spain where both languages are understood 
and spoken by the peasants. This zone varies considerably in 
width. By the city of Pamplona there is a deep recess cut 
in the Basque. Castilian being the official language, and 
Pamplona the capital of the province, the people in its vicinity 
have been compelled to adopt this language. They have for 
gotten their native Basque tongue entirely. At Bilbao, also 
an official city, the Spanish is actively forcing its way in ; al 
though the Basque language has more persistently held its 
own along this side. All along the frontier in Spain the 
Basque is on the retreat, much of the movement having taken 
place since the sixteenth century. In France, on the other 
hand, the Basque tongue holds its own. The line of demarca 
tion between the Basque and the Bearnais-French patois is 
clean and clear cut. There is no evidence of an invasion of 



territory by the outsider. This is equally true in respect of 
customs and folklore ; so that the Basque frontier can be de 
tected all along the line from village to village. The present 









NOTE Collignon, 1897, and Chopinet, 1898, give additional data for the departments 
of Gers and Landes respectively, with maps in each case. 

boundary is of such a form that it denotes a complete equality 
of the two rival tongues. It has remained immovable for 
many generations. 


The clearness of this frontier in France is interestingly 
illustrated by a bit of detail on the accompanying map. It 
concerns that loop which is roughly indicated upon the larger 
map just east of Bayonne. Here at the village of La Bastide- 
Clairence for generations has been a little tongue of Bearnais- 
French penetrating deeply into Basque territory. The name 
of this town indicates a fortress, and another " Bastide " oc 
curs in the tongue farther north. Broca inclines to the view 
that here was a bit of territory in which the French patois was 

DETAIL. Basque-French boundary. (From Broca, 75.) 

so strongly intrenched that it held its own against the advanc 
ing Basque. It may have been a reconquest, to be sure. For 
us, the sharpness of frontier is the only point of concern, in 
contrast with the one in Spain. It is an undoubted instance 
of linguistic invasion toward the north. 

Another difficulty, no less insuperable than the fact that 
their language was on the move in a quiescent population, 
lay in the way of the old assumptions that the Basques were 
pure and undefilecl descendants of some very ancient people. 


Study of the head form precipitates us at once into it.* Xo 
sooner did physical anthropologists take up the matter of 
Basque origins than they ran up against a pair of bars. Study 
of the cephalic index yielded highly discordant results. Those 
who, like Broca ( o;!) and Virchow, measured heads or skulls 
of the Basques in Spain discovered a dolichocephalic type, 
with an index ranging about 79 on the living head. Equal 
ly positive were those like Pruner Bey ( 67) , who investi 
gated the head form on the French slopes of the Pyrenees, 
that the Basque was broad-headed. The indexes obtained in 
this latter case clustered about 83. The difference of four 
units and over was too great to ascribe to chance vari 
ation or to defective measurement. The champions of the 
broad heads, such as Retzius and Pruner Bey, affirmed an 
Asiatic origin ; while their opponents, following Broca, as ve 
hemently claimed that, whatever the Basques might be, they 
certainly were not Mongolian. They generally asserted an 
African origin for them. The often acrimonious discussion 
has been settled finally by proof that both sets of observers 
were right, after all. Strange as it may seem, the people on 
the two opposite slopes of the Pyrenees, both alike speaking 
the same peculiar language distinct from all others in Europe, 
were radically different in respect of this most fundamental 
racial characteristic. Xo proof of this, beyond a glance at our 
map of cephalic index, on page 189, is necessary. From pre 
ceding chapters the broad heads in France, denoted by the dark 
tints, will be recognised as the extreme vanguard of the Alpine 
race of central Europe. Spain, on the other hand, is a strong 
hold of the long-headed Mediterranean type.f Here we have 
the point of contact between the two. 

Bearing in mind now that the crest of the Pyrenees runs 
along the political frontier, it seems as if, on the whole, the 
line of division between broad-headed and long-headed types 

* Collignon, 1895, p. 13, for France ; Oloriz, 1894, pp. 167-175, with 
map, for Spain. 

f Aranzadi, while contesting many of Collignon s theses, shows in his 
curve of seriation, 1889, p. 17, two constituent elements even among the 
Spanish Basques. 



lay at the northern base rather than along the summits of the 
mountains. This is indeed true. Apparent exceptions prove 
the rule ; for where, in the heart of the Basque territory, the 
broad heads seem to penetrate to the Spanish frontier, there 
is the ancient pass of Roncesvalles, celebrated in history and 
literature. The broad-headed type would naturally have in 
vaded here if at all. Everywhere else the long-headed type 
seems to prevail, not only on the Spanish slopes, but clear over 
to the foothills of the Pyrenees on the other side in France. 
This the reader may roughly verify for himself by considera 
tion of the five-hundred-metre contour line shown upon the 
map at page 194. Assuming that this marks the lower edge 
of the mountains, our proposition will at once be demonstrated. 
If these facts be all true, what has become of our Basque 
physical type? Where are our philological theories of purity 
of racial representation ? If the Basques are indeed an un 
mixed race, there must be one of these two types which is 
spurious. At first the anthropologists sought thus to reject one 
or the other, French or Spanish, for this reason. Then they 
laid aside their differences ; they abandoned entirely the old 
theory of purity of descent. The Basque became for them the 
final complex product of a long series of ethnic crosses. Each 
of the conflicting characteristics was traced to some people, 
wherever found it mattered not. The type was compounded 
by a formula, as a druggist puts up a prescription. Blade 
wrote in the light of such views. Canon Taylor, in his Origin 
of the Aryans, holds that the broad-headed French Basque is 
only a variation of the Alpine type which, as we have seen, pre 
vails in all the southwest of France, with a dash of Lapp 
blood. For him the Spanish Basque was, on the other hand. 
a sub-type of the long-faced Iberian or Spanish narrow head. 
The result of the crossing of the two was to produce a pe 
culiarity of physical feature which we shall shortly describe- 
namely, a broad head and a long, narrow face. Aranzadi.* 
himself a Basque, assigns an equally mixed origin to his peo 
ple. His view is that the Basque is Iberian at bottom, crossed 

* 1889, p. 42. 

FRENCH BASQUE, Basses-Pyrenees 

FRENCH BASQUE, Basses-Pyrenees. 



HAKMONK TYPKS. Inner Pyrenees. 



with the Finn or Lapp, and finally touched by the Teuton. 
All these views resemble Kenan s celebrated formula, cited by 
Dr. Beddoe for a Breton, " a Celt, mixed with a Gascon and 
crossed with a Lapp." 

Is there, after all, a Basque physical type corresponding to 
the Basque language? Enough has already been said to cast 
a shadow of doubt upon the assumption. Can it be that all 
which has been written about the Basque race is unwarranted 
by the facts ? Examine our Basque portraits collected from 
both slopes of the Pyrenees. They appear in two series in 
this chapter. At once a peculiar characteristic is apparent in 
nearly every case. The face is very wide at the temples, so 
full as to appear almost swollen in this region.* At the same 
time the chin is very long, pointed, and narrow, ^nd the nose 
is high, long, and thin. The outline of the visage becomes 
almost triangular for this reason. This, with the eyes placed 
somewhat close together, or at least appearing so from the 
breadth of the temples, gives a countenance of peculiar cast. 
It resembles, perhaps, more than anything else the features of 
so-called infant prodigies, in which the frontal lobes of the 
brain have become over-developed. This resemblance is only 
superficial. These people are notably hardy and athletic. 
" To run and jump like a Basque " has become a proverb in 
France. The facial contrast appears especially strong when 
we compare this Basque type with that of its neighbours. The 
people all about, in the plain of Beam, are distinctly Alpine in 
racial type; they have very well-developed chins and regular 
oval features, in many cases becoming almost squarish, so 
heavily built is the lower jaw. A Basque may generally be 
detected instantly by this feature alone. The head is poised 
in a noticeable way, inclining forward, as if to balance the 
lack of chin by the weight of forehead. The carriage is al 
ways erect, a little stiff perhaps. This may be because bur 
dens are habitually carried upon the head. On the whole, 
the aspect is a pleasant one, despite its peculiarities, the glance 

* Collignon, 1895, p. 37; Aranzadi, 1889, p. 33; 1894 a, p. 518; 1896, 
p. 70. 




being direct and straightforward, the whole bearing agree 
able yet resolute. 

The peculiar triangular facial type we have described- 
characteristic both of Spanish long-headed or French brachy- 
cephalic Basques has been mapped by Dr. Collignon for the 
north slope of the Pyrenees with great care. \Ye have re 
produced his map on this page. It is very suggestive. It 
shows a distinct centre of distribution of the facial Basque 
wherein over half the population are characterized by it. Con- 






centric circles of diminishing frequency lie about it, vanishing 
finally in the plains of Beam and Gascogne. The most notice 
able feature is the close correspondence of this distribution of 
a physical type with the linguistic boundary. It is exact, save 
in one canton, Aramitz, at the eastern end southeast of Mau- 
leon.* Here it will be remembered was the one spot in France 
where there was evidence in the place names of a retrogression 
of the Basque speech before the French. The light-dotted line 

* On the local type here, cf. Collignon, 1895, p. 86. 


shows the former boundary. It is the one French-speaking 
canton, with nearly a quarter of the population of the Basque 
facial type. The exception proves the rule. Some relation 
between language and racial type is proved beyond a doubt. 

Another significant fact is illustrated by this map. It ap 
pears that instead of being refugees isolated in the recesses 
of the Pyrenees, the Basque physical type is really most fre 
quent in the foothills and open plains along the base of the 
mountains. In order to emphasize this point we have indi 
cated the lay of the land upon our map by means of the five- 
hundred-metre contour line of elevation above the sea. It 
shows that in the Basque country the mountains are much nar 
rower than farther to the east. The Pyrenees, in fact, dwindle 
away in height down to the seacoast. The only canton in the 
mountains proper with upward of half the population of the 
Basque facial type lies at the famous pass of Roncesvalles. At 
this point the contour line sweeps far south, well toward the 
frontier. Of the three cantons with the maximum frequency 
of triangular faces among conscripts, Dr. Collignon found two 
and a half to be outside the mountains proper. The area of 
their extension is shaped like a fan, spreading out toward the 
plain of Beam. The two wings of the fan are the cantons 
which form the core of the ethnic group. This region, Basse- 
Navarre, has always enjoyed a considerable political autonomy. 
Quite probably the ethnic segregation is due in part to this 
cause, as well as to the peculiarities of language. This fact 
that the Basques are not an ethnic remnant barely holding their 
own in the fastnesses of the Pyrenees, as is generally affirmed ; 
but that they have politically and ethnically asserted themselves 
in the open fertile country, reverses their status entirely. It 
confirms an impression afforded by a study of their language, 
that however it may be in Spain, these people are a positive 
factor in the population of France. 

In reality we have here in the department of Basses-Pyre 
nees a complex ethnological phenomenon, the Basques con 
stituting the middle one of three distinct strata of population 
lying on the north slope of the Pyrenees. Our map of cephalic 
index, on page 189, serves to illustrate this. The plains of 



Beam are occupied by the extreme western outpost of the 
broad-headed, round-faced Alpine type of central Europe. Por 
traits characteristic of these are given in the preceding chapter. 
Then come the Basques proper, with their broad heads and tri 
angular faces. These lie mainly along the foothills, although at 
Roncesvalles extending back into the mountains proper. Be 
hind them, in the recesses of the Pyrenees, is the third layer of 
population. These mountaineers are distinctly and harmoni 
cally dolichocephalic that is to say, being long-headed they 
are equally long- and narrow-faced. Conscripts with this 
characteristically narrow head, the long and smoothly oval 
face, are depicted in the lowest pair of portraits at page 193. 
These last people are really Mediterranean in type, over- 
fhnvs from the true Iberian stock, which forms the bulk of 
the Spanish population. Their ethnic segregation has prob 
ably been preserved in the innermost valleys of the Pyrenees 
because of the political independence of the people during 
many generations. These three groups of population above 
described of course merge into one another imperceptibly ; but 
on analysis their differentiation has now been clearly estab 

How has it come to pass that our Basques are thus left 
interposed between two neighbouring populations so entirely 
distinct in respect of these important racial traits? Is it per 
missible to suppose that the intermediate zone in which the 
triangular face occurs most commonly is really peopled by a 
simple cross between the two ethnic types on either side? 
This would be similar to Canon Taylor s supposition that a 
brachycephalic parent stock determined the head form of the 
Basques, while the narrow lower face and chin was a heritage 
from a dolichocephalic long-visaged ancestry. Such dishar- 
monic crania arise sometimes from crossing of the two types 
of head form, especially in Switzerland where the Teutonic 
and Alpine races come into contact with one another. An 
objection to this theory of secondary origin by intermixture 
is close at hand. It is fatal to the assumption. It is an im 
portant fact that the Basques are relatively broader-headed than 
even the neighbouring peasantry of Beam, and of course even 


more so than the long-headed Spanish population across the 
Pyrenees. Turning back to our map on page 189 this will 
appear. Of course, the Basques are not more extreme in this 
respect than the pure Alpine type ; we mean that they rise in 
cephalic index above their immediate and adulterated Al 
pine neighbours in the plains of Beam.* This implies, of 
course, that they are at the same time far broader-headed than 
the Spanish Basques over the mountains. Thus we dispose at 
once of the explanation offered both by Canon Taylor and De 
Quatrefages for the broad-headedness of the French over the 
Spanish Basque. Taylor accounted for this marked difference 
between the people of the two opposite slopes of the Pyrenees 
on the supposition that in invading Beam from Spain the 
Basques intermarried with the broad-headed Alpine stock there 
prevailing, and so deviated from their parent type. This fact 
that we have mentioned, that in France in their greatest 
purity the Basques are broader-headed than the Bearnais about 
them, proves beyond question that they are brachycephalic by 
birth and not by intermixture with their French neighbours. 
In Spain, on the other hand, the facial Basque, if we may use 
the term, is slightly broader-headed than his purely Spanish 
neighbour. Surrounded thus on all sides by people with 
longer and narrower heads, we are forced to the conclusion 
that this people is by nature of a broad-headed type. An 
important corollary is that the pure Basque is to-day found 
in France and not in Spain, although they both speak the 
same language. This exactly reverses Taylor s theory. It is 
the Spanish Basque which is a cross-type in other words, 
narrower-headed by four units than the French Basque be 
cause of intermixture with the dolichocephalic Spaniards. 
Those who are found here in Spain are probably stragglers ; 
they have merged their physical identity in that of their Span 
ish neighbours. Their political autonomy on this south side 
of the mountains being less marked, the power of ethnic re 
sistance vanished quickly as well. 

Having disposed of the explanation of origin by inter- 

* Cf. Aranzadi, 1896, pp. 34-36. 


mixture, the only hypothesis tenable is that these Basques are 
immigrants that they are an intrusive people. Dr. Collision s 
explanation is so simple and agrees so well both with history 
and with anthropological facts that we give it as nearly as 
possible in his own words.* During the Roman imperial 
rule a number of petty Iberian tribes, by virtue of the same 
tenacity which enables their descendants to enjoy political 
autonomy to this day, had preserved a similar independence 
south of the Pyrenees. Such were the Vardules, Caristes, 
Autrigons, and the Vascons (Basque by no means physically 
identical with the Gascons, although derived from the same 
root word). These last occupied the upper course of the Ebro 
that is to say, modern Navarra in Spain? ~ Tlie~ barBanan 
invasions ravished all Gaul with fire and sword. The Visi 
goths, controlling for a time the two slopes of the Pyrenees, 
were finally expelled from Aquitaine by the Franks, greater 
barbarians even than they. It is readily conceivable that these 
Visigoths about this time began to covet the rich territory of 
the Vascons over in Spain, especially the environs of Pam 
plona, which were of great strategic importance. History 
furnishes no details of the conflict, except that the Vascons 
were completely subjugated and partly driven into the Pyre 
nees. Here they speedily found their way over into Beam 
in France, meeting no opposition since the country there had 
mainly been depopulated^ by constant wars. This occupation 
by the Vascons, according to Gregory of Tours, took place in 
the year 587 that is to say, some time after the fall of the 
Roman Empire. f The invasion was accelerated later through 
the pressure exerted by the Spaniards, fleeing before the Sara 
cen conquerors in the south. Remnants of all the Spanish 
peoples took refuge at this time in the north. Impelled by 
this pressure from behind, the Vascons were driven out of the 
Pyrenees and still farther north into France, retaining their 
political autonomy under Prankish rule. Here they remained 

* Collignon, 1895, pp. 50 ct se<j. ; better in 18940; also Aranzadi, 1896, 
p. 131, who denies his conclusions. 

t For historical material, consult Blade, 1869, p. 42 ; and Hroca, 1875, 
p. 27, as well as Collignon, op. cit. 


undisturbed by the Saracens, save by the single army of Abd- 
er-Rahman. Hence on this northern side of the Pyrenees 
they have preserved their customs and physical characteristics 
intact, while in Spain intermixture has disturbed the racial type 
to a greater degree. The language alone has been better pre 
served south of the mountains because it was firmly fixed there 
before the Spanish refugees came in such numbers. Of our 
three layers of present population the dolichocephalic type in 
the fastnesses of the Pyrenees to-day represents the primitive 
possessors of Aquitaine. Here, driven to cover by the ad 
vancing wave of the Alpine stock on the north long before the 
fall of Rome, they have remained protected from disturbance 
by the later invaders from the south. The Yascons or Basques 
have simply passed through their territory, with eyes fixed 
upon the fertile plains of Aquitaine beyond. They spread 
out in two wings as soon as they were out of the mountains, 
as we have seen. In the course of time they have intermar 
ried with the primitive population of the Pyrenees ; and the 
latter have adopted the Basque language and customs : for 
they were penned in by them all along the base of the moun 
tains and had no other option. This community of language 
and customs could not fail to encourage intermarriage ; to the 
final end that to-day even in the mountains the Basque is con 
siderably crossed, as our map shows. In the plains, on the 
other hand, the line of demarcation of blood is as sharp as that 
of speech. Purity of type on this side was made possible by 
the political independence which Basse-Xavarre has always 

\Ye have still to inquire as to the physical origin of this 
curious people. We have traced them back to Spain. Whence 
did they come into this country in the first place? Are they 
of African descent, following Broca s theory, or are they off 
shoots from Mongolian stock as Primer Bey would have it? 
Or must we class them with the lost tribes of Israel? We 
already know the physical type of the prehistoric Cro-Magnon 
race. Let us compare it with our Vascons and test the theory 
of descent from it. The Masque head is disharmonic that is, 
it is broad, while the face is extraordinarilv narrow. This 


is in contravention of the general law that the face and the 
head usually participate alike in the relative proportions of 
breadth and length. Thus, as our portraits have shown, 
the broad-headed Alpine stock in Beam has a round, short 
face; while the dolichocephalic population of the Pyrenees, 
lying behind the Basque, has a correspondingly long, oval 
visage. The Cro-Magnon race offers the only other example 
of a widespread disharmonic head in Europe. Are our Basques 
derived from this pure ethnic source? Curiously enough, 
these two cases of disharmonism so near to one another cross 
at right angles. In the Basque the head is broad and the 
face narrow ; in the Cro-Magnon it is the head which is nar 
row while the face is broad. In view of this flat contradiction, 
the hypothesis of the Basque as a direct and pure descendant 
of the most primitive prehistoric population of Europe becomes 
completely untenable. Thus we dispose of one possible source 
for this people. \Ye have already rejected the theories based 
upon intermixture. The broad head of our Basque with its 
narrow face is explained by De Aranzadi,* himself a Basque, by 
the supposition of an admixture of Lapp blood to give the 
broad head with Iberian or Berber blood for the narrow face. 
Modern research is, however, inimical to such hasty assump 
tions of migration across continents and over seas : for the 
inertia of simple societies is immense. Causes of variation 
nearer at home are regarded as more probable and potent, and 
there is none more powerful than social selection. 

The difficulty of placing the Basque is solved by Col- 
lignon in a novel and yet simple way which has won favour 
already among anthropologists. It is of great significance for 
the student of sociology. His explanation for the Basque type 
is that it is a sub-species of the Mediterranean stock evolved 
by long-continued and complete isolation, and in-and-in breed 
ing primarily engendered by peculiarity of language. The 
effects of heredity, aided perhaps by artificial selection, have 
generated local peculiarities and have developed them to an 
extreme. The objection to this derivation of the Basque from 

* Briefly stated in his 1894 a. 


50. Zamudio, 

Tolosa, Guipuzc oa. 

FRENCH BASQUE, Basses- I ynJnee 


the Mediterranean stock which at once arises is that the latter 
is essentially dolichocephalic, while the Basques, as we have 
shown, are relatively broad-headed. It appears, however, that 
the Basque is broad-headed in the main pretty far forward near 
the temples. The cranium itself at its middle point is of only 
medium width and the length is merely normal. The propor 
tions, in fact, excluding the frontal region, are very much like 
those of the Mediterranean stock in Spain across the Pyre 
nees. They approach much nearer to them, in fact, than to 
the Alpine or broad-headed stock. It is thus only by its ab 
normal width at the temples that the cranium of the Basques 
may be classed as broad-headed.* Collignon regards the type, 
therefore, as more or less a variation of the Mediterranean va 
riety, accentuated in the isolation which this tribe has always 
enjoyed. It approaches in stature and in general proportions 
much nearer also to the Mediterranean than to the Alpine stock 
in France. 

That the Basque facial type that which is recognised as 
the essential characteristic of the people, both in France and 
Spain is a result of artificial selection, is rendered probable 
by another bit of evidence. The Basques, especially in France 
where the type is least disturbed by ethnic intermixture as we 
have seen, are distinguishable from their Bearnais neighbours 
by reason of their relatively greater bodily height. f This ap 
pears upon our map of stature on page 170. The lighter tints 
denoting taller statures are quite closely confined within the 
linguistic boundary. This is not due to any favourable influ 
ence of environment ; for the Basque foothills are rather below 
the average in fertility. The case is not analogous to that of 
the tall populations of Gironde, farther to the north, light 
tinted upon the map. They, as we took occasion to point out 

* On true and false brachycephaly of this kind elsewhere, consult 
Lapouge, 1891 b; and Lapouge-Durand, iS97- 98 (rep.), p. 16 ; as also 
Ujfalvy, 1896 a, pp. 84 and 398. 

f The same superiority of stature, as compared with the rest of Spain, 
appears on the map at p. 170. Olorix in Xavarra made no distinction be 
tween Spanish and Basques ; else perhaps the northern half of that prov 
ince would have been revealed as equal to Guipuzcoa or Vi/.caya in 


in the preceding chapter, are above the average either in Dor- 
dogne on the north or in Landes on the south. The con 
trasted tints show this clearly. These differences are in great 
measure due to the surpassing fertility of the valley of the 
Garonne as compared with the sterile country upon either 
flank. Xo such material explanation is applicable to the 
Basque stature. Some other cause must be adduced. Ought 
not artificial selection, if indeed it once became operative in a 
given ethnic group, to work in this direction? Goodly stat 
ure is earth-wide regarded as a type of beauty. We know that 
the Basques are proud of this trait. May they not have evolved 
it, or at least perpetuated it, by sexual choice perhaps ? This, 
of course, is merely supposition on our part, but it seems to 
be worthy of mention. 

The development of a facial type peculiar to certain locali 
ties is by no means a rare phenomenon. We shall have occa 
sion to call attention to it later in other portions of Europe, 
particularly where isolation prevails. The form of the nose, 
the proportions of the face, nay, at times the expression, seem 
to be localized and strongly characteristic. Thus among the 
Finnic peoples in Russia, however much they may differ in 
head form, a characteristic physiognomy remains.* It is 
easy to conceive of artificial selection in an isolated society 
whereby choice should be exercised in accordance with cer 
tain standards of beauty.which had become generally accepted 
in that locality. It is merely an illustration of what Giddings, 
in his Principles of Sociology, aptly terms a recognition of 
" consciousness of kind " ; or, as Dr. Beddoe puts it, of " fash 
ion operating through conjugal selection." f An example 
of the effect of selection of this kind in producing strongly 
individual types is offered by the Jews. They as a race vary 
greatly in the proportions of the head, and in colour of eyes 
and hair to a lesser degree. Nevertheless, despite all variations 
in these characteristics, the prominent facial features remain 
always the same.J The first, being inconspicuous traits, are 
allowed to run their natural course; the latter are seized upon 

* Beddoe, 1893, p. 40. 

f Beddoe, 1893, p. 12, discusses this. \ Vide p. 49 supra. 


and accentuated through the operation of sexual preference 
for that which has become generally recognised either as beau 
tiful or ethnically individual. 

In the attempt to justify this interesting sociological ex 
planation for the peculiarities of the Basques, causing them to 
differ from their parent Mediterranean stock, several corrobo 
rative facts have come to light. In the first place the people 
themselves are fully conscious of their peculiarities. Col- 
lignon gives an interesting illustration of this in the ease with 
which a Basque is recognised at a glance.* Certain customs 
among the peasants seem to imply a recognition of their facial 
individuality. These all tend to accentuate the peculiarities 
which have now apparently become hereditary among them. 
The chin is almost invariably shaven in the adults, with the 
effect of exaggerating its long and pointed formation. f More 
conclusive still, it is said that in early manhood side whiskers 
are often grown upon the broadest part of the cheeks. This 
would obviously serve still more to exaggerate the peculiar 
form which the face naturally possesses. A neighbouring peo 
ple, the Andalusians, differ in their way of adorning the face 
in such wise as to heighten the contrast between themselves 
and the Basques. Among them chin whiskers are grown, 
which serve to broaden their already rounded chins and to 
distinguish them markedly from the pointed-chinned Basques. 
All this fits in perfectly with much of the evidence brought 
forward by Westermarck, in his History of Human Marriage, 
serving to show that the fashions in adornment which prevail 
among various peoples are largely determined by the physical 
characteristics which they naturally possess. Thus the North 
American aborigines, having a skin somewhat tinged with a 
reddish hue, ornament themselves almost entirely with red 
pigment, heightening still more their natural characteristics. 
Among the negroes a similar fact has been observed, in each 
case the attempt being to outdo nature. 

Is it not permissible to suppose that here the same process 
has been at work gradually remoulding the physical type? 

* i><HC, p. 281. j. Aranxadi, 1896, pp. 70, 101. 


A far-reaching and bold hypothesis this, to be sure. It would 
have less probability in its favour did we not observe in modern 
society many phenomena of fashion and custom closely akin 
to it in their immediate effects. We have but to suppose a fash 
ion arising by chance, or perhaps suggested by some casual 
variation in a local hero or prominent family. This fashion we 
may conceive to crystallize into customary observance, until 
finally through generations it becomes veritably bred in the 
bone and part of the flesh of an entire community. A primary 
requisite is isolation material, social, political, linguistic, and 
at last ethnic. Xo other population in Europe ever enjoyed 
all of these more than the Basques. If such a phenomenon 
could ever come to pass, no more favourable place to seek its 
realization could be found than here in this uttermost part of 



SCANDINAVIA, by reason of its geographical remoteness 
from the rest of Europe, and also because of its rigorous cli 
mate and the infertility of its soil, contains naturally one of 
the most highly individualized populations in Europe. AYe 
have already seen that it is the home of the Teutonic race in its 
maximum purity. Representatives of this type in its several 
varieties are given in the accompanying portrait pages. It 
will be observed that the head form, in every case where our 
subjects have been measured, is of the long and narrow type 
already made familiar to us in the earlier chapters. The 
cephalic index falls, as a rule, well below 78. This degree of 
long-headedness, however, judging by our map of cephalic in 
dex on the next page, is almost entirely confined to the interior 
of the country. It is especially marked in the long, narrow val 
ley of the Glommen, known as Osterdal, and also about Vaage 
in the upper Gudbrandsdal.f These two regions, according to 
our map, are the purest Teutonic districts in Norway, which 
means by implication, perhaps, in all Europe. Our two por 
trait types from this region, Vaage and Hedalen, are clear 
examples of this tall, oval-faced, straight-nosed, and clear 
blond variety. It is not without interest, especially in its bear 
ing upon our future contention J that the Scandinavian peo- 

* To Major Dr. C. O. E. Arbo, of Christiania, I am deeply indebted for 
assistance both in the matter of personal notes and of photographs in all 
that concerns Norway. From Sweden science has much to hope from the 
extensive investigations now proceeding under the personal direction of 
Prof. Hultkrantz, of Stockholm. Full lists of the literature are given in 
cur Bibliography. 

f Arbo, 1891, especially pp. 4, 28. 

t Page 364. 




pies are of the same race as the Lithuanians and Finns across 
the Baltic on the east, to note that the blondness of these 
purest Teutons very often assumes a reddish cast. In one 
place, Aamlid, Arbo found the remarkable proportion of nine 
teen per cent of red hair, for example, a frequency unequalled 


elsewhere in Europe, either in Finland or Lithuania. Among 
the Scotch, notable for this rufous characteristic, the propor 
tion Is seldom above half of this.* It seems as if Topinard s 
law that the rufous shades are but varieties of the blond type 

* Arbo, 1891, pp. 28, 36 ; 1898, pp. 10 and 28. Bedcloe, 1885, pp. 151-156- 



were again verified in Norway, as it apparently has also been in 
Germany * and Italy, f 

The most striking feature of our map, perhaps, is that all 
along the seacoast, with the exception of the neighbourhood of 
Cergen and of the southeastern coast, a strong tendency to very 
prevalent broad-headedness appears. This is especially marked, 
even far inland in the southwest angle of the coast by Stavan- 
ger. From this town south for quite a distance the character of 
the coast differs entirely from the fiord-like and deeply indented 
shore-line on either side. There are no mountains here break 
ing away abruptly down to the sea. The coast is low and sandy, 
especially noticeable being the absence of those protected 
waters, highly favourable to coastal navigation, so character 
istic of Scandinavia as a whole. This district, J0deren, is 
sparsely populated, deriving no economic advantages either 
from fishing in the sea, or from mining industry or farming on 
land. It has, nevertheless, been populated since a very early 
period. Evidence of settlement in both the stone and the 
bronze age is abundant.^ In this region, despite the purely 
Teutonic character of the main body of Norway, a popula 
tion of decidedly Alpine affinities occurs. Arbo finds, as our 
map shows, an average index often as high as 83. In iso 
lated places it rises to an extreme of brachycephaly, in fact 
scarcely exceeded by central Europe.* Nor is this a recent 
phenomenon. Earth | has investigated crania from about the 
thirteenth century, finding the same broad-headed folk to be 
present. Among our portraits several of these types appear, 
especially good being the round-faced ones from J^deren. 

This brachycephalic coast population in Norway is ap 
preciably darker than the pure Teutonic ones which, as we 
have said, occur in the interior. Oftentimes the children may 

* Topinard, 1893 a ; Virchovv, 1886 b, p. 337. f Livi, 1896 a, p. 73. 
% Arbo, 1887, p. 263 ; 1894, pp. 167-178. 

* 1895 b, p. 12 ; 1894, p. 168. 

I 1896, p. 79, finds a curve of cranial index with two maxima, one at 
75 and one at 80, measured horizontally. It is very different for his 
curve for T0nsberg which is clearly Teutonic, culminating at 73 with 
almost no indices above So. 


still be light, even tow-haired ; but with advancing years dis 
tinctly brunet tendencies are revealed, especially in the hair.* 
In the colour of the eyes the differences from place to place 
are far less noticeable. Thus, while in the purest Teutonic 
populations in northern Osterdal and Gudbrandsdal about 
sixty per cent of the hair was light, with less than twenty per 
cent of really dark or black hair; in Joderen, Arbo found the 
blond and the really dark hair to be about equally represented, 
with forty per cent of each, the remainder being neutral in 
colour, f More than this has been proved. Not only are the 
broad-headed coast districts darker as a whole; in them the 
brachycephalic individuals actually tend to be darker than the 
other types, as Arbo has clearly shown. J Finally, while, as 
our map of stature indicates, the population of this south 
western corner of Norway is not distinctively shorter than the 
remainder of the country, nevertheless, in this region the 
broadest-headed types incline to shortness of stature.* In 
temperament these people, un-Teutonic in all of the ways we 
have described, are also peculiar. They seem to be more emo 
tional, loquacious, and susceptible to leadership, in contradis 
tinction to the stolid, reserved, and independent Teutons.] | 

We may profitably consider the stature of Scandinavia as a 
whole. Fortunately for comparisons with the rest of Europe, 
each of the two common methods of showing the distribution 
of this trait have been ^adopted for Norway and Sweden re 
spectively. On the other hand, direct comparison of one with 
the other is rendered impossible. All that we know with cer 
tainty, is that the general average for the two countries is about 
the same viz., 5 feet 6.7 inches (1.695 metres). This is, as 
we have already shown, considerably below the level for the 
British Isles, but it is superior to that of any other portion of 
Europe. Little direct relation of the local variations to the 
environment occur. In Norway, for example, while the dis 
trict west of Vaage shows by its dark tint a relatively short 

* On pigmentation in general, consult Topinard, 1889 c. 
f 1891, pp. 16 and 48 ; 1895 b, p. 49 ; 1898, p. 20. 

\ 1898, p. 68. * Arbo, 1895 a, p. 506 ; 1895 b, p. Si 

ll Arbo, 1891, p. 49; 1894, p. 173- 

VAAGE. Index 75. Index 76. HEDALEN. 


59. Stature 1.46 m. Index 87.5. Index 87.5. Stature 1.43 m. 60. 



AAMOT. Index 77. Index 76. TRYSIL. 

63. SHNDKE FKOX. Index 78. 




population, the highlands east of it, especially those in the 
upper Osterdal, do not seem to be depressed by their rugged 
environment. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this re 
gion is the habitat of the purest Teutonic population in the 



country, measured both by blondness and head form. It ought 
to excel, on racial grounds alone, many other districts, espe 
cially along the coast, where populations with intermixture of 
a shorter type prevail. Perhaps, indeed, the rigorous environ- 


ment may have been competent to hold these purest Teutons 
down in stature to the level of their neighbours.* The dark 
shade, denoting a short-statured population on the eastern 
frontier, next to Sweden, seems to be of peculiar origin. The 
people of Trysil are not only abnormally short for Scandinavia ; 
they seem to be quite dark, often being characterized in fea 
tures by a Mongolian cast.f This appears in our subject 
from this valley, whose portrait is surely of such a type. Who 
shall say that this bit of long-headed but broad-faced and dark 
population is not again an outcrop of that Cro-Magnon type, 
so nearly extinct elsewhere in Europe save in southern France ? 
As for Sweden, the depression of stature north of Jemtland 
and Helsinge where tallness culminates, may be due to either 
of two causes, as Hultkrantz ( 97) suggests. Intermixture with 
the Lapps would inevitably tend to depress the average height, 
and the poverty of the environment would have a tendency in 
the same direction. 

What explanation can be offered for the curiously un- 
Teutonic population which seems to fringe the coast of Nor 
way, especially centreing in the southwest ? It is an untenable 
hypothesis, as, in fact, Nilsson found it, to ascribe this to the 
persistence of a substratum of Lapps from the stone age. 
These people, to be sure, are characterized by all the traits 
noted in the southwest of Norway, and this, moreover, to an 
extraordinary degree. They are almost dwarfed in stature; 
they are dark-haired and" swarthy; and, as our two portraits 
illustrate, they are broad-headed to an extreme. Their squat 
faces prove this, even in absence of anthropometric data; no 
contrast could be more striking than that between the Lapps 
and the Teutons. The difficulty, however, in holding them 
responsible for the cross of physical traits in the southwest is 
a very positive one, albeit, mainly, geographical in character. 
The Lapps lie at the remotest distance from this district ; there 
is no evidence in place names or otherwise that they ever oc 
cupied the country even as far south as Vaage.J Arbo, re 
alizing the impossibility of this hypothesis, has not apparently 

* Arbo, 1895 a, p. 511. t Arbo, 1891, p. 14. 

\ Arbo, 1895 a, p. 512 ; Dueben, 1876. 


hit upon the explanation which seems to us to be perfectly 
simple. It is this : that here in the southwest of Norway we 
have an outlying lodgment of the Alpine racial type from cen 
tral Europe. This view is greatly strengthened by virtue of 


32.367 O&SERVATlONJ 


the fact that Denmark, just across the Skager Rack, so far as 
our indefinite knowledge goes, seems to be peopled by a type 
not unlike that of J0deren. The peninsula is far less purely 


Teutonic than Schleswig-Holstein, as we shall see,* this being 
especially true of the islands off the coast, f The name Borreby 
denotes a distinctly brachycephalic stone-age type, which was 
long characteristic of this region. The modern peasantry have 
somewhat recovered from this foreign infiltration, and have 
seemingly reverted to their aboriginal Teutonism, judging by 
the head form.J Perhaps this Alpine settlement in Denmark is 
only a part of the expansion which, as we shall see, exerted for 
a time a profound influence upon the British Isles as well.* 
The same Round Barrow people may likewise be responsible 
for the strong representation of the type in the Faroe Islanders 
at the present time.|| Nor does our chain of evidence connect 
ing the Alpine element in Scandinavia with its congeners in 
middle Europe stop here. We shall be able to prove later that 
Holland also has been a stepping-stone of the Alpine race in its 
extension to the northwest; so that we may thus trace the type 
throughout its entire migration toward the north. 

The anthropological history of Scandinavia would then be 
something like this : Norway has, as Undset suggests, prob 
ably been peopled from two directions, one element coming 
from Sweden and another from the south by way of Denmark. 
This latter type, now found on the seacoast, and especially 
along the least attractive portion of it, has been closely hemmed 
in by the Teutonic immigration from Sweden. This being so, 
we are tempted to look to the interior of the peninsula, as at 
Vaage and over in Sweden in the celebrated Dalarna district 
just south of Jemtland on our map, for the Teutonic race in its 
purest essence. A Thus we are led to expect Sweden as a 

* Beddoe (1885, pp. 16 and 233, and 1867-690) gives an index of 80.5 
for the Danes. Deniker, 1897, p. 197, holds it to be lower than this. Cf. 
Ranke, Beitrage, iii, 1880, p. 165. 

f Virchow, 1870, pp. 64-71. Soren-Hansen, 1888, gives data on bru- 

\ Ranke, 1897 a, p. 54; Dueben, 1876. 

* Beddoe, 1885, p. 16. I Arbo, 1893. 

A Johanssen and Westermarck, 1897, found an index of 76.5 for 654 
women in Stockholm. Thirty-nine Swedes from the lumber camps of 
Michigan averaged 76.9. Hultkrantz finds no averages above 79, most of 
them being 77 or 78. Dueben, 1876, confirms it. 


whole to be more homogeneous racially than Norway, al 
though, perhaps, further investigation may demonstrate that 
Gottland has been infected from Denmark as the coast of J0- 
deren in Norway has been. Everything leads us to look to 
ward the Baltic Sea as a centre of dispersion for this Teutonic 
race ; for we shall find it represented along the opposite coast 
in Finland and Lithuania to a marked degree as well. 

Germania ! A word entirely foreign to the Teutonic speech 
of northern Europe. Deutschland, then, the country of the 
Deutsch not Dutch, for they are really Netherlanders. What 
do these words mean? What territories, what peoples do 
they comprehend? The Austrians speak as pure German as 
the Prussians ; yet the defeat of Koniggratz, barely a genera 
tion ago, left them outside of Germany. On the other hand, 
the Polish peasants of eastern Prussia, with their purely Slavic 
language, are accounted Germans in good standing to-day.* 

Ambiguous linguistically, do these words, German or 
Deutsch, imply any temperamental or religious unity? This 
can not be, for the main participants in the Thirty Years 

" Fighting for conciliation, 
And hating each other for the love of God " 

were Germans. Historians are accustomed to identify the di 
vision line of belief in this conflict with that of racial origin. 
They are pleased to make the independent, liberty-loving spirit 
of the Teutonic race responsible for the Protestant Reforma 
tion. Let us not be too sure about that. Such bold generali 
zations are often misleading. Racial boundaries are not so 
simple in outline. The Prussians and the Prussian Saxons 
Martin Luther was one were anything but pure Teutons 
racially; this did not prevent them from siding with Prince 
Christian and Gustavus Adolphus. And then there were the 
Bohemians who began the revolt, and the Swiss Calvinists, 
and the rebels of the Peasants War in Wurtemberg! None 

* Von Fircks, 1893, gives the latest linguistic map of this region. 
Langhans, 1895, maps the whole Empire. 


of these were ethnically Teutons. Let us beware of such as 
criptions of a monopoly of virtue or intellect to any given race, 
however comforting they may be to us who are of Teutonic 
descent. Modern Germany, to be sure, is half Catholic and 
half Protestant, but the division \vas not of ethnic origin in 
any sense. Thus the word German is even more nondescript 
religiously than linguistically. In short, it applies to-day to 
an entirely artificial concept nationality the product of 
time and place. Religious, linguistic, and in large measure 
political differences have merged themselves in a sympa 
thetic unity. Thus has the original meaning of the word 
Deutsch a people or nation come to its truest expression 
at last. 

The fact is that nationality need not of necessity imply any 
greater uniformity of ethnic origin than of either linguistic or 
religious affiliations. Such we shall soon see is the case in 
Italy, as in France. Especially clear are the two distinct racial 
elements in the former case. And in Germany, on the northern 
slopes of the main European watershed, we are confronted 
with a great nation, whose constituent parts are equally di 
vergent in physical origin. With the shifting of scene, new 
actors participate, although the plot is ever the same. It is not 
a question of the Alpine and Mediterranean races, as in Italy. 
The Alpine element remains, but the Teuton replaces the other. 
Briefly stated, the situation is this: Northwestern Germany 
Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, Westphalia is distinctly allied 
to the physical type of the Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes. 
All the remainder of the Empire no, not even excluding 
Prussia, east of the Elbe is less Teutonic in type; until finally 
in the essentially Alpine broad-headed populations of Baden, 
Wiirtemberg,and Bavaria in the south the Teutonic race passes 
from view. The only difference, then, between Germany and 
France in respect of race is that the northern country has a 
little more Teutonic blood in it. As for that portion of the 
Empire which was two generations ago politically distinct from 
Prussia, the South German Confederation, it is in no wise 
racially distinguishable from central France. Thus has polit 
ical history perverted ethnology ; and, notwithstanding, each 



nation is probably the better for the blend, however loath it 
may be to acknowledge it.* 

First, and always, as to the physical geography of the coun 
try: everything ethnically depends upon that. It is depicted 
upon the map on the next page, which represents elevation 
above sea level by means of darkening tints, the mountainous 
regions being generally designated by the broad bands of shad 
ing. Draw a line from Breslau, or, since that lies just off our 
map, let us say from Dresden to the city of Hanover, and thence 
to Cologne (Koln). Such a line roughly divides the uplands 

* It is to be regretted that so many of the authorities on Germany have 
relied upon craniometric investigations rather than study of the living 
population. Even more grievous is the paucity of evidence regarding 
the northeastern third of the empire. With the exception of Baden, Ba 
varia, and Wiirtemberg, less is known of the German Empire than of any 
other part of Europe far less even than of Spain or Scandinavia. In our 
supplementary Bibliography we have indexed all authorities, where they 
may be found in extenso. In this place we may merely mention the larger 
standard works arranged chronologically : H. Welcker, Kraniologische 
Mittheilungen, Archiv f. Anth., i, pp. 89-160, 1866. A. Ecker, Crania 
Germanise meridionalis occidentalis, Freiburg i. B., 1865. H. von Holder, 
Zusammenstellung der in Wiirttemberg vorkommenden Schadelformen, 
Stuttgart, 1876. R. Virchovv, Beitrage zur physischen Anthropologie der 
Deutschen, u. s. w., Abh. kon. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, 1876; and also Ge- 
sammtbericht liber die Erhebungen iiber die Farbe der Schulkinder in 
Deutschland, Archiv f. Anth., xvi, pp. 275-475, 1886. J. Gildemeister, 
Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss nordwest deutscher Schadelformen, Archiv f. 
Anth., xi, pp. 26-63, 1879. J. Ranke, Beitrage zur physischen Anthro 
pologie der Bayern, Mlinchen, i883- g2. Ranke, also in Der Mensch, Leip 
zig, i886- 87, iii PP- 254-269, gives the completes! short summary of the 
anthropology of Germany extant. O. Ammon, Natlirliche Auslese beim 
Menschen, Jena, 1893, and especially his superb Anthropologie der 
Badener, 1899 one of the most complete regional monographs extant. 
Equally important, although not restricted to Germany alone, are 
the papers by Prof. J. Kollmann, especially his Schadel aus alten 
Grabstatten Bayerns, in Beit, zur Anth. Bayerns, Miinchen, i, 1877, pp. 
151-221. Certain technical points concerning these writers we have dis 
cussed in L Anthropologie, Paris, vii, 1896, pp. 519 seq. For ethnographic 
details the older work of Zeuss (vide bibliography) is now supplanted 
by that of K. Miillenhof, which may confidently be relied upon. Howorth, 
in Jour. Anth. Inst., London, vi and vii, is also good. For a convenient 
resume u{ our knowledge, both ethnographic and anthropological, consult 
also Herve, 1897. 



from the plains. To the north stretches away the open, flat, 
sandy expanse of Hanover, Oldenberg, Pomerania, Branden 
burg, and Prussia. This vast extent of country is mainly below 
one hundred metres in elevation above the sea. South of our 




division line the land rises more or less abruptly to a region 
upward of a thousand feet in altitude. In Bavaria, Wurtem- 
berg, and Bohemia lie extensive table-lands fully five hundred 
feet higher even than this, giving place finally to the high 


Alps. The transition from north to south is particularly em 
phasized along our artificial division line by the fringe of 
mountains which lie along it, including the Riesen and Erzge- 
birge bounding Bohemia, the heavily wooded mountains of 
Thiiringen, and farther west the Harz, the Waldgebirge, and 
the Westerwald by Cologne. On this side the highlands across 
the narrow gully of the Rhine River have already been de 
scribed in speaking of the Ardennes uplands in France and 
Belgium. Their extension in Germany is known as the Rhen 
ish plateau. 

For the sake of unity of treatment, preserving the general 
form of argument adopted for other countries of Europe, 
let us consider the head form of the people first. At once 
we perceive a progressive broadening of the heads that is, 
an increase of cephalic index as we travel outward from 
the northwestern corner of the empire in the vicinity of Den 
mark.* Thus we pass from a head form identical with that of 
the Scandinavians, to one in the south in no wise distinguish 
able from the Swiss, the Austrian, and other Alpine types in 
France and northern Italy. Our three accompanying portraits 
on the next page will serve to illustrate this gradual change 
of physical type.f The first is a pure blond Teuton, blue- 
eyed, fair-haired, with the characteristically long head and nar 
row, oval face of his race. The features are clear cut, the nose 
finely moulded. Such is the model common in the upper 
classes all over Germany. Among the peasants it becomes 
more and more frequent as w r e approach the Danish peninsula. J 

* In L Anthropologie, vii, 1896, pp. 513-525, we have given detailed 
citation of all authorities, with their data. Ranke, Der Mensch, ii, p. 264, 
is best among Germans. 

f For these photographs I am indebted to my very good friend Dr. 
Otto Ammon, of Karlsruhe i. B., whose work we have noted elsewhere. 

\ Von Holder, 1876, p. 15. On this region consult Gildemeister, 1879; 
Meisner, 1883 et seq. ; Virchovv, 1872 b ; Sasse, 1876 a, etc. Virchow s 
great work, 1876 a (also 1872 b), attempting to prove the existence of a 
low-skulled dolichocephalic Frisian population in this region, antedating 
the true Teutonic long-headed Franks, has not apparently been confirmed 
by later observers. Consult especially, von Holder, 1880, and A. Sasse, 
1879, and our chapter on the Netherlands. 


Here in these northwestern provinces it predominates, but 
gives place slowly to a mixed and broader-headed type as we 
pass eastward into Prussia. The intermediate type of head 
form prevalent in regions of ethnic intermixture is depicted in 
our middle portrait. In this particular case the eyes were still 
blue, but the hair was brown. This variety occurs all along the 
division line between upland and plain, which we traced a few 
moments ago. It appears that it is indigenous in Thuringen, 
the Hesses, and, in fact, all. the isolated bits of highland down 
to the Baltic plain. Oftentimes the result of intermixture is a 
disharmonism, in which the broad Alpine head is conjoined 
with the longish face of the Teuton; less often the reverse. 
This is quite common in Bavaria and the Alpine highlands, as 
our portraits from these regions will show. Mixed types of 
this kind occurring everywhere in the south prove that the 
Teutonic invaders were finally outnumbered by the indigenous 
Alpine inhabitants. The pure, unmixed Alpine race finds its 
expression in the plateaus of Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, in the 
Schwarzwald, the Rauhe Alp, and parts of the Thuringerwald. 
Such is our third type, with its rounded face and skull fore 
shortened from front to back.* Our representative here pho 
tographed was dark brown both in hair and eyes, nose rather 
irregular, less finely moulded perhaps ; certainly considerably 
broader at the nostrils than in the Teutons. At the same time 
the stature was short, only five feet one inch and a half, with 
a correspondingly stocky figure. The facts speak for them 
selves. There can be no doubt of two distinct races of men. 

It is especially important to emphasize the fact that the 
heads broaden not only from the neighbourhood of Denmark 
southward but toward the east as well. This raises what was 
once a most delicate question. What is the place of the Prus 
sians among the other peoples of modern Germany ? The po 
litical supremacy of the house of Hohenzollern in the Diet of 

* Whether there is a universal tendency in the south toward a rela 
tively high-vaulted crania seems doubtful. Virchow, 1876 a, p. 53 et seq., 
emphasizes the low flat skulls in Frisia ; while Ranke proves the exist 
ence of high heads with steep foreheads in Bavaria. (Beitrage, ii, 1879, 
p. 53 ; iii, iSSo, p. 172 ; v, 1883, p. 60.) 

Teutonic type. Hair light, eyes blue. 
Stature 1.72 m. (5 ft. 7.7 in.). Ceph. Index 75 

Mixed type. Hair brown, eyes blue. 
Stature 1.62 m. fs ft. 3.8 in.). Ceph. Index 83 

Alpine type. Eyes and hair dark brown. 
Stature 1.59 m. (5 ft. 2.6 in.). Ceph. Index 86. 



the Empire; and the whilom rivalry and jealousy of the other 
states, made it once a matter of some concern to determine this 
point. Happily for us, such questions have no terrors to-day. 
We have already seen how securely nationality may rest upon 
heterogeneity of physical descent. Be that as it may, it seems 
to be certain that the peasantry of Prussia is far from being 
purely Teutonic in physical type. We should expect this to be 
the case, of course, in those eastern provinces, Posen and Sile 
sia, which still retain their Slavic languages as evidence of for 
mer political independence. These ought normally to be allied 
to Russia and eastern Europe, as we have already observed. 
But as to Brandenburg the provinces about Berlin. How 
about them? Do they also betray signs of an intermixture 
with the broad-headed Alpine race, of which the Slavs are part ? 
It seems to be so indeed. Germany on the east shades off im 
perceptibly into Silesia and the Polish provinces of Russia. 
Little by little the heads broaden to an index rising 83. 
Whether this is a product of historic expansion we may dis 
cuss later. For the present we may accept it as a fact.* 

The race question in Germany came to the front some years 
ago under rather peculiar circumstances. Shortly after the 
close of the Franco-Prussian War, while the sting of defeat was 
still smarting in France, De Quatrefages, an eminent anthro 
pologist at Paris, promulgated the theory, afterward published 
in a brochure entitled The Prussian Race, that the dominant 
people in Germany were not Teutons at all, but were directly 
descended from the Finns. Being nothing but Finns, they 
were to be classed with the Lapps and other peoples of west 
ern Russia. As a consequence they were alien to Germany 
barbarians, ruling by the sword alone. The political effect 
of such a theory, emanating from so high an authority, may 
well be imagined. Coming at a time of profound national hu 
miliation in France, when bitter jealousies were still rife among 
the Germans, the book created a profound sensation. It must 
be confessed that the tone of the work was by no means judi- 

* Virchow admits it himself, Alte Berliner Schadel, 1880 b, p. 234. Cf. 
Bernstein on stature also ; Lagneau, 1871, gives ethnology ; confirmed by 


cial, although it was respectably scientific in its outward form. 
Thus the chapter in it describing the bombardment of the 
Musee d Histoire Naturelle, of which De Quatrefages was the 
director, intended to prove the anti-civilized proclivities of the 
hated conquerors, could not in the nature of things be entirely 
dispassionate. The Parisian press, as may be imagined, was 
not slow to take advantage of such an opportunity. Articles 
of De Quatrefages in the Revue des Deux Mondes were every 
where quoted, with such additions as seemed fitting under the 
circumstances. The affair promised to become an interna 
tional incident. 

A champion of the Prussians was not hard to find. Pro 
fessor Yirchow of Berlin set himself at work to disprove the 
theory which thus damned the dominant people of the Empire. 
The controversy, half political and half scientific, waxed hot 
at times, both disputants being held victorious by their own 
people.* One great benefit flowed indirectly from it all, how 
ever. The German Government was induced to authorize the 
official census of the colour of hair and eyes of the six million 
school children of the Empire which we have so often men 
tioned in these pages. One of the resultant maps we have 
reproduced in this chapter. It established beyond question 
the differences in pigmentation between the north and south 
of Germany. At the same time it showed the similarity in 
blondness between all the peoples along the Baltic. The Ho- 
henzollern territory was as Teutonic in this respect as the 
Hanoverian. Thus far had the Prussians vindicated their eth 
nic reputation. It is profoundly to be regretted that the in 
vestigation was not extended by a comprehensive census either 
of stature or of the head form of adults, similar to those con 
ducted in other countries. Such a project was, in fact, side 
tracked in favour of the census of school children. Whether 
politically inspired, or whether considered derogatory to the 
noble profession of arms, the Prussian army is forbidden for 
all scientific investigations of this kind, despite the efforts of 

* Under the dates of iS7i- 72, the articles by the two principal dis 
putants will be found in our Bibliography. Cf. Hunfalvy, 1872, 


Yirchow and other eminent authorities in that direction ; so 
that knowledge of this most important region is to-day almost 
entirely lacking. * 

To an American the apparent unwillingness of some of the 
Germans boldly to own up to the radical ethnic differences 
which exist between the north and south of the Empire is in 
comprehensible. It seems to be not improbable that the Teu 
tonic blond race has so persistently been apotheosized by the 
( .iermans themselves as the original Aryan civilizer of Europe, 
that to acknowledge any other racial descent has come to be 
considered as a confession of humble origin. Or, more likely 
still, this prejudice in favour of Teutonism is an unconscious re 
flection from the shining fact that this type is widely prevalent 
among the aristocracy all over Europe. Whether Aryan or 
not, it certainly predominates in the ruling classes to-day. At 
all events, the attempt is constantly being made to prove that 
the ethnic contrasts between north and south are the product 
of environmental influences, and not a heritage from widely 
different ancestry. This is not an impossibility in respect of 
pigmentation; but it can not be pushed too far. Thus Ranke 
of Munich, most eminent authority, has striven for years to ac 
count for the broad-headedness of the Bavarian population by 
making it a product of the elevated and often mountainous 
character of the country. This being proved, it would follow 
that the Bavarians still were ethnically Teutonic, merely fallen 
from dolichocephalic grace by reason of change of outward cir 
cumstances. This theory seems to be completely incapable of 
proof; for, as Ranke himself has shown, f the effect of the mal 
nutrition generally incident to an abode at considerable alti 
tudes is entirely in the opposite direction. Among poorly nour 
ished children in factory towns, for example, the immediate 
effect is to cause an arrest of development about the temples, 
exactly where the broad-headed Alpine race is so well en- 

* Virchow, 1876 a, p. 10. Reischel, 1889, is positively the only observer 
working on the living population in all of Prussia. 

t Beitrage zur Anth. Bayerns, i, 1877, pp. 232 seq., and 285 ; also ibid., 
". 1*79, P- 75 ; iii, iSSo, p. 149. H. Ranke, 1885, p. no, asserts the Bajo- 
vars to have been originally brachycephalic. 


dowed. It is strange to us in America to find how important 
such matters may become by reason of a social differentiation 
between races. Another patent example is offered in Russia. 
The late Professor Zograf of Moscow, than whom none stood 
higher as an anthropologist in Russia, confronted by the same 
division of ethnic types as Germany contains, has positively 
identified the blond long-headed one as the original Slav.* 
This may or may not be true ; it may be gratifying to have it 
so. To us the evidence apparently points the other way. In 
Russia, however, no other conclusion than this is likely to be 
generally popular. Pan-Slavism prevails there \vith a venge 

After this excursus, let us come back to statistics and exam 
ine the evidence from the study of blonds and brunets among 
the school children. Our double-page map, as will be ob 
served, includes not only the German Empire but Switzerland, 
Belgium, and Austria, down to the Adriatic as well exclu 
sive, however, of Hungary. Censuses \vere taken in all these 
countries in quick succession, f The system employed was 
identical in all, save in Belgium; and even here the definition 
of brunets was the same, although the term blond was made 
more comprehensive. For this reason the results are strictly 
comparable so far as our map is concerned. A great defect in 
all such investigations on children, as we have already stated, 
lies in the tendency to # darkening of hair and eyes with 
growth. This is probably intensified in the more southern 
countries, so that our shading probably fails to indicate the 
full extent of the progressive brunetness in this direction. 
North of the Alps, however, we may accept its evidence, pro 
visionally, at all events. 

One or two points on this map deserve mention, after not 
ing the general contrast between northern and southern Ger 
many. Observe how sharp the transition from light to dark 
becomes, all around the mountainous boundaries of Bohemia. 
Here we pass suddenly from Germanic into foreign territory ; 

*Cf. p. 355- 

I Virchow s report on Germany, 1886 b ; for Austria, Schimmer, 1884; 
for Switzerland, Kollmann, 1883 ; and for Belgium, Vanderkindere, 1879. 


for the Bohemian Czechs are truly Slavic in origin as in 
speech.* One wonders if it is purely chance that so accentu 
ated a brunet spot occurs about Prague. That is the capital 
city, the nucleus of the nation. As for the German-speaking 
Austrians, they are in no wise distinguishable in pigmentation 
from the Slovaks, Slovenes, Czechs, or other Slavic neigh 
bours all about them. The second point which we would em 
phasize is the striking way in which blondness seems to have 
trickled down, so to speak, through Wiirtemberg, and even 
as far as the Swiss frontier, f We have already called attention 
to this in a preceding chapter. It will bear repetition here. The 
Rhine Valley bears no relation to it. At first sight, the in 
filtration seems to have taken place directly across country. 
Closer inspection shows that it coincides with other evidence 
derived from the study of the head form in the same district. 
Especially noteworthy are the peculiarities of Franconia 
(Franken), the southern edge of which appears as the light- 
dotted area on our map on page 233. This Franconian long 
headed district extends over nearly the whole basin of the Alain 
River well into Bavaria, and, as our map shows, up along the 
Neckar. It constitues by far the clearest case of wholesale 
Teutonic colonization south of the Baltic plain. This is proba 
bly the cause of the wedge of blondness upon our large map. 
Historians tell us the Franks were Teutons, and here is where 
they first settled. Their further extension into Switzerland 
will be a matter for discussion hereafter. 

It is interesting to observe how this Teutonization of Fran 
conia, manifested in our map of brunet traits, tallies with geo 
graphical probability. J Here is just where we should be led 
to expect a settlement in any case. Turn back for a moment 
to our map of physical geography (page 216). As the invaders 
pushed southward, they would naturally avoid the infertile 
uplands bordering Bohemia, and on the west the difficult, 

* Schimmer, 1884, pp. viii, xi, and xix. 

f Virchow, 1886 b, p. 317. 

\ J. Ranke, Beitrage, iii, 1880, p. 144 to 148, proves by the cephalic 
index that the Main Valley was a centre of dolichocephaly. The contrast 
of the fertile valley with the Spessart, for example, is of great interest. 


heavily forested Rhenish plateau. Each of these wings of the 
German upland are of a primitive geological formation, agri 
culturally unpropitious, especially as compared with Thuringia 
rugged, but well watered and kindly, as it is. Suppose our 
Teutonic tribes to ascend the "\Yeser and its affluents, the 
Ful da and Werra, or perhaps the narrow gully of the Rhine 
to Mainz. There would be little to tempt them to turn back 
to the wooded country, either of Hesse or Thuringia. What 
was more natural, however, than that sedimentation should 
take place on reaching the fertile valley of the Main? Its 
basin, light dotted on our map, with that of the Neckar just 
south of it, forms as a consequence the great Teutonic colony 
in the Alpine highlands. Corroborative testimony of place 
names also exists. Canon Taylor,* for example, states that- this 
district is a hotbed of Teutonic, mainly Saxon, village and local 
names. It closely resembles parts of England in this respect. 
Further wholesale colonization to the south seems to have been 
discouraged by the forbidding Rauhe Alp or Swabian Jura. 
The Teutonic characteristics have heaped up all along its 
northern edge, as our map on page 233 shows ; but the moun 
tains themselves remain strongholds of the broad-headed type. 
A considerable colony of dolichocephaly lies on the other side 
of them, seemingly bearing some relation to the Allgauer dia 
lect. Beyond this all is Alpine in type. Allemanni and Hel- 
vetii have left no trace of Jheir Teutonism in the living popula 
tion. Mewed in the light of these geographical facts, the con 
trast in brunetness between Wurtemberg and Bavaria is readily 
explained. The fluvial portals of the Bavarian plateau open 
to the east, not the north. \Ye know that the Boii (Bohemians) 
and the Bajovars or ancient Bavarians came from this side, 
following up the course of the Danube. Their names are Kel 
tic, their physical characteristics seem to have been so as well.f 
One more physical trait remains for consideration before we 
pass from the present living population to discuss certain great 
historic events in Germany which have left their imprint upon 

* 1864 (ed. 1890), pp. 99-102. 

f Vide H. Ranke, Zur Craniologie der Kelten, 1885, pp. 109-121; J. 
Ranke, in Beitrii^e y.ur Anth. Bayerns, iii, 1880, pp. I49.r<v/.; and Pic, 1893. 



the people. We refer to stature. The patent fact is, of course, 
that the areas of blondness and of dolichocephaly are also 
centres of remarkably tall stature. Our three portrait types 
illustrated this relation in the individual combinations clearly. 
The first grenadier was five feet nine inches in height (i-75 
metres); the mixed type was shorter by about five inches (1.62 
metres), while the conscript from the recesses of the Black 
Forest in Baden stood but five feet two inches in his stockings 
(1.59 metres). This last case is a bit extreme; averages seldom 



(5 Ft -6.5 INS.) 

Wow 30 


fall in Germany below five feet five inches. Local variations 
are common, as elsewhere ; crowded city life depresses the 
average, prosperity raises it ; but underneath it all the racial 
characteristic, so inherent in the " sesquipedal " Teutons, 
makes itself felt wherever they have penetrated the territory 
of the short and sturdy Alpine race. An idea of the contrast 
between north and south Germany is afforded by considera 
tion of our various maps of stature on the accompanying pages. 
As will be seen, difficulty arises in direct comparison, owing to 


the two systems of calculation one of averages, the other of 
proportions above a given height. Our tints are adopted, how 
ever, to give a rough idea of the relations by means of the 
shading alone, dark tints always denoting the shorter popu 
lation.* The most Teutonic quarter of Germany, Schleswig, 
averages about five feet six and a half inches (1.69 metres), 
while the Bavarians as a whole are fully two inches shorter 
(1.63 metres). The Rhine, on the other hand, a pathway for 
Teutonic invasions, has generated a considerably taller popu 
lation in the southwest, noticeably in Alsace- Lorraine, f Baden 
seems to be appreciably shorter, as our map shows. Notwith 
standing the superiority in height of the purest Teutonic Ger 
mans,, they still exhibit the phenomenon to a less degree than 
the real Scandinavians whom we have examined. Fortunately, 
for Sweden and Norway, respectively, we have data suitable 
for comparison with both systems of our German maps. Nor 
way averages an inch or more above even these very tallest 
Germans ; Sweden contains a far higher proportion of abnor 
mally tall men also ; even as high as sixty per cent, as we have 
seen, while in Bavaria and Baden the proportion descends even 
lower than ten per cent.J 

A few particulars in the distribution of this trait should 
be noted in passing. The law that a mountainous environ 
ment tends to depress the average stature seems to be ex 
emplified in the Vosges.* On the other hand, in contraven 
tion of this law that the severity of climate and poverty 

* It would appear that from 20 to 30 per cent of statures above 1.69 m. 
(170 m. and above) corresponds to an average of about 1.63 metres ; 
10 to 19 per cent, represents an average of 1.61 metres ; and 30 to 39 per 
cent, to an average of 1.66 metres. 

f Reischel, 1889, finds a stature about Erfurt of about 1.66 metres ; 
not far from the average for Alsace-Lorraine (166.6). Kirchhoff, 1892, 
gives data about Halle. See also Sick, 1857, on Wiirtemberg ; and Engel, 
1856, on Saxony. Ranke s (Beitrage, v, 1883, p. 196) average of 1.676 me 
tres for 256 men seems to be above that indicated by his map. 

\ Comparisons may be continued internationally, by turning to our 
maps of Italy (page 255) and the Tyrol (page 101), both constructed on 
the same system of proportions above 1.69 metres ; that is to say, of 1.70 
metres and above. Brandt, 1898, gives parallel maps on both systems for 


of environment in mountainous districts exert a depress 
ing influence upon stature, the Alps and the Bohmerwald 
in Bavaria, contain a population distinctly above the general 
average in the great plateau about Ingolstadt. This is all the 
more extraordinary, since these mountaineers are Alpinely 



1.69 METERS 
(5 FT 65 INS) 


V R 

broad-headed and relatively brunet to an extreme. It would 
be a highly discouraging combination did we not remember 
that the great Bavarian plateau is itself of considerable altitude. 
Even then one is led to suspect, with Ranke,* that some process 

* 1881, p. 14. 



of selection has been at work to compass such a result. For if 
we turn to the Schwarzwald in Baden again, we there find that 
our law holds good. Wolfach, from which our portrait type 
was taken, exemplifies it completely. Here, on the high pla 
teau known as Die Baar, the average stature falls below five 
feet four inches, the lowest recorded, I believe, in the Empire. 
Austria proper, with the province of Salzburg, constitutes 
an isolated outpost of Teutonic racial traits, surrounded on 
three sides by populations of alien speech and of very different 
physical characteristics.* We shall speak of them later, in con 
nection with the Slavic people among whom they reside ;f 




but it is not without significance at this point to notice the 
physical resemblances between the Bavarians and the Austrian 
Germans. Both alike are Germanized members of the Alpine 
race. Both betray their mixed origin in the same fashion. 
To the Alpine race they owe their prevalent broad-headedness, 
while they have derived their relative superiority in stature 
over the Slavs and Hungarians, as well as their blondness, from 
a Teutonic strain. The same tendency to a disharmonic type 

* Weisbach, 1892, 1894, 1895 b. Consult also Auerbach, 1898 ; Peter- 
mann and Zuckerkandl. 
t Page 349. 


AUSTRIAN. Blue eyes, chestnut hair. Index 85. 

HUNGARIAN. Blue eyes, brown hair. Index 



of head and face, as among the Bavarians, is also apparent.* 
Such a union of a long face with a broad and round head is 
illustrated by our portraits herewith (cf. also page 290). A truly 
harmonic head is shown in the case of the Hungarian type, with 
which the Austrian may profitably be compared as respects 
the facial proportions. In pigmentation, the attenuated Teu 
tonic strain is to-day most apparent in the lightness of the eyes, 
the hair being far more often of a dark shade. Vienna seems, 
judging by our little map, to have served as a focus about 
which the immigrant Teutonism has clustered. It is also curi 
ous to note how the immediate valley of the Danube denotes 
the area of Germanic intensity of occupation. The head form 
increases rapidly in breadth on leaving the river. The influ 
ence of the Bohemian and Moravian brachycephaly is clearly 
manifest on our map. In the other direction, south of the Dan 
ube, the increase is less sudden. It is also important to notice 
that this Teutonism is not only local; it is quite recent and 
superficial. Archaeology reveals the presence of an earlier 
population, distinctly allied to another race in its characteris 
tics, f This region was the seat of the very important early 
Hallstatt civilization, of which we shall have more to say. At 
present it is sufficient to emphasize the fact that the kingdom 
of Austria to-day is merely an outpost of Teutonic racial occu 
pation, betraying a strong tendency toward the Alpine type. 

TW T O great events in the history of northern Europe have 
profound significance for the anthropologist. The first is the 
marvellous expansion of the Germans, about the time of the 
fall of Rome ; the second is the corresponding immigration of 
Slavic hordes from the east. Both of these were potent enough 
to leave results persistent to this day. 

We know nothing of the German tribes until about loo 
B. c. Suddenly they loom up in the north, aggressive foes of 
the Romans. For some time they were held in check by the 
stubborn resistance of the legions; until finally, when the re 
straining hand of Rome was withdrawn, they spread all over 

* Beitrage zur Anth., Bayerns, v, 1883, p. 200. 
f Vide p. 498 infra. 



western Europe in the fourth and fifth centuries of our era. 
Such are the well-known historic facts. Let us see what archae 
ology may add to them.* The first investigators of ancient 
burial grounds in southern Germany unearthed two distinct 
types of skulls. The round-headed variety was quite like that 
of the modern peasantry roundabout. The other dolichoceph 
alic^ type was less frequent, but strongly marked in places. 
An additional feature of these latter was noted at once. They 
were generally found in burial places of a peculiar kind. An 
easterly sloping hill was especially preferred, on which the skel 
etons lay with feet toward the rising sun probably a matter of 
religious importance. The bodies were also regularly disposed 
in long rows, side by side, a circumstance which led Ecker to 
term them Reihcngrdbcr, or row-graves. Other archaeologists, 
notably Lindenschmidt, by a study of the personal effects in 
the graves, succeeded in identifying these people with the tall, 
blond Teutonic invaders from the north. Such graves are 
found all through Germany as far north as Thiiringia. They 
bear witness that Teutonic blood infiltrated through the whole 
population. The relative intensity of intermixture varied 
greatly, however, from place to place. Our map on page 233 
shows in a broad way its geographical distribution in Wiir- 
temberg and Baden, so far as it can be measured by the head 
form. Rcihcngraber and cephalic index corroborate one an 
other. The most considerable occupation seems to have been, 
as we have said, in Franconia. We have already adduced some 
geographical reasons for the settlement in this place. Still an 
other one remains to be noted. The Prankish race spot seems 
to lie just outside the great wall, the Limes Romanus, which 
the Emperor Tiberius and his successors built to hold the bar 
barians in check. Von Holder has indicated the relation be 
tween the long-headed Teutonic areas and this ancient political 
boundary. Our map on page 233 is adapted from his.f The 

* Von Holder, 1876, p. 26; and 1880; Virchow, 1876 a, pp. 48 et seq.; 
Ranke, Beitrage, v, 1883, pp. 215-247. Bulle, 1897, gives reproductions 
of early representations of these types. 

f From Ammon s data we have roughly extended the area of brachy- 
cephaly, on this map, over into Baden. Von Holder s original map 


modern limits of the Prankish dialect also coincide with it 
in great part. Here, just outside the Roman walls, the Bur- 
gundians, Helvetians, and Franks undoubtedly were massed 
for a long time. 

The Black Forest in southwestern Germany affords us so 
good an opportunity for the comparison of relatively pure and 
mixed populations that a word more may be said respecting 







, 700 CRANIA*, 
N ^ DATA 86 b AND 

it. This mountainous, heavily wooded district, shown on our 
map herewith, lies close by the upper courses of the two prin 
cipal rivers of Europe, which have both formed great channels 
of racial migration. The Rhine encircles it on the west and 
south, and an important affluent of the same river bounds it on 

stopped at the frontier. The whole extent of the Roman wall in Germany 
is shown upon our subsequent map (on page 242) of village types, by 
means of a similar heavy black line. Its relation there to the Germanic 
village type can not fail to be observed. 



the east ; for the Xeckar drains the fertile plains of Wiirtem- 
berg, or Swabia, which lie about Stuttgart. This capital city, 
it should be observed, lies not far from the point of that blond 
Teutonic wedge which, we have already shown, penetrates 
central Europe from the north. The Danube also takes its 
source in the southeastern part of the Forest, and has there 
fore opened up still another route of racial immigration from 
this quarter.* 

There is every evidence that here in the Black Forest is an 
other mountainous area of isolation containing a people which 
is distinctly Alpine in type of head form as compared with the 
mixed populations of the fertile plains and valleys round about 
it. For example, the cephalic index in Wolfach in its centre is 
above 86, three units and more above the average for the Rhine 
Valley communes. f This difference is appreciable to the eye; 
it may be approximately shown by the three portraits in our 
series at page 218. Our pure Alpine type, in fact, is a native 
of Ober-Wolfach, where, as the black tint on our map indi 
cates, extreme brachycephaly is prevalent. Judged by this 
standard, there is every indication that the innermost recesses 
of the Black Forest contain the broad-headed Alpine type in 
comparative purity. 

For Wurtemberg and the Neckar Valley we have no mod 
ern researches upon living men to offer as evidence. In place 
of them we possess the results of which we have spoken above, 
obtained upward of thirty years ago from a study of the crania 
of modern populations. At that time von Holder discovered 
the existence of two distinct types of head form in the popula 
tion of Swabia, and he found them severally clustering about 
the two areas outlined upon his map on the next page. In the 
northern one, lying mainly beyond and north of the old Roman 

* Authorities upon this region are, primarily, Ecker, 1865, 1866, and 
1876 ; and Ammon, 1890, 1893, and 1894. A comprehensive work by Am- 
mon, based upon extensive observations, is now in press (1899). 

f This relation is obscured on our map because the administrative 
divisions nearly all extend from the river deep into the Forest, thus 
obliterating all local differences. The innermost recesses, moreover, with 
the exception of Wolfach, all lie across in Wiirtemberg ; in Xcuenburg, 
Calw, and Freudenstadt, for example, all shown upon our map. 



wall, he found traces of a long-headed population, deemed 
by him typical of the barbarians of Germany. Within the 
Limes Rouianns were mixed populations infused with Roman 
characteristics, but pointing to an isolated centre of broad- 



Plain white, the absence of shading on this map denotes an intermediate type of head 
form incident upon intermixture, 

headedness. This is shown by the dark-shaded areas. It 
will be observed at once that his results for Wiirtemberg and 
those of Ammon in Baden are a check upon one another, de 
spite the fact that the two researches were made over thirty 



years apart one upon skulls, the other upon living men. That 
in this Black Forest area of isolation we have to do with an 
island of the Alpine type is also rendered more probable by the 
relative shortness of its people.* This third physical trait 
helps, therefore, to confirm us in our deduction. 

A curious point here deserves mention. This population of 
the inner Black Forest being Alpine, ought normally to be 
darker in the colour of the hair and eyes than the Teutonic 
peoples round about. Nevertheless, the evidence all goes to 
show that, instead of being darker, it really manifests a distinct 
tendency toward blondness. Here, again, we are able to draw 
proof from two separate sources which serve as a check upon 
one another. Virchow f showed that a considerable part of 
the "Alpine area" in Wiirtemberg contained an abnormal num 
ber of blond children. For example, forty-two hundred chil 
dren in this Alpine area comprised but fifteen per cent of blond 
types, as compared with an average of nearly twenty-five per 
cent in the Rhine and Neckar Valleys. For Baden, however, 
the blondness of the upland interior region does not appear 
upon his map. Fortunately, we possess detailed results for this 
region of even greater value, since Dr. Ammon has studied the 
adult population. He asserts that there is a regularly increas 
ing blondness toward the centre of the Forest.J Why did this 
not appear among the thousands of school children in Baden 
studied by Yirchow? To venture a rash hypothesis, may it 
not have been because the influences of environment had not 
had time to produce their effects so strongly in childhood, and 
that they appeared in accentuated form at a later period of life ? 
At all events, it would appear that this surprising reversal of 
racial probability pointed to a disturbing influence of environ- 

* Compare our map showing Wolfach, on page 236. 

f 1886 b, pp. 404 and 428. It clearly appears on our map of relative 
brunetness at page 222. 

% For example, Wolfach, in the southern part of the "Alpine area," 
with the broadest heads in Baden, contains thirty-three per cent of blonds 
among adults. (Ammon, 1899, Tafel xii.) In this commune sixty-four per 
cent of the cephalic indices were above 85. Curiously, however, Obern- 
dorf, near by, has fewer blonds than any other part of southern Ger 
many. (Virchow, 1886 b, p. 307.) 


inent. \Ye have already taken occasion to note the effect of a 
mountainous or infertile habitat in the production of relative 
blondness. Perhaps we have another such case here in the 

Before we take leave of this most interesting quarter of Ger 
many, let us cross the Rhine and consider briefly the popula 
tions of Alsace-Lorraine.* This lies on the debatable land be 
tween German and French influence. Geographically it ex 
tends from the Rhine up on to the eastern side of the Ardennes 
plateau, of which we have treated in speaking of France 
and Belgium. Turning back to our map of head form on 
page 231, we observe at once how Alsace in particular is 
bounded on the west by the Yosges area of extreme brachy- 
cephaly. Here is a solid mass of Alpine population protected 
again in this instance against Teutonic submergence by the 
rugged nature of its territory. Investigation is bound to show 
a prevalent broad-headedness immediately on leaving the nar 
row river plain of the Rhine. At all the points throughout 
Alsace where Blind has examined crania in large numbers and 
these towns are shown on our map by distinctive tints within 
the small white circles this fact has been established beyond 
question. At the same time the Teutonic influence, spread 
ing from the Rhine, has been powerfully exerted in the matter 
of stature. Our map on the next page seems at first sight to 
indicate a much taller population in Alsace than in Baden. The 
main cause of the contrast is merely technical. Brandt s figures 
are for the soldiery only, after rejection of all the undersized 
men; while in Baden the averages are for all the recruits, with 
out distinction. This would superficially make the Alsatians 
seem far taller than the general population really is. Neverthe 
less, there can be no doubt of an appreciable superiority of 
stature west of the Rhine, and no other explanation than that 

* Schwalbe, of Strassburg, has recently inaugurated a brilliant series 
of monographs upon this region. Blind s data on the cranial index are 
embodied in our map on page 231; that of Brandt on the stature is 
reproduced on page 236. On Lorraine, Collignon, 1886 b, is best. The 
ground tints for Alsace are adopted from this latter authority ; Blind s 
local observations are shown separately within small white circles. 



of Teutonism can readily be invoked for it. Apparently, also, 
where, as in the inner valleys of the Yosges Mountains, the 
immigrant race is less strongly represented, the stature de 
creases as a consequence. The dark shades on this part of 
the map are highly significant for this reason. Brandt * has 



NOTE. The apparent superiority of stature west of the Rhine seems to be due to the 
fact that Brandt s data is for the accepted recruits only, excluding all the under 
sized ; while Ammon s figures for Baden include the entire male population. 

also shown, as an interesting corollary, that, as a rule, the 
German-speaking communes exceed the French in height, 
with very few exceptions. Thus do we in a slight degree detect 

* 1898, p. 21. 


the relation between the language and the physical traits of a 

The Teutons, in invading the territory of the indigenous 
Alpine population, only succeeded in displacing the aborigines 
in part. They followed up the rivers, and took possession of the 
open plains ; but everywhere else left the natives in relative 
purity. This accounts in some measure for tlu- ^i\-;it dirtYr- 
entiation between people of mountain and plain all over this 
part of Europe, to which we have constantly adverted. It en 
dows the whole event with the character of a great social move 
ment, rather than of a sudden military occupation. \Ye can 
not too fully guard against the hasty assumption that this 
Teutonic expansion was entirely a forcible dispossession of 
one people by another. It may have been so on the surface ; 
but its results are too universal to be ascribed to that alone.* 
A revolution of opinion is taking place among anthropologists 
and historians as well, to-day, similar to that which was stimu 
lated in geology many years ago by Sir Charles Lyell. That 
is to say, conceptions of terrific cataclysms, human or geologi 
cal, producing great results suddenly, are being supplanted 
by theories of slow-moving causes, working about us to-day, 
which, acting constantly, almost imperceptibly, in the aggre 
gate are no less mighty in their results. In pursuance of this 
change of view, students look to-day to present social slow- 
working movements for the main explanation of the great 
racial migrations in the past. 

"We can not resist the conclusion that the Teutonic expan 
sion must be ascribed in part to the relative infertility of the 
north of Europe ; possibly to differences in birth rates, and 
the like. Population outran the means of support. For a 
long while its overflow was dammed back by the Roman Em 
pire, until it finally broke over all barriers. It is conceivable 
that some such contrast as is now apparent between the F rench 
and Germans may have been operative then. The Germans 
are to-day constantly emigrating into northern France all 
over the world, in fact and why? Simply because popula- 

* Guizot, in his History of Civilization in France, lecture viii, offers 
an interesting discussion of this. 


tion is increasing very rapidly ; while in France it is practically 
at a standstill. Another effective force in inducing emigration 
from the north may have been differences in social customs 
indirectly due to environmental influences. Thus Baring- 
Gould * has called attention to the contrast in customs of in 
heritance which once obtained between the peasants of north 
ern and southern Germany. In the sandy, infertile Baltic 
plain the land is held in severally, inheritance taking place in 
the direct line. The oldest son, sometimes the youngest, re 
mains on the patrimony, while all the other children go forth 
into the world to make their way alone. Primogeniture pre 
vails, in short. In the fertile parts of Wurtemberg, on the 
other hand, where the village community long persisted, all 
the children share alike on the death of the father. Each one 
is a constituent element in the agrarian social body, for which 
reason no emigration of the younger generation takes place. 
The underlying reason for this difference may have been that 
in the north the soil was already saturated with population, 
so to speak. The farms were too poor to support more than 
a single family, a condition absent in the south. The net re 
sult of such customs after a few generations would be to induce 
a constant Teutonic emigration from the north. Military ex 
peditions may have been merely its superficial manifestation. 
It would, of course, be unwarranted to suggest that any one of 
these factors alone could cause the great historic expansion. 
Nevertheless, it is far from improbable that they were con 
tributory in some degree. 

When all the Teutonic tribes broke over bounds and went 
campaigning and colonizing in Gaul and the Roman Empire, 
a second great racial wave swept over Germany from the east. 
Perhaps the Huns and other Asiatic savages may have started 
it ; at all events, the Slavic hordes all over the northeast began 
to move. Here we have another case of a widespread social 
phenomenon, military on the surface, but involving too many 
people to be limited to such forcible occupation. There is 
abundant evidence that these Slavs did not always drive out 

* History of Germany, p. 78. 


the earlier population. They often merely filled up the waste 
lands, more or less peaceably, thus infiltrating through the 
whole country without necessarily involving bloodshed. 

There are several ways in which we may trace the extent of 
this Slavic invasion before we seek to apply our criteria of 
physical characteristics. Historically, we know that the Slavs 
were finally checked by Karl the Great, in the ninth century, 
at the so-called Limes Sorabicus. This fortified frontier is 
shown on our map on page 242, bounding the area ruled in 
large squares diagonally. The Slavic settlements may also 
be traced by means of place names. Those ending in its are 
very common in Saxony ; zig also, as in Leipzig, " city of lime 
trees"; a in Jena; dam in Potsdam all these cities were 
named by Slavs. Indications of this kind abound, showing 
that the immigrant hordes penetrated almost to the Rhine. 
To the northwest they occupied Oldenburg. As Taylor says, 
Slavic dialects were spoken at Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg, 
Halle, Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, Salzburg, and Vienna.* 

It seems impossible that the movements of a people should 
be traced merely by the study of the way in which they laid 
out their villages ; yet August Meitzen, the eminent statis 
tician, has just issued a great four-volume work, in which 
this has been done with conspicuous success. f It appears that 
the Slavic peoples in allotting land almost always followed 
either one of two plans. Sometimes they disposed the houses 
regularly along a single straight street, the church near the 
centre, with small rectangular plots of garden behind each 
dwelling. Outside this all land was held in common. Such 
a village is that of Trebnitz, whose ground plan is shown in 
our first cut on the next page.^ In other cases it was customary 
to lay out the settlement in a circular form, constituting what 
is known as the Slavic round village. In such case there is 
but one opening to the common in the centre, and the hold- 

* Consult Lagneau, 1871 ; Virchovv, 1878 c ; Bidermann, 1888 ; Reischel, 
1889, p. 143 ; Haupt, 1890. 

f 1895. Seebohm gives a good outline in Economic Journal, vii, p. 71 ; 
as also criticism by Ashley in Political Science Quarterly, xiii, p. 150. 

| Ibid., i, p. 52. 



ings in severalty extend outward in triangular sectors. Be 
yond these, in turn, lie the common pasture and woodlands. 

Slavic Long Village. Trebnitz, Prussian Saxony. 

Our second diagram represents one of these village types. 
Contrast either of these simple and systematic settlements with 
the one plotted in our third map. This Germanic village is 

Slavic Round Village. Witzeetze, Hanover. 

utterly irregular. The houses face in every direction, and 
stivrts and lanes cross and recross in delightfully hop-scotch 


2 4 I 

fashion.* Xor is the agrarian organization of this Germanic 
village by any means simple. Divided into small plots or 
" hides," so called, a certain number of each kind are, or were 
once, assigned by lot in rotation to the heads of households. 
These " hides " were scattered all about the village, so that a 
peasant might be cultivating twenty or more parcels of land 
at one time. The organization was highly complex, includ 
ing ordinances as to the kind of crops to be raised, and other 
similar matters of detail. \Ye shall not attempt even to outline 
such a " Hufenverfassung " ; for us it must suffice to note the 
complexity of the type, as opposed to the Slavic form. 

Germanic Village. Geusa, Prussian Saxony. 

Our large map on the next page shows the geographical 
distribution of these several village types. The circumscribed 
area of the original Germanic settlements is rather remarkable. 
It shows how far the Slavs penetrated in number sufficient thus 
to transform the landscape. It will be observed that on this 
map the small squares and triangles denote the areas into 
which the German tribes transplanted their peculiar institu 
tions. That they were temporarily held in check by the Ro 
mans appears from the correspondence between the Roman 

* Ibid., i, p. 47. 







wall, shown by a heavy black line on the map, and the southern 
boundary of the Germanic villages. Of course, when they 
spread abroad, a considerable change in the agrarian organi 
zation was induced by the fact that the emigrants went as a 
conquering class. The institutions became less democratic, 
rather approaching the feudal or manorial type ; but they all 
preserved sufficient peculiarities to manifest their origin. Such 
hybrid village types, covering all northern France and eastern 
England, are as good proof of Teutonization as we could ask.* 

It will be observed that all the village types we have so far 
illustrated are closely concentrated and compact. A remark 
ably sudden change in this respect takes place w r est of the 
original Germanic village area. The whole economic character 
of the country changes within a few miles. It is of great his 
toric importance. Our map shows the transition to occur 
strictly along the course of the Weser River. A large dis 
trict is here occupied by the Celtic house, so called. The small 
circles denote that there are no closely built villages at all in 
the region so marked. Each house stands entirely by itself, 
in the middle of its farm, generally in no definite relation to 
the highroads. These latter connect market places and 
churches perhaps, about which are sometimes dwellings for 
the schoolmaster, the minister, or storekeeper ; but the peas 
antry, the agricultural population, is scattered entirely broad 
cast. This resembles the distribution of our American farm 
ers dwellings in the Western States. We have no time to dis 
cuss the origin of these peculiarities. The opinion prevails 
that they stand in some relation to the clan organization of the 
Kelts, who are said to have once occupied this territory. The 
nearest prototype is, as our map show s, in the high Alps. 

It is high time to take up once more the main thread of 
our argument how far did the Slavic invasion, which so pro 
foundly influenced the agrarian institutions, the place names, 
and the speech, affect the physical type of the people of Ger 
many? We may subdivide the Slavic-speaking nations of 
eastern Europe, as we shall prove subsequently, into two 

* Vide map in Meit/en s Atlas to volume iii, Anlage 66 a. 



groups, which, however, differ from one another and from the 
pure Alpine race only in degree. The northern Slavs include 
the Russians, Poles, Slovaks, Czechs, and Wends ; the south- 
ern is composed of the Serbs, Croatians, Slovenes, and l>ul- 
garians. Both of these are broad-headed, the southern group 
being rather taller and considerably darker than the one which 
surrounds German v. All the modern Slavic peoples of north 
ern Europe approximate to the Alpine type ; from which it fol 
lows that intermixture of them with the Teutons ought nor 
mally to produce shorter stature, darker hair and eyes, and, 
most persistently of all, an increased breadth of head. The 
district where these changes have been most clearly induced 
is in the region of Saxony, especially about Halle. A notice 
able contrast is apparent between this district and the pro 
tected hills of Thuringia. The peasants in the plain of the 
Saale are appreciably shorter in stature and broader-headed 
than their neighbours. All over Thuringia the rule is that 
the population on the hills is taller, contrary to environmental 
influences, than that of the valleys. The explanation is that 
a short immigrant type has ousted the primitive and taller 
Teutons.* This Slavic invasion penetrated Bavaria from the 
northeast, the intruders apparently taking possession of the 
upland districts, which had been thinly peopled before. So 
well marked was this that the region south of Baireuth was 
long known as Slavonia.f The same people also seem to have 
been in evidence in \Yurtemberg. In places, as at Regens- 
burg and Berlin, we may trace the Slavic intrusion in the dif 
ferent strata of crania in the burial places.* The general ex 
tent ot this Slavonization of Germany is indicated upon our 
large double-page map of brunet types. The wedge of colour 
which seems to follow down the Oder and over nearly to Hoi- 
stein is undoubtedly of such origin, j Because of this historic 
movement Saxony, Brandenburg, and Mecklenburg are less 

* Reischel, 1889, especially pp. 138, 143 , Kirchhoff, 1892. 
\ Ranke, Beitrage, iii, 1880, p. 155. 

j: Yon Holder, 1876, pp. 15 and 27. 

* Von Holder, 1882; Virchow, iSSoa. 

|| Meisner, 1891, p. 320 ; Virchow, 1878 b. 

SAXONS. Individual portraits and composite. 
Loaned from the collection of Dr. H. P. Uowditch. 

WENDS, Saxony. Individual portraits and composite. 
From the collection of Dr. H. P. Bowditch. 


purely Teutonic to-day than they once were in respect of pig 
mentation. The whole east is, as we have already seen, broader- 
headed, shading off imperceptibly into the countries where pure 
Slavic languages are in daily use. Thus the contrast in cus 
toms and traditions between the eastern and western Germans, 
which historians since Caesar have commented upon, seems 
to have an ethnic basis of fact upon which to rest. Moreover, 
a hitherto unsuspected difference between the Germans of the 
north and of the south has been revealed, sufficient to account 
for many historical facts of importance. 



THE anthropology of Italy has a very pertinent interest for 
the historian, especially in so far as it throws light upon the 
confusing statements of the ancients. Pure natural science, 
the morphology of the genus Homo, is now prepared to render 
important service in the interpretation of the body of histori 
cal materials which has long been accumulating. Happily, 
the Italian Government has assisted in the good work, with 
the result that our data for that country are extremely rich 
and authentic.* The anthropological problems presented are 
not as complicated as in France, for a reason we have already 
noted namely, that in Italy, lying as it does entirely south of 
the great Alpine chain, we have to do practically with two in- 

* The best authority upon the living population is Dr. Ridolfo Livi, 
Capitano Medico in the Ministero della Guerra at Rome. To him I am 
personally indebted for invaiuable assistance. His admirable Antropo- 
metria Militare, Rome, 1896, with its superb atlas, must long stand as 
a model for other investigators. Titles of his other scattered monographs 
will be found in our Bibliography, as well as full details concerning the 
following references, which are of especial value : G. Nicolucci, Antro- 
pologia dell Italia nell evo antico e nel moderno, 1888 ; G. Sergi, Liguri 
e Celti nella valle del Po, 1883, giving a succinct account of the several 
strata of population ; Arii e Italici, 1898, of which a most convenient 
summary is given by Sergi himself in the Monist, 1897 b ; R. Zampa, Sulla 
etnografi a dell Italia, Atti dell Accademia pontificia de Nuovi Lincei, 
Rome, xliv, session May 17, 1891, pp. 173-18 ; and Crania Italica vetera, 
1891. Many details concerning primitive ethnology will be found in 
Fligier, i88ia; and Pulle, 1898. Full references to the other works of 
these authors, as well as of Calori.Lotnbroso, Helbig, Virchow, and others, 
will also be found in the Bibliography. Broca, 1874 b, in reviewing 
Nicolucci s work, gives a good summary of conclusions at that time, 
before the more recent methods of research were adopted. 


stead of all three of the European racial types. In other words, 
the northern Teutonic blond race is debarred by the Alps. 
It does appear in a few places, as we shall take occasion 
to point out; but its influence is comparatively small. This 
leaves us, therefore, with only two rivals for supremacy viz., 
the broad-headed Alpine type of central Europe and the true 
Mediterranean race in the south. 

A second reason, no less potent than the first, for the sim 
plicity of the ethnic problems presented in Italy, is, of course, 
its peninsular structure. All the outlying parts of Europe 
enjoy a similar isolation. The population of Spain is even 
more unified than the Italian. The former, as we shall see, 
is probably the most homogeneous in Europe, being almost 
entirely recruited from the Mediterranean long-headed stock. 
So entirely similar, in fact, are all the peoples which have in 
vaded or, we had better say, populated the Iberian Peninsula, 
that we are unable to distinguish them anthropologically one 
from another. The Spaniards are akin to the Berbers in 
Morocco, Algiers, and Tunis. The division line of races lies 
sharply defined along the Pyrenees. In Italy a corresponding 
transition, anthropologically, from Europe to Africa takes 
place more gradually, perhaps, but no less surely. It divides 
the Italian nation into two equal parts, of entirely different 
racial descent. 

Geographically, Italy is constituted of two distinct parts. 
The basin of the Po, between the Apennines and the Alps, is 
one of the best defined areas of characterization in Europe. 
The only place in all the periphery where its boundary is in 
distinct is on the southeast, from Bologna to Pesaro. Here, 
for a short distance, one of the little rivers which comes to 
the sea by Rimini, just north of Pesaro, is the artificial bound 
ary.* It was the Rubicon of the ancients, the frontier chosen 
by the Emperor Augustus between Italy proper and Cisalpine 
Gaul. The second half of the kingdom, no less definitely 
characterized, lies south of this line in the peninsular portion. 
Here is where the true Italian language in purity begins, in 

* Zampa, 1891 b, p. 177. 



contradistinction to the Gallo-Italian in the north, as Bion- 
delli (<53) long ago proved.* The boundaries of this half are 
clearly marked on the north along the crest of the Apennines, 
a\vay across to the frontier of France ; for the modern prov- 






inces of Liguria (see map) belong in flora and fauna, and, as 
we shall show, in the character of their population, to the 
southern half of the country. It is this leg of the peninsula 

* Grober, 1888, p. 489 ; and Pulle, 1898, pp. 65-89, with maps. 


below the knee which alone was called Italy by the ancient 
geographers ; or, to be more precise, merely the portion south 
of Rome. Only by slow degrees was the term extended to 
cover the basin of the Po. The present political unity of all 
Italy, real though it be, is of course only a recent and, in a 
sense, an artificial product. It should not obscure our vision 
as to the ethnic realities of the case. 

The topography and location of these two halves of the 
kingdom of Italy which we have outlined, have been of pro 
found significance for their human history. In the main dis 
tinct politically, the ethnic fate of their several populations 
has been widely different.* In the Po Valley, the " cockpit 
of Europe," as Freeman termed it, every influence has been 
directed toward intermixture. Inviting in the extreme, espe 
cially as compared with the transalpine countries, it has been 
incessantly invaded from three points of the compass. The 
peninsula, on the other hand, has been much freer from ethnic 
interference; especially in the early clays when navigation 
across seas was a hazardous proceeding. Only in the extreme 
south do we have occasion to note racial invasions along the 
coast. The absence of protected waters and especially of good 
harbours, all along the middle portion of the peninsula, has not 
invited a landing from foreigners. Open water ways have not 
enabled them to press far inland, even if they disembarked. 
These simple geographical facts explain much in the anthro 
pological sense. They meant little after the full development 
of water transportation, because thereafter travel by sea was 
far simpler than by land. Our vision must, however, pierce 
the obscurity of early times before the great human invention 
of navigation had been perfected. 

In order to give a summary view of the physical charac 
teristics of the present population which constitutes the two 
halves of Italy above described, we have reproduced upon the 
following pages the three most important maps in Livi s great 
atlas. Based as they are upon detailed measurements made 
upon nearly three hundred thousand conscripts, they can not 

* Cf. Livi, 18945. 



fail to inspire confidence in the evidence they have to present. 
Especially is this true since their testimony is a perfect cor- 
roboration of the scattered researches of many observers since 
the classical work of Calori and Nicolucci thirty years ago. 
Researches at that time made upon crania collected from the 
cemeteries and crypts began to indicate a profound difference 
in head form between the populations of north and south. 
Then later, when Zampa, Lombroso, Pagliani, and Riccardi * 
took up the study of the living peoples, they revealed equally 
radical differences in the pigmentation and stature. It re 
mained for Livi to present these new data, uniformly collected 
from every commune in the kingdom, to set all possible doubts 
at rest. It should be observed that our maps are all uni 
formly divided by white boundary lines into compartiincnti, so 
called. These administrative districts correspond to the an 
cient historical divisions of the kingdom. Their names are all 
given upon our preceding map of physical geography. Being 
similar through the whole series, they facilitate comparisons 
between smaller districts in detail. 

The basin of the Po is peopled by an ethnic type which is 
manifestly broad-headed. This Alpine racial characteristic is 
intensified all along the northern frontier. In proportion as 
one penetrates the mountains this phenomenon becomes more 
marked. It culminates in Piedmont along the frontier of 
France. Here, as we have already shown in our general map 
of Europe, is the purest representation of the Alpine race on 
the continent. It is identical with that of the Savoyards over 
the frontier not alone in physical type, but also over a con 
siderable area in language as well; for Provencal French is 
spoken well over into this district in Italy, f Comparison of 
our portrait types, obtained through the courtesy of Dr. Livi, 
will emphasize this fact. Our first page exhibits the transition 
from north to south, which appears upon our map of cephalic 
index, as it appeals to the eye. The progressive narrowing of 
the face, coupled with the regular increase in the length of the 
head from front to back, can not fail to attract attention. The 

* For a complete list of their works consult our Bibliography, 
f Pulle, 1898, pp. 66 and 95, with map. 

PIEDMONT. Eyes and hair light br 

Ji. ISLAXD OF ISCHIA. Eyes and hair dark brown. Index 83.6. 82. 


SASSARI, Sardinia. Deep brunet. Index 76.2. 


phenomenon is precisely similar to that which was illustrated 
in our first page of German portraits at pages 218 and 219; ex 
cept that in this case dolichocephaly increases toward the south, 
not as in Germany toward the north. The upper portrait is de- 






^94^71 O65IRWT10NS 


scribed to me as peculiarly representative of a common type 
throughout Piedmont, although perhaps in this case the face is 
a trifle longer than is usual in the harmonic Alpine race. 



This Alpine type in northern Italy is the most blond and 
the tallest in the kingdom. The upper types on both our por 
trait pages represent fairly the situation. The hair is not sel 
dom of a lightish brown, with eyes of a corresponding shade. 
This, of course, does not imply that these are really a blond 
and tall people. Compared with those of our own parentage 
in northern Europe, these Italians still appear to be quite 
brunet ; hair and eyes may be best described on the average 
as light chestnut. Standing in a normal company of Pied- 
montese, an Englishman could look straight across over their 
heads. For they average three to five inches less in bodily 
stature than we in England or America ; yet, for Italy, they are 
certainly one of its tallest types. The traits we have mentioned 
disappear in exact proportion to the accessibility of the popu 
lation to intermixture. The whole immediate valley of the 
Po, therefore, shows a distinct attenuation of each detail. We 
may in general distinguish such ethnic intermixture from 
either of two directions : from the north it has come by the 
influx of Teutonic tribes across the mountain passes ; from the 
south by several channels of communication across or around 
the Apennines from the peninsula. For example, the transi 
tion from Alpine broad heads in Emilia to the longer-headed 
population over in Tuscany near Florence is rather sharp, be 
cause the mountains here are quite high and impassable, save 
at a few points. On theeast, however, by Pesaro, where nat 
ural barriers fail, the northern element has penetrated farther 
to the south. It has overflowed into Umbria, Tuscany, and 
Marche, being there once more in possession of a congenial 
mountainous habitat. The same geographical isolation which, 
as Symonds asserts, fostered the pietism of Assisi, has enabled 
this northern type to hold its own against aggression from 
the south. 

It is interesting to note the prevalence of the brachycephalic 
Alpine race in the mountainous parts of northern Italy; for 
nowhere else in the peninsula proper is there any evidence of 
that differentiation of the populations of the plains from those 
of the mountains which we have noted in other parts of Eu 
rope. Nor is a reason for the general absence of the phe- 


nomenon hard to find. If it be, indeed, an economic and so 
cial phenomenon, dependent upon differences in the economic 
possibilities of any given areas, there is little reason for its ap 
pearance elsewhere in Italy; since the Apennines do not form 


After Livi 96 

98060 ObMrvition* 


regions of economic unattractiveness, as their geology is fa 
vourable to agriculture, and their soil and climate are kind. In 
many places they are even more favourable habitats than the 


plains, by reason of a more plentiful rainfall. It is indeed to 
day accepted as a law by the archaeologists that throughout 
central and southern Italy orderly settlement has first taken 
place in the mountains, extending gradually thence down into 
the plains. The reason for this seems to be found in the 
greater salubrity of the upland climate, and also in the larger 
measure of security afforded in the mountains.* The first of 
these considerations is certainly potent enough to-day, ren 
dering the mountains more often preferable to the plains as a 
place of habitation. The absence of anthropological contrasts 
coincident with a similar absence of economic differences is 
thus a point in favour of our general hypothesis. 

Are there any vestiges in the population of northern Italy 
of that vast army of Teutonic invaders which all through the 
historic period and probably since a very early time has poured 
over the Alps and out into the rich valley of the Po? Where 
are those gigantic, tawny-haired, " fiercely blue-eyed " bar 
barians, described by the ancient writers, who came from the 
far country north of the mountains ? Even of late there have 
been many of them Cimbri, Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, 
Saxons, Lombards. Historians are inclined to overrate their 
numerical importance as an element in the present popula 
tion. On the other hand, many anthropologists, Yirchow,f 
for example, have asserted that these barbarian invaders have 
completely disappeared irom sight in the present population. 
Truth lies intermediate between the two. It is, of course, 
probable that ancient writers exaggerated the numbers in the 
immigrant hordes. Modern scholars estimate their numbers 
to be relatively small. Thus Zampa ( 92) holds the invasion 
of the Lombards to have been the most considerable nu 
merically, although their forces did not probably exceed sixty 
thousand, followed perhaps by twenty thousand Saxons. 
Eighty thousand immigrants in the most thickly settled area 
in ancient Europe surely would not have diluted the popula 
tion very greatly. We can not expect too much evidence in 
this direction consequently, although there certainly is some. 

* Von Duhn, 1896, p. 126. 

f 1871 a. Steub maintains that the Lombard influence was insignificant. 


The relative purity of the Piedmont Alpine type compared with 
that of Veneto is probably to be ascribed to its greater inac 
cessibility to these Teutons. Wherever any of the historic 
passes debouch upon the plain of the Po there we find some 



1.69 MTER> 

(sn-uiie}, ^ 
Over 2.9.6J " -. 

26.6-29.6 1=) 
23 6- 26.6 [ ] 


disturbance of the normal relations of physical traits one to 
another; as, for example, at Como, near Verona, and at the 
mouth of the Brenner in Veneto. The clearest indubitable 
case of Teutonic intermixture is in the population of Lorn- 


bardy about Milan. Here, it will be observed on our maps, is 
a distinct increase of stature ; the people are at the same time 
relatively blond.* The extreme broad-headedness of Pied 
mont and Veneto is moderated. Everything points to an 
appreciable Teutonic blend. This is as it should be. Every 
invading host would naturally gravitate toward Milan. It is 
at the focus of all roads ever the mountains. Ratzel f has 
contrasted the influence exerted by the trend of the valleys on 
the different slopes of the Alps. Whereas in France they all 
diverge, spraying the invaders upon the quiescent population ; 

San Giacomo di Lusiana (Sette Comuni), Province of Vicenza. Blond. Index, 85.2. 

in Italy all streams seem to concentrate upon Lombardy. The 
ethnic consequences are apparent there, perhaps for this reason. 
With the exception of Lombardy, the blood of the Teu 
tonic invaders in Italy seems to have been diluted to extinc 
tion. Notwithstanding this, it is curious to note that the Ger 
man language still survives in a number of isolated communi 
ties in the back waters of the streams of immigration. Up 

* Livi, 1896 a, p. 141 ; 1894 b, p. 156. . 

f Anthropo-Geographie, i, pp. 191-198. Cf. also Lentheric, 1896, pp. 
208 and 380, on the passes known and used by the ancients. They seem 
to have been mainly the Brenner, by Turin across into Savoy, and along 
the Corniche road. On Teutonic place names in Italy, see Taylor, Words 
and Places, p. 98. 


in the side valleys along the main highways over the Alps 
are still to be found German customs and folklore as well. 
Dr. Livi tells us that the peasants are not to be distinguished 
physically to-day from their true Italian-speaking neighbours.* 
Ranke,f however, makes the interesting observation concern 
ing the people of the Scttc Comnni, that the women still ex 
hibit distinctive German traits, especially in relative blondness. 
And Dr. Beddoe likewise writes me that, according to his own 
view, Teutonic characteristics in facial features rather than 
in head form are quite noticeable in places. In this connection 
the accompanying portrait from one of the Scttc Comuni can 
not fail to be of interest. Its Germanic appearance is strongly 
noticeable; even although, as should be observed, this individ 
ual retained no trace of Teutonic descent in his accentuated 
breadth of head. Of this man Dr. Livi, to whom I am indebted 
for the portrait, writes me that it is " a very good Venetian 
type." This seems at first sight improbable, even making 
allowance for the law that atavism is more characteristic of the 
female, since the Teutonic invasions more often brought war 
riors alone, who intermarried with the native women. 

The southern Alps are also places of refuge for many 
other curious membra disjecta-. Mendini ( 00) , for example, has 
studied in Piedmont with some detail, a little community 
of the Valdesi, descendants of the followers of Juan Valdes, 
the mediaeval reformer. Here they have persisted in their /) 
heretical beliefs despite five hundred years of persecution and 
ostracism. In this case mutual repulsion seems to have pro 
duced real physical results, as the people of these villages seem 
to differ quite appreciably from the Catholic population in 
many important respects. 

A word must be added before we pass to the discussion of 
middle Italy, as to the people of the provinces of Veneto. In 
many respects they seem not to be dissimilar physically from 
the Lombards or Piedmontese. The only trait by which they 
may be distinguished is in relative tallness. The light shad- 

* Livi, 1896 a, pp. 137 and 146; Pulle, 1898, p. 83; Tappeiner, 1883; 
Galanti, 1885. 

f Beitrage zur Anth. Bayerns, ii, 1879, p. 76. 


ing upon our map of stature on page 255 surely denotes this. 
A greater average height prevails than even in the Teutonized 
parts of Lombardy, although no Teutonic invasions even over 
the Brenner Pass can historically be held accountable for it. 
Here, again, the data of physical anthropology serve to cor 
roborate the ancient chroniclers and the historians. The Ve- 
neti have been generally accepted as of Illyrian derivation.* 
This explains the phenomenon, then ; for around east of the 
Adriatic we have found a secondary centre of giantism, espe 
cially marked all along the Dalmatian coast, in Bosnia and Al 
bania. The present tallness of the Venetians directly points to 
a relationship with this part of Europe. 

The ethnic transition from the Alpine race in the Po val 
ley to the Mediterranean race in Italy proper is particularly 
sharp along the crest of the Apennines from the French fron 
tier to Florence. The population of modern Liguria, the 
long, narrow strip of country between the mountains and the 
Gulf of Genoa, is distinctly allied to the south in all respects. 
Especially does the Mediterranean long-headedness of this 
region appear upon both of our maps of cephalic index. It 
is curious to note how the sharpness of the ethnic boundary 
is softened where the physical barriers against intercourse be 
tween north and south are modified. Thus north of Genoa 
there is a decided break in the distinct racial frontier of the 
province ; for just here is, as our topographical map of the 
country indicates, a broad opening in the mountains leading 
over to the north. The pass is easily traversed by rail to-day. 
Over it many invasions in either direction have served to con 
found the populations upon either side. 

The individuality of the modern Ligurians culminates in 
one of the most puzzling ethnic patches in Italy, viz., the people 
of the district about Lucca, in the northwest corner of Tus 
cany. Consideration of our maps will show the strong relief 
with which these people stand forth from their neighbours. 
These peasants of Garfagnana and Lucchese seem to set all 

* Arbois de Jubainville, 1889, p. 305 ; Von Duhn, 1896, p. 131 ; Pigorini, 
1892, Sergi, 1897 b, p. 175; Pulle, 1898, p. 19. Moschen is perhaps the 
best authority on the anthropology of this region. Cf. also Tedeschi, 1897. 


ethnic probabilities at naught. They are as tall as the Vene 
tians or any of the northern populations of Italy, yet in head 
form they are closely allied to the people of the extreme south. 
They are among the longest-headed in all the kingdom. They 
seem also to be considerably more brunet than any of their 
neighbours.* Xor are these peculiarities of modern origin, 



AFTER- Lwi. 


certainly not their stature, at all events ; for Strabo tells us 
that the Romans were accustomed to recruit their legions here 
because of the massive physique of the people. 

In order to make the reality of this curious patch more 
apparent, we have reproduced in our small map on this page 
a bit of the country in detail. It shows how suddenly the head 

* Livi, 1896 a, p. 153. 


form changes at the crest of the Apennines as we pass from 
the Po valley to the coast strip of Liguria. As we leave the 
river and rise slowly across Emilia toward the mountain range 
the heads gradually become less purely Alpine ; and then sud 
denly as we cross the watershed we step into an entirely dif 
ferent population. On the southern edge this little spot of 
Mediterranean long-headedness terminates with almost equal 
sharpness, although geographical features remain quite uni 
form. This eliminates environment as an explanation for the 
phenomenon ; we must seek the cause elsewhere. 

All sorts of explanations for the peculiarities of this ethnic 
spot about Lucca have been presented. Lpmbroso,* who first 
discovered its tall stature, inclines to the belief that here is 
a last relic of the ancient and long-extinct Etruscan people 
penned in between some of the highest mountains in Italy 
and the sea. He holds that they were here driven to cover 
in this corner of Tuscany by the developed Roman power in the 
south. Dr. Beddoe gives another explanation which is in 
teresting, f He believes this population to be the result of 
artificial colonization. Livy tells us that the Romans at one 
time, in pursuance of a long-settled policy, transported forty 
thousand Ligurians (?) to Samnium, filling their places with 
others from the south. If this artificial transplanting had been 
effected a sufficient number of times ; if the Liguria of Livy 
had surely been this modern one instead of a more extended 
Alpine ancient one ; and thirdly, if we could thus account for 
the tallness of stature, certainly not of southern origin, we 
might place more reliance upon this ingenious hypothesis. As 
it is, we can not think it far-reaching enough. To us it seems 
more likely that we have to do rather with a population highly 
individualized by geographical isolation. Much of the region 
is very fertile ; it is densely populated ; it is closely bounded 
by mountain and sea. It is an ideal spot for the perpetuation 
of primitive physical characteristics. Why may they not be 
found here, exhibiting merely a clearer persistency of many 
of the traits common all along the coast strip of the Gulf of 

* 1878, p. 123 ; Rosa, 1882. f l8 93, PP- 31 and 85. 


Genoa? The people of the island of Elba off the coast are 
quite similar. Insularity explains their peculiar physical traits. 
\Yliy not environmental isolation about Lucca as well? 

"Who were the Ligurians of the ancients, and where do we 
find their descendants to-day ? This question has been scarce 
ly less productive of controversy than that concerning the 
derivation and affinities of the Celts believed to be their im 
mediate successors historically. Arbois de Jubainville * as 
sures us on the authority of the classical historians, that the 
Ligurians, some seven hundred years before Christ, occupied 
a large part of southwestern Europe, perhaps from the Po 
valley to Spain, and well toward northern Gaul.f Such ex 
tended domination, if, improbable as it seems, it ever existed 
in fact, became narrowed down at the early Roman period 
to the territory bounded by the Rhone on the west, the Medi 
terranean on the south, and the Po basin on the east. This 
geographical localization, it will be observed, at once com 
plicates any attempt on the part of the physical anthropologist 
to identify this historic people with any living type to-day. 
For the area bounding upon the Mediterranean, comprised be 
tween the Rhone and the upper valley of the Po, has been 
just shown to contain two radically different populations. 
Throughout precisely this part of the Alps, on the one hand, 
extends our brachycephalic type in its maximum purity even 
for all western Europe. We proved this for Savoy and its 
vicinity in treating of France ; and now we see it also to be true 
in Piedmont. Nevertheless, all around the Gulf of Genoa, 
along the Corniche road, closely hedged in by the mountains 
on the north, extends a narrow belt of population exhibiting all 
the physical characteristics, as we have seen, of our dolicho 
cephalic Mediterranean race. Which of these two popula 
tions, both comprised within the ancient territory of that name, 
is entitled, then, to the name Ligurian ? The Italian Govern 
ment has settled the matter administratively, at least, by as 
signing the name Liguria to the littoral strip. For the modern 

* 1890, pp. 153-161 ; and in his great work, i88g-g4, ii, pp. 205-215. 
f Bertrand and Reinach, 1891, pp. 233-253, with map, discuss this 
fully. Cf. also Pulle, 1898, pp. 5-12 ; and Jacques, 1887, p. 222. 



geographers these coast people are then Ligurians ; but the 
word is used in a very different sense from that of the classical 

Anthropologists have long contended over the identifica 
tion of this primitive people. The first disposition, a quarter 
of a century ago, was to assign the name unhesitatingly to the 
broad-headed population characteristic of the mountains ; at 
that time, in fact, the existence of an entirely different coast 
population was not even suspected. Nicolucci,* Calori,f and 
all the older anthropologists asserted, therefore, that the Li 
gurians were brachycephalic, allied racially to the Celts in 
France, and that their lineal descendants still occupy the Mari 
time Alps in force. So clear did this seem that von Holder,^ 
in his great work on the anthropology of southern Germany, 
adopted the name Ligurian for the broad-headed type preva 
lent in that region and throughout central Europe.* On the 
other hand, the later Italians without exception have rejected 
this opinion, and agree with remarkable unanimity in identify 
ing the present living dolichocephalic Ligurians with their 
historic predecessors. | The reason for this is plain. All over 
northern Italy a long-headed population has been proved to 
underlie the modern Alpine one. A Broad-headedness has in 
fact become more than two and a half times as prevalent as 
in the Neolithic period. The dolichocephalic coast strip of 


* 1864; recently enunciated in iSSS, pp. 4-10. 
f i86S and 1873. 

\ 1867, and 1876, p. 7. 

* This opinion was shared byrnjostJEn^lish__authQrities, following 
Davis, 1871. Cf. RollestonVScientific Papers and Addresses, 1884, ii, 
p. 232; Canon Taylor, 1890, p. 115. Quatrefages and Hamy, in their 
Crania Ethnica, 1882, adopt it. Lapouge (1889 a) and Oloriz (1894 a, P- 
227) are the only later writers who adhere to this opinion. 

|| Livi, 1886, pp. 265 and 273; 1896 a, pp. 138 and 153; Sergi, 1883 b, 
pp. 125 and 132 ct seq. ; 1895 a, pp. 66 et seq. ; Issel, 1892, ii, p. 331; Cas- 
telfranco, 1889, pp. 593 et seq. ; Zampa, 1891 a and 1891 b. Ranke agrees 
in this view among Germans, Der Mensch., 1886, ii, p. 531 ; Collignon 
among the French, 1890 a, p. 13 ; and Dawkins among English, 1880, 
p. 328. Cf. also von Duhn, 1896, p. 132. 

A Zampa, 1891 a, p. 77, and 1891 b, p. 175 ; Nicolucci, 1888, p. 2 ; Sergi, 
1883 b, pp. 118 ct seq. 


modern Liguria is regarded, therefore, as merely a remnant of 
a once more widely extended race. The broad-headed type 
throughout the Alps, according to this view, represents not the 
Ligurians, but the Celts, who, as we know, succeeded them in 
central Europe. The true descendants of the ancient Liguri 
ans inhabit the modern provinces of the same name.* The 
purest representatives of these people may still be found in the 
tall, dark, and exceedingly dolichocephalic population of the 
district about Lucca, whose peculiarities we have been at such 
pains to describe, f 

The transition from an Alpine type of population in the Po 
.basin to the purely Mediterranean race in the south does not 
occur at or even near the Rubicon, which marks, as we have 
said, the limits of the Italian language in purity. Turn again 
to our map of cephalic index on page 251 and observe how the 
brachycephaly of the north extends over and down into Um- 
bria, into Marche by Pesaro, and over much of Tuscany. 
Every indication in that dark-tinted area upon our map sug 
gests an intrusive wedge of the Alpine racial type of popula 
tion with its point directed toward Rome.t Bearing in mind 
what we have already affirmed in speaking of the population 
of the Po valley namely, that the entire peninsula was once 
peopled by a primitive long-headed (Ligurian) type, underly 
ing the modern one it appears that we must account for the 
characteristics of the present Umbrians on the supposition of 
an overflow of population from the north sufficient in magni 
tude to transform the entire character of the people by inter 
mixture. Who could these immigrants have been ? It is ap 
parent at once what their physical characteristics were. They 
were certainly of a racial origin akin to that of the Celtic 
broad-headed type throughout central Europe. With whom, 

* Arbois de Jubainville, 1890, p. 153, positively asserts that the ancient 
Ligurians have never been disturbed in modern Liguria, even by the 

t Pieroni, 1892. Such seems to be the view both of Sergi (1883 b, p. 
136) and Livi (1896 a, p. 150). 

| Livi, 1896 a, p. 156 ; Zampa, 1888, with map, at p. 183, finds a 
brachycephaly even more marked than does Livi. Cf. Calori, 1873, p. 156. 



however, may they be identified historically? That is the 
question at issue. They could not have been Gallic ; for these 
traits have persisted since long before the era of the Roman 
wars. Two solutions have been proposed. Sergi * and Zam- 
pa f have most ably championed the claim of the ancient Um- 
brians, asserting from archaeological evidence that this people 
were of northern extraction, akin to that of the Celts. They 
maintain that these Umbrians were of the first wave of the 
Aryan invasion up along the Danube, of which the Celts were 

only a succeeding por 
tion. J Their early oc 
cupation of the penin 
sula is indicated by 
the little map on this 
page, which w ? e have 
reproduced from Ser- 
gi s recent brilliant 
work. The correspond 
ence between the Um- 
brian area marked with 
small crosses and the 
dark tints of broad- 
headedness upon our 
cephalic map is highly 

Umbrian period. significant. 

This view just stated is in opposition to that of the older 
school of anthropologists, represented by Calori * and Nico- 
lucci.|| They believed the Umbrians to have been the in 
digenous inhabitants of Italy, closely related to the Oscians 
and Vituli (Itali) of classical antiquity. It will be seen at 
once, however, that the theory of an Umbrian immigration 
need in no wise disturb the serenity of the historians; for this 

* 1898 a, pp. 75, 83, and 144. This represents a conversion from his 
earlier view expressed in 1883 b, p. 126. 

f Zampa, 1888, p. 193 ; and 1889, p. 128. 

\ Consult our chapter on European Origins for further details. 

* 1873, p. 14. 

| 1888, p. 10, where he clearly restates his first theory, propounded a 
generation earlier. 

, 98<v. 


immigration certainly antedated by many centuries the begin 
nings of recorded history and of Roman civilization. To this 
older school the intrusive element, responsible for the acknowl 
edged broad-headedness of Umbria, was not readily explained. 
Archaeological research still left in doubt the character of 
the only other possibly extraneous people in Italy the Etrus 
cans. Moreover, the territory assigned by archaeology to the 
Etruscans is quite distinct from that of the Umbrians, lying 
to the west of it in the modern provinces of Tuscany and Roma. 
So much has this long-suffering people the Etruscans en 
dured at the hands of ethnographers that we must treat of them 
a moment in more detail. 

All that we know historically of the Etruscans is that at 
a very early period * they invaded the territory of the Um 
brians, who certainly preceded them in the peninsula. Their 
advent was characterized by a highly evolved culture, from 
which that of the Romans developed. For the Etruscans were 
the real founders of the Eternal City. We know less of their 
language than of many other details of their existence only 
enough to be assured that it was of an exceedingly primitive 
type. It was constructed upon as fundamentally different a 
system from the Aryan as is the Basque, described in a preced 
ing chapter. It seems to have been, like the Basque, allied 
to the great family of languages which includes the Lapps, 
Finns, and Hungarians in modern Europe, and the aborigines 
of Asia and America. These unfortunate similarities led to 
all sorts of queer theories as to the racial origin of the people ; 
as wild, many of them, as those invented for the Basques. f 
It never occurred to any one to differentiate race, language, 
and culture one from another, distinct as each of the trio may 
be in our eyes to-day. If a philologist found similarity in 
linguistic structure to the Lapp, he immediately jumped to the 
conclusion that the Etruscans were Lapps, and Lapland the 

* iioo B. c., according to Montelius, most authorities placing it con 
siderably later. Zampa, 1892, p. 280, places it at 1200-1300 B. c. Varro 
states the invasion to have taken place in 1044 B. c. Sergi, 1898 a, p. 149, 
says 800 B. c. 

f Calori, 1873, p. 29, gives a good summary of the various hypotheses. 



primitive seat of their civilization. Thus Taylor,* in his early 
work, asserts an Asiatic origin akin to the Finns. Then Pauli 
and Deecke for a time independently traced them to the same 
Turanian source, f At last, when the Etruscan civilization 
began to be investigated in detail, authorities fell into either 
one of two groups. They both agree that the culture itself 
was of foreign origin. The Germans, with the sole exception 
of Pauli, Cuno, and von Duhn, are unanimous in the asser 
tion that it is an immigrant from the Danube Valley and north 
ern Europe. J Much of their testimony is derived from a sup 
posed trade between the north and south of Europe at a very 
early period described by Genthe and Lindenschmidt. These 
authorities regard the Etruscan as an offshoot pj_the_sa-called 
Hallstatt civilization, which flourished at a very early period 
in this part of the continent. In a later chapter on the origins 
of culture we shall have occasion to speak of this relation more 
in detail. This school of writers declares the people racially to 
be of Rhgetian or Alpine origin. Dennis tells us that the 
blond types among the Tuscan peasants are locally believed 
to be representatives of these Raseni. 

The second school of archaeologists is disposed to derive the 
Etruscan civilization from the southeast generally Lydiajri 
Asia Minor. The relation of the Etruscan to the Greek is by 
them held to be very close.* Much evidence is favourable to 

* 1874, p- 30. 

f Deecke abandoned in 1882 his earlier theory of Finnic origin, to 
which Pauli still adheres, while Corssen advocated the theory of Indo- 
Germanic affinity. Consult Fligier, 1882 a. 

\ Von Czoernig, Hoernes, Hochstetter (for a time), Koch, Miillenhoff, 
Niebuhr, Mommsen, Seemann, Steub, and Virchow (1871 a), together with 
the Roman school of archaeologists, represented by Helbig and Pigorini. 
Von Duhn, 1896, p. 140, clearly rejects these hypotheses in favour of an 
Ionian derivation. Scholl, 1891, p. 37, discusses fully the relationship to 
the Rhaetians. 

* The Italians, especially of the Bologna school, range on this side; 
thus Nicolucci, 1869 and 1888 ; Brizo, 1885 ; Sergi, 1883 and 1895 a ; Lom- 
broso ; and Zampa, 1891 b ; Arbois de Jubainville, 1889, i, p. 134; Mon- 
telius, 1897 ; Lefevre, 1891 and 1896 a ; A. J. Evans, and Hochstetter in his 
later work agree. Brinton, 1889 and 1890 c, advocates a Libyan origin ; 
Dawkins, 1880, p. 333, an Iberian affinity. Cf. Bertrand and Reinach, 
18943, pp. 63 and 79. Nicolucci, 1888, p. 37, gives many other theories. 


either side. To us it seems that Deecke * is more nearly cor 
rect than either, as such a division of eminent authority at once 
implies. He holds it to be probable that both centres of civ 
ilization contributed to the common product. In his opinion 
the Etruscans were crossed of the Tyrrhenians from Asia 
Minor and the Raseni from the Alps. Many of these views, it 
will be noted, making no distinction between physical type 
and culture, reason almost entirely from data of the latter 
kind. It is now time for us to examine the purely physical 
data at our disposition. Even supposing their culture to 
have been an immigrant from abroad, that need not imply a 
foreign ethnic derivation for the people themselves. Two 
classes of testimony are open to us, one consisting of the 
living population of Etruria, the other of crania from Etrus 
can tombs. 

Inspection of our maps, in so far as they concern Etruria, 
convinces one that if the Etruscans were of entirely extra- 
Italian origin, their descendants have at the present time com 
pletely merged their identity in that of their neighbours, the 
Umbrians ; for no sudden transitions are anywhere apparent, 
either in respect of head form, stature, or pigmentation. On 
the whole, the trend of testimony appears to favour the German 
theory that the population of Tuscany must have made a 
descent upon Italy from the north; and that it was derived 
from the same source as the Rhaetians, racial ancestors of the 
modern Swiss and other Alpine peoples, f Thus it will be ob 
served that Tuscany, like Umbria, allies itself in head form to 
the north rather than the south. The difficulty is that the 
Etruscans really overlaid the Umbrians, as our second map 
from Sergi s work on the next page represents. It is impossible 
to separate the two elements in the modern population. Per 
haps even Helbig is right in his contention that Umbrians and 
Etruscans were really one and the same. All that we can as 
sert is that the modern Tuscans are strongly infused with 

* Introduction to K. O. Miiller, 1877. 

t Riitimeyer and His, 18643, p. 30, seem to be doubtful on this; but 
not till 1868 did Calori fully prove the prevalent brachycephaly of the 
modern Tuscans. 



broad-headedness. Greek or Semitic racial intermixture would 
certainly have produced the opposite result from this ; for, as we 
shall see, both of these are alike purely Mediterranean in phys 
ical type. To resolve the difficulty of both an Umbrian and an 
Etruscan intermixture throughout the same region we must 
turn to our second witness, that of crania from the ancient 

Archaeological research during the last few years has fully 
confirmed the first discoveries of a quarter century ago that the 
crania from the Etruscan tombs betray a very mixed people. 
This explains the variety of theories of ethnic origin, based 
upon the earliest investigations. Retzius (?4;t) , for example, 
had no difficulty in proving a common origin with the Lapps, 

Basques, and Rhsetians 
from a few broad- 
headed crania in his 
possession ; and von 
Baer ( 00) as readily 
proved the opposite 
of a relation to the 
dolichocephalic races.* 
Nicolucci ( G9) first es 
tablished the fact of a 
great heterogeneity of 
cranial types in these 
tombs ; confirmed by 
Zannetti ( 71) ,who found 
about one quarter of 
the heads to be brachy- 

Etruscan period. 

cephalic, the remainder being allied to the elongated oval type 
indigenous to the peninsula. This relative proportion of the 
two is to-day confirmed by the best authority, f It indicates a 
population at this early period more purely Italian than that 

* Lombroso, 1878, and Rosa, 1882, in their attempt to identify the 
Garfagnana population about Lucca with the Etruscans, represent this 

f Calori, 1873, pp. 65 seq.\ Sergi, 1883 b, p. 139; 1897 b, p. 169; 1898 a, 
pp. 108-114; Nicolucci, 1888, pp. 42-46; Zampa, 1891 ; pp. 48-56. 


of modern Tuscany,* although the broad-headedness even 
to-day is less accentuated in Etruria proper than in Umbria, 
according to our map. Which of these two cranial forms un 
earthed in their tombs, one Mediterranean, one Alpine, repre 
sents the Etruscans proper, and which the population subjugated 
by them? To us it appears as if here, in the case of the Etrus 
cans as of the Teutonic immigrants, there were reason to sus 
pect that the ethnic importance of the invasion has been im 
mensely overrated by historians and philologists. It seems 
quite probable that the Etruscan culture and language may 
have been determined by the decided impetus of a compact 
conquering class; and that the peasantry or lower orders of 
population remained relatively undisturbed, f If this be indeed 
so, one might expect that the minority representation of broad- 
headed Alpine types, which we have mentioned, was proof of 
a northern derivation of this ruling class. But then, again, 
there are those antecedent Umbrians to be considered. It is 
a difficult problem at best. Perhaps, and indeed it seems most 
probable, Sergi \ is right in asserting that the Etruscans were 
really compounded of two ethnic elements, one from the north 
bringing the Hallstatt civilization of the Danube Valley, the 
other Mediterranean both by race and by culture. The sudden 
outburst of a notable civilization may have been the result of 
the meeting of these two streams of human life at this point 
midway of the peninsula. 

The Tiber River really marks the boundary between com 
petitive Italy and isolated Italy, so to speak. Rome arose at 
this point, where Latium, protected by this river, repressed the 
successive invasions from the north.* It is curious to note 
that the present population of the city is precisely similar to its 
predecessor in classical times, so far as archaeology can dis 
cover. The peninsula south of this point has little of special 

* Nicolucci, 1888, pp. 12-17 : Calori, 1873, P- I 5 I - 

f Livi, 1886, p. 273; 1896 a, p. 156. Nicolucci, 1869, agrees. 
\ 1898 a, pp. 113-125. 

* Von Duhn, 1896, p. 127. On Roman crania, consult Maggiorani ; 
Nicolucci, 1875 ; Sergi, 1895 d ; Moschen, 1893 a. On Pompeiian crania, 
Nicolucci, 1882. 


interest to offer. From the Alpine type of population in the 
north the transition to a purely Mediterranean one is at last 
fully accomplished. The peasantry is strongly brunet with 
few exceptions; almost abnormally short-statured; and as uni 
versally dolichocephalic as the Spaniards or the Berbers in 
Africa. Especially is this true in the mountains of Calabria, 
where geographical isolation is at an extreme. On the other 
hand, all along the seacoast we find evidence of colonization 
from across the water. It is curious to contrast the north and 
south of the peninsula in this respect. North of Rome the 
immigrant populations all lie inland, while the aboriginal Li- 
gurian is closely confined to the seacoast. In the south, on the 
other hand, the conditions are exactly reversed. Apulia from 
the heel of the peninsula north, being adjacent to the western 
coast of the Balkan Peninsula, contains a number of such 
foreign colonies from over seas. Some of these are of especial 
interest as hailing from the extremely broad-headed country 
east of the Adriatic. So persistently have these Albanians 
kept by themselves, that after four centuries of settlement they 
are still characterized by a cephalic index higher by four units 
than the pure long-headed Italians about them.* Many Greek 
colonists have settled along these same coasts. Greek dialects 
are still spoken at a number of places. They, however, being 
of the same ethnic Mediterranean stock as the natives, are not 
physically distinguishable" from them.f Perhaps the strongly 
accentuated broad-headedness in Salerno, just south of Naples 
along the coast, may be due to a similar colonization from 
abroad. Our portrait type for this district on the opposite page 
is certainly very different in head form from the purely Medi 
terranean Sardinian types, to which the normal south Italians 
tend. And our recruit from Salerno justly represents the 
people of his district. Colonization by sea rather than land 
would seem to be most probable. 

In conclusion, let us for a moment compare the two 
islands of Sicily and Sardinia in respect of their popula- 

* Zampa, 1886 a ; and 1886 b, p. 636; Pulle, 1898, p. 86; Livi, 1896 a, 
pp. 167-177. 

f Nicolucci, 1865 ; Zampa, 1886 a. 

BERGAMO, Lombardy. Blondish. Index 82.5. 

SALERNO, Campania. Index 84.5. 

CAMPIDANO D OKISTANO, Sardinia. Index 69 


tions.* With the latter we may rightly class Corsica, although it 
belongs to France politically. Our maps corroborate the his 
torical evidence with surprising clearness. In the first place, the 
fertility and general climate of Sicily are in marked contrast to 
the volcanic, often unpropitious geological formations of the 
other islands. In respect of topography as well, the differences 
between the two are very great. Sardinia is as rugged as the 
Corsican nubble north of it. In accessibility and strategic 
importance Sicily is alike remarkable. Commanding both 
straits at the waist of the Mediterranean, it has been, as Free 
man in his masterly description puts it, " the meeting place of 
the nations." Tempting, therefore, and accessible, this island 
has been incessantly overrun by invaders from all over Eu 
rope Sicani, Siculi, Fenicii, Greeks, and Romans, followed 
by Albanians, Vandals, Goths, Saracens, Normans, and at last 
by the French and Spaniards. Is it any wonder that its peo 
ple are less pure in physical type than the Sardinians or even 
the Calabrians on the mainland near by? Especially is this 
noticeable on its southern coasts, always more open to coloni 
zation than on the northern edge. Nor is it surprising, as 
Freeman rightly adds, that " for the very reason that Sicily has 
found dwelling places for so many nations, a Sicilian nation 
there never has been." 

Sardinia and Corsica, on the other hand, are two of the 
most primitive and isolated spots on the European map; for 
they are islands a little off the main line. Feudal institutions 
of the middle ages still prevail to a large extent. The old 
wooden plough of the Romans is still in common use to-day. 
This geographical isolation is peculiarly marked in the interior 
and all along the eastern coasts, where almost no harbours are 
to be found. Here in Sardinia stature descends to the very 
lowest level in all Europe, almost in the world. Livi assures us 
that it is entirely a matter of race, a conclusion from which we 
have already taken exception in our chapter on Stature. To 
us it means, rather, that population has always gone out from 

* Authorities on these are indexed in our supplementary Bibliography. 
On Sicily, Morselli, 1873, an ^ Sergi, 1895, are best ; on Sardinia, Zannetti, 
1878 ; Gillebert d Hercourt, Niceforo, and Onnis. Cf. Livi, 1896 a, pp. 177 
et seq. 


the island and never in, thus leaving to-day nothing but the 
dregs, so to speak. At all events, whether a result of unfavour 
able environment or not, this trait is very widespread to-day. 
It seems to have become truly hereditary. It extends over 
fertile and barren tracts alike. In other details also there is 
the greatest uniformity all over the island a uniformity at an 
extreme of human variation be it noted : for this population is 
entirely free from all intermixture with the Alpine race so 
prevalent in the north. It betrays a number of strongly Afri 
can characteristics, which are often apparent in the facial fea 
tures. The flattened nose, with open nostrils, thick lips, and 
retreating foreheads are all notable in a remarkable series of 
portraits, which Dr. Livi courteously placed at our disposition. 
These details, with the long and narrow face, are represented 
in our two portraits reproduced in this chapter. Imagine the 
black hair and eyes, with a stature scarcely above five feet, and 
a very tin-European appearance is presented. 

We have now seen how gradual is the transition from one 
half of Italy to the other. The surprising fact in it all, is that 
there should be as much uniformity as our maps indicate. 
Despite all the overturns, the tips and downs of three thousand 
years of recorded history and an unknown age precedent to it, 
it is wonderful to observe how thoroughly all foreign ethnic 
elements have been melted down into the general population. 
The political unification of all Italy; the rapid extension of 
means of communication; and, above all, the growth of great 
city populations constantly recruited from the rural districts; 
will speedily blot out all remaining trace of local differences 
of origin. Not so with the profound contrasts between the 
extremes of north and south. These must ever stand as wit- 
ness to differences of physical origin as wide apart as Asia is 
from Africa. This is a question which we defer to a subse 
quent chapter, in which we shall seek to explain the wider 
significance of the phenomenon both physically and in respect 
of the origins of European civilization. 

" Beyond the Pyrenees begins Africa." Once that natural 
barrier is crossed, the Mediterranean racial type in all its purity 


confronts us. The human phenomenon is entirely parallel 
with the sudden transition to the flora and fauna of the south.* 
The Iberian populations, thus isolated from the rest of Europe, 
are allied in all important anthropological respects with the 
peoples inhabiting Africa north of the Sahara from the Red 
Sea to the Atlantic. These peoples are characterized, as we 
have seen, by a predominant long-headedness, in this respect 
quite like the Teutonic type in Scandinavia; by an accentuated 
darkness of hair and eyes; and by a medium stature inclining 
to short. The oval facial characteristics of this group have 
been already illustrated in our portraits in this chapter. A 
large area of such conspicuous purity of physical type as here 
exists over a vast extent of territory is rarely to be found. 

The Iberian Peninsula itself is little differentiated geograph 
ically. It consists of a high plateau, too cold in winter for the 
Mediterranean flora and fauna, and too arid in summer for 
those of the middle temperate zone. As a consequence its hu 
man activities and its population are in the main necessarily 
located in the coastal strip along the seaboard. Of natural 
barriers or defensible positions in the form of mountains or im 
portant rivers there are none, save in the northwest, where in 
Galicia and Asturias a rugged and lofty region occurs. As a 
consequence of this geographical structure, the peninsula as a 
whole has been neither attractive to the colonist nor the in 
vader. It has, it is true, formed the natural highway from 
Africa to Europe, and has been overrun at all times by ex 
traneous peoples. These invasions have almost ahvays been 
ephemeral in character, disappearing to leave little except 
ruins along the way. Thus the population still remains quite 
true to its original pattern ; nearer, indeed, to the aboriginal 
European racial type than that of any other civilized land on 
the continent. 

The homogeneity of the Iberian Peninsula is well expressed 
by our map of the head form on the next page.f A variation of 

* Peschel, 1880, i, p. 33, aptly describes the geographical contrasts 
on the two Pyrenean slopes. 

f Dr. F. Oloriz, Distribution geografica del indice cefalico en Espafia, 
Madrid, 1894 ; La talla humana en Espafia, Madrid, 1896 ; Hoyos Sainz 



cephalic index, imperceptible to the eye, of scarcely four units 
from the most dolichocephalic type in Europe is at once appar 
ent.* Only where the topography changes, in the northwest 
ern corner, is there any considerable increase of broad-headed- 
ness, shown by our darker shading, f This brachycephaly 
closely follows the mountainous areas in many places. It is 
not a transitory phenomenon. Crania from the earliest times 




betoken the same tendency.]: On the other side of the penin 
sula, the Catalan strip of coast about Valencia exhibits the 
opposite extreme. Portugal also is equally dolichocephalic, 

and De Aranzadi, Un avance a la antropologia de Espana, Madrid, 1892 ; 
and Vorlaufige Mittheilungen zur Anthropologie von Spanien, Archiv 
fiir Anth., xxii, pp. 425-433. For Portugal, I have manuscript data most 
courteously offered by Dr. Ferraz de Macedo, of Lisbon. On ethnology, 
Lagneau, 1875, is best. See also index to our Bibliography. 

* Oloriz, 18943, p. 72. 

f O16riz shows this strikingly by diagram at p. 83. Cf. also p. 163. 

\ Ibid., p. 259. Cf. Jacques, 1887, on the prehistoric archaeology also. 



as our map at page 53, in which Dr. Ferraz de Macedo s data 
for that country have been incorporated, exhibits. In discuss 
ing the linguistic geography of the peninsula (page 18) we 
took occasion to note that the political separation of Portugal 
from Spain is in no degree fundamental. Now, in respect of 
this physical characteristic of the head form, we are able to 
verify the same truth. 

The first glance at our map of average stature would seem 
to indicate a variability strongly in contrast with the homo 
geneity of the people, so notable in the head form. This is 
largely due to the over-emphasized contrast of shading on 
our map. For the legend shows that in reality the extreme 
difference, according to provinces, is less than two inches. Its 

Below l.^ 

(5FT 36 UC) 

distribution geographically has no great significance. Com 
paring this map with that of languages, on page 18, we observe 
perhaps that the Catalans as a whole are somewhat taller, while 



the northwestern provinces are rather more diminutive, with 
the exception of those in the Basque country. As for Portu 
gal, the data exhibited on our map at page 97 show it to be 
quite homogeneous in character with its larger neighbour. 
Taking the evidence as a whole, it would seem that a slight in 
dication of the comparative prosperity of the coastal regions 
all about the peninsula was apparent in a somewhat taller popu 
lation. The interior plateau, especially between Caceres and 
Madrid, represents perhaps the aridity and barrenness of the 

It is pertinent at this point to ask for an ethnological ex 
planation of the physical phenomena which w y e have described. 
All authorities agree as to the primitive Iberians being the 
primary possessors of the soil. Whether the Ligurians ever 
penetrated as far as this, beyond the Pyrenees, is certainly mat 
ter for doubt.* Following the Ligurians came the Celts at a 
very early period, pretty certainly overrunning a large part of 
the peninsula, f To them does the still noticeable brachy- 
cephaly along the northern coast seem to be most likely at 
tributable.;!: The people of this region apparently betray many 
mental characteristics also, more or less peculiar to the Celts 
elsewhere in Europe. Tubino * comments upon their reserve, 
amounting almost to moroseness, as compared with the lively 
peasants in Murcia and Tarragona. As for the later inunda 
tion of Saracens and Mors, there is a profound difficulty in 
the identification of their descendants, owing to their simi 
larity to the natives in all important respects. Canon Taylor 
has shown their extension by means of a study of place names. || 
They seem to have been in evidence everywhere except in the 
extreme north and northwest. But intermixture with them 
would not have modified either the head form or the stature in 
any degree. Aranzadi believes the very prevalent " honey- 
brown " eyes of the southwest quarter of Spain, near Granada, 

* Jacques, 1887, denies Lagneau s assertion to this effect. Oloriz, 
18943, p. 264, discusses these questions. See also page 262 supra. 

f Arbois de Jubainville, iS93-V)4 ; Minguez, 1887. 
\ Hoyos Sainz and Aranzadi, 1892, p. 34. 

* 1877, p. 105. II Words and Places, p. 68. 


to be due perhaps to strong Moorish influence.* And the 
effect of a Moorish cross is also apparent in producing- a 
broader and more African nose, according to the same author 
ity. Beyond this the permanent influence of the foreigner 
has been slight. The varied experiences of Portugal with the 
English and French invasions, seems to have left no perma 
nent effects, f In fine, we may conclude that the present popu 
lation is closely typical of that of the earliest prehistoric period. 
It is cranially not distinguishable either from the prehistoric 
Long Barrow type in the British Isles, or from that which pre 
vailed throughout France anterior to its present broad-headed 
population of Celtic derivation. 

We must describe the modern African population of Ha- 
mitic speech very briefly.]; It falls into two great divisions 
the Oriental and the Western. In the first are included the en 
tire population of northeastern Africa from the Red Sea, 
throughout the Soudan, Abyssinia, the Nile Valley, and across 
the Sahara Desert as far as Tunis. The second or western 
group is the only one to-day in contact or close affinity with 
Kurope, although both groups are a unit in physical charac 
teristics.* All through them we have to distinguish in turn 
two elements the nomadic Arabs and the sedentary or local 
population. It is the latter alone which concerns us in this 
place. Of the Arabs we shall have to speak in treating of 
the Jews and Semites. This sedentary population is compre 
hended in all the northwestern region under the generic name 
of Berbers, whence our geographical term Barbary States. 

The physical traits of these Berbers are at once apparent by 

* Archiv fiir Anth., xxii, 1894, p. 431, with maps showing- the dis 
tribution of the eye colour. 

f Da Silva Amada, Ethnogenie du Portugal, 1880. 

\ The best resume of our knowledge of these peoples is by $ergi, 
Africa: Antropologia della Stirpe Camitica, Torino, 1897. Among the 
original authorities are Collignon, 1887 a and 1888 ; Bertholon, 1891 and 
1897 ; Paulitschke and R. Hartmann (q. ?.). 

* Cf. Sergi, 18973, p. 259, on their fundamental unity of cranial type 
since the earliest Egyptian times. Carette is best on ethnographical 



reason of their isolation from all admixture with the other 
ethnic types of Europe. The distinctively long, narrow face 
appears in most of our subjects, although the broad-faced, dis- 
harmonic Cro-Magnon type is quite generally represented 
(pages 45 and 173). In many cases the slightly concave nose 
in profile is characteristic, suggesting the negro. This fre 
quently occurs among the Sardinians also. The hair of these 
people is the most African trait about them. Among all the 
Hamites from Abyssinia to Morocco it varies from the Euro 
pean wavy form to a crispy or curly variety. This may with 
certainty be ascribed to intermixture with the negro tribes 
south of the Sahara. Our Moor from Senegal, on the oppo 
site portrait page, offers an illustration of this variety of hair. 
Upon the soft and wavy-haired European stock has surely 
been ingrafted a negro cross. By this characteristic alone 
may some of the Berbers be distinguished from Europeans, for 
the blackness of their hair and eyes is scarcely less accentuated 
than that of the Spanish and south Italians. Especially is this 
Europeanism true of the coast populations, the Riff Berbers 
in Morocco, for example, being decidedly European in ap 
pearance.* While local variations of type are common there 
can be no doubt of the entire unity and purity of this whole 
group.f An additional token of ethnic similarity among these 
people is that beards among the men are uniformly rare, and 
that the bodily habit is tfery seldom heavy. The slender and 
agile frame may be regarded as a distinctively Mediterranean 

The entire population of Africa and Europe north of the 
Sahara and south of the Alps and Pyrenees is overwhelmingly 
of a pure brunet type, as we have already shown. J Neverthe 
less, an appreciable element of blondness appears in Morocco, 
and especially in the Atlas Mountains. Tissot,* in fact, asserts 
that in some districts one third of the population is of this 
blond type. This, judging from the testimony of others, is an 

* Sergi, 1897 a, p. 336. f Op. fit., pp. 312-316. 
\ Page 71 supra. 

* 1876, p. 390; Harris, 1897, p. 66; Gillebert d Hercourt, 1868, p. 10 ; 
Andree, 1878, p. 337. 

Blond KABYLE. Index 78.7. Index 76.5. MOOR, Senegal. 92. 

KABYLE, Tunis. Eyes blue, light hair. Index 73. 


BERBER, Tunis. Eyes and .hair black. Index 70. 



exaggeration, yet the existence of such blondness about Mo 
rocco can not be denied. It seems to become less frequent 
in western Tunis, finally becoming practically negligible as one 
goes east.* Our series of portraits herewith, courteously 
loaned by Dr. Bertholon of Tunis, shows two of these blond 

Several explanations for this curious phenomenon of blond- 
ness in Africa have been presented. Brinton, and after him 
Keane, have, because of this appreciable blond element in 
northwestern Africa, attempted to make this region the original 
centre from which the blondness of Europe has emanated. 
This interesting hypothesis, seemingly based upon an attempt 
to reconcile the early origin of civilization in Africa with the 
Indo-Germanic Aryan theory, is controverted by all the facts 
concerning the relative brunetness of Europe, which we have 
heretofore outlined. Much more probable does it appear that 
this blondness is rather an immigrant offshoot from the north 
than a vestige of a primitive and overflowing source of it in 
Africa. Several attempts at historical explanations have been 
made, especially that the Vandals introduced this blondness 
during the historic period. f This theory was then rejected in 
favour of the view that it represented an immigrant which en 
tered .Africa from the north at a much earlier time, its path be 
ing marked by the occurrence of the dolmens all over France 
and Spain. t Its localization in the vicinity of the straits of Gib 
raltar certainly seemed to favour some such view of northern 
derivation, although the direct proof of its connection with any 
specific culture is problematical* Perhaps these blonds were 
dolmen builders ; they may have been of the same stock as 
the extinct Guanches of the Canary archipelago, or even of a 
Libyan origin, according to P>rinton.|| \Ye will not venture 
to decide the matter. It would seem, from a recent study of the 

* Collignon, 1887 a, p. 234, and 1888 ; Bertholon, 1892, pp. 14-4! 
I Broca, 1876, refuted this. 

\ Faidherbe, 1854; and in Bull. Soc. d Anth., 1869, p. 532; 1870, p. 48, 
and 1873, p. 602 ; Topinard, 1873, l &74, and 1881. 

* Verneau, 1886, p. 24. 

I 1890 a, p. 116. Arbois de Jubainville insists on an Iberian affinity of 
these Libyans. 


physical facts, that two separate centres of such blondness are 
distinguishable. The principal one is located in the fastnesses 
of the Atlas Mountains in the interior, while another exists 
along the Mediterranean coast among the Riff Berbers.* It is 
said that two fifths of these latter people are of blondish type. 
As for the coastal blonds, they might easily be accounted for 
on the ground of immigration, but such an explanation is ob 
viously impossible for the Atlas group. Sergi f offers a sug 
gestion, which had already occurred to me, which seems plau 
sible enough. Why may not this blondness in the Atlas Moun 
tains, surely indigenous to Africa, be of an environmental ori 
gin ? In our chapter on Blonds and Brunets we have spoken 
at length of such influences. The case is parallel to that of 
the light-haired and blue-eyed Amorites of the mountains in 
Palestine, \ who since the earliest Egyptian monuments have 
been thus represented as a blond people. Perhaps in their 
case as well they are merely the local product of environ 
mental causes ; if not, one theory of immigration is as good 
as another so far as conclusive proof is concerned. 

* Quedenfeldt, xxi, pp. 115 and 190. His denial of the Atlas blond- 
ness is controverted by all other observers. Collignon, 1888, finds a 
similar blondness along the coast of Tunis. 

t !897 a, p. 296. His treatment of these blonds is admirable at pp. 

J Sayce, 1888 a. 



THE Alpine highlands of central Europe Switzerland and 
the Tyrol while perfectly well determined in the main fea 
tures of their racial constitution, abound in curious and inter 
esting anthropological contrasts and contradictions.* This is 
not alone due to their central geographical position, for that 
by itself would long ago have entirely destroyed any ethnic 
individuality which this little district might have possessed. 
The constant passage to and fro across it of migrant peoples 
from north, south, east, and west would have been fatal to 
purity of physical type. Its dominant race has been preserved 
for us by the rugged configuration of its surface alone. The 
mountains offer us superb illustrations of the effect of geo 
graphical isolation upon man ; this we have all been taught to 
note in its social and political phenomena. And it is this two 
fold aspect of Switzerland and the Tyrol geographically which 
also enables us to account for their physical contrasts. We 
expect and we find almost absolute purity of type; but we are 
not surprised to discover also radical contradictions on every 

The influence of the topography and central situation of this 
mountainous region is well exemplified in the prevailing speech 
of the people to-day. The three great languages Erench, 

* Prof. J. Kollmann, of Basel, is the best living authority on Switzer 
land. His most important contributions are those of 1881 a, i88i- 83, 
1882 0,1885 a . whose titles are given in our Bibliography. His courtesy in 
obtaining photographs and other material merits the sincerest grati 
tude. A second authority, classical although now obsolete, is Riitimeyer 
and His, Crania Helvetica, Basel, 1864. Consult also the works of Drs. 
Bedot, Studer, and others herein cited. 



German, and Italian come together along most irregular 
boundaries. These are shown upon our maps at pages 101 and 
284. Then, besides these, subdivided by the way into thirty- 
five dialects of German, sixteen of French, and eight of Italian; 
there are five varieties of the Romansch in the Grisons and 
Tyrol. And all this, too, as Taylor * says, in a country but 
twice the size of Wales. The Romansch is really a degenerate 
and primitive Romance or Latin language. Under the sev 
eral names of Ladino or Friaoulian it still persists in the most 
isolated regions of Italy and Austria. Everywhere it is gradu 
ally receding before the official languages, which are pressing 
upon it from every direction. 

The head form throughout the Alps, as our general map 
of Europe has proved, is in general at an extreme of broad- 
headedness of the human species. Switzerland and the Tyrol, 
according to this test, must be adjudged overwhelmingly of 
the Alpine racial type. Von Baer s discovery of this in 1860 
established one of the first landmarks in the anthropological 
history of Europe ; it has been confirmed by all observers 
since that time.f Great local variations, however, occur. 
Switzerland, especially the northern German-speaking half, is 
far less pure than either the Tyrol or Savoy. Even Bavaria 
seems to be of purer type.J A Teutonic long-headedness has 
interpenetrated the entire middle region, seemingly having en 
tered by the Rhine and the valley of the Aar. This will ap 
pear likewise from consideration of the other physical traits. 
Whether the first Teutons were the Helvetians, who conquered 
or drove the broad-headed Rhsetians before them, is a matter 
for historical identification.** The anthropologists incline to the 

* Words and Places, p. 34. 

f His and Riitimeyer, 1864 ; Kollmann, 1885 a ; Beddoe, 1885, p. 81 ; 
Scholl, 1891 ; Bedot, 1895 ; and Pitard, 1898, are best on Switzerland. 
Their results, so far as they give averages at all, are shown on our map 
of stature at page 285. Kollmann s results, among the best, do not, 
unfortunately, give averages. 

\ A comparison of the two seriation curves on page 116 will prove this 
at once. On Savoy see Hovelacque, iSyy- ycj, and Longuet. 

* Riitimeyer and His, 1864, at p. 32, and Scholl, 1891, at p. 32, discuss 
historical probabilities. On the Ligurians and Etruscans, with their 
affinities, consult our chapter on Italy. 


opinion that the ancient Rhsetians, whose language still persists 
in the Romansch, were so far influenced by Celtic-speaking 
invaders as for a time to adopt their speech and culture. 
Throughout all this time they remained faithful to what Riiti- 
meyer and His called the " Dissentis " type, because of its prev 
alence in the upper Rhine Valley. It conforms to our notion 
of the Alpine race. These people were the lineal descendants of 
the Lake Dwellers, who settled the Alps in the early stone age.* 
Their racial equilibrium was upset at a comparatively late pe 
riod by the advent of the Helvetians, Burgundians, and other 
Teutonic tribes. These people came as conquerors from the 
north. It is significant that their physical type prevails even 
to-day more noticeably in the upper classes. f A result of the 
ethnic intermixture has been in many cases to produce a dis- 
harmonic head, with the brachycephalic cranium conjoined to 
a rather longish and narrow face. This type is exemplified 
in our two portraits from the Tyrol at pages 290 and 291. A 
fine pure Alpine head and face is illustrated by our type from 
Dissentis. The possibilities of pure Teutonic descent appear 
in the type from Basel. 

The Teutonic racial influence invading Switzerland along 
its principal water course is clearly manifested by our map on 
the next page. Kollmann s researches proved the existence 
of a relatively blond zone across the middle, setting aside the 
Romansch-Italian and the French-speaking sections on the 
east and west as relatively brunet districts.^ His results as to 
pure brunet types were confused by the widespread prevalence 
of an intermediate or neutral coloured eye among the Swiss. 
Beddoe, by charting the hair colour, alone seems to reach far 
more definite conclusions.* There can be little doubt that the 
more primitive substratum of the Alpine type has been rele- 

* Studer and Bannwarth, 1894, p. 13. Sergi, 1898 a, pp. 61-68, in his 
attempt to prove the lake dwellers to be of Mediterranean descent, is, I 
think, in error. 

f His, 1864, p. 870. 

| Our map at page 222 shows his distribution of brunet types. His 
report, 1881 a, contains all original data. 

* At Beddoe, 1885, pp. 75-85, is perhaps the best brief summary of 
Swiss anthropology anywhere available. 





gated to the southeast and southwest by a wave of advancing 
blondness from the north. The extreme blondness of Geneva, 

ancient capital of the Burgundian kingdom, may be of recent 
origin from this people. Whether the gray iris, which is the 


most common shade among the peasantry, associated with a 
brownish colour of hair, is indeed a distinctive Alpine trait ; or 
whether it is merely a result of the intermixture of blond and 
brunet varieties, is still matter of dispute. In any case, it is a 
marked peculiarity of the population all through the Alpine 

Our map of stature in Switzerland, in which, as always, 
dark tints denote the populations of shorter bodily height, 
brings to light another of those curious contradictions in which 
this little country abounds. While its eastern and western ex 
tremes, as we have just shown, are in respect of the colour of 
hair and eyes divided by an intrusive wedge of relative blond- 
ness; now in stature this blondest girdle appears to be com 
posed of the relatively shortest-statured population. To be 
sure, the differences are not great, but they are perfectly well 
proved by these data, here mapped for the first time. Con 
firmatory testimony comes from comparison with the statures 
of the surrounding countries.* Geneva, Yaud, Neufchatel, the 
Bernese Jura, and, we may add. Savoy also, surely lie within the 
influence of a specific centre of tall stature which covers the 
Burgundian or northeastern corner of France. On the other 
hand, the canton of Graubiinden marks the outermost concen 
tric circle of a second core of tallness which culminates along 
the Adriatic Sea. This influence is equally apparent in north 
eastern Italy. It endows "the Tyrolese, whose peculiarities of 
stature we have described upon page 101, with a marked su 
periority over the Swiss in this respect, f 

* See maps on pages 149, 227, and 236. Livi, 1883, gives a map of 
stature in Italy by averages which invites comparison. Garret (1883) 
gives the average for 13,199 Savoyards of 1.649 metres. Lorenz and 
Bedot both confirm these data exactly for the Orisons and Valais. 

f Schweizerische Statistik, 1892, p. 38, gives parallel data on the pro 
portions of statures above 1.69 metres, by cantons, strictly comparable 
with our map of the Tyrol. Roughly speaking, a population with 30 per 
cent of statures superior to 1.69 metres seems to correspond to an average 
height of 1.66 metres; 20 to 25 per cent to an average of 1.63 metres; 
and 8 to 10 per cent to an average of 1.60 metres. Lorenz, 1895, confirms 
this. Even allowing for a difference in the age of recruits of two years, 
the Tyrol remains superior. 


All this is indeed very confusing. It seems to confound 
all attempts at an ethnic explanation. The variations are 
slight, to be sure, but they are all contrary to racial probability. 
\\ e are forced again to take refuge in purely environmental 
explanations. The law that areas of extreme elevation or in 
fertility are unfavourable to the development of stature has 
already been discussed. We must invoke it here. Especially 
does it seem to fit the situation in the canton of Berne. Three 
zones of decreasing stature from the Jura to the Oberland are 
shown on our map. In this latter case the most widespread 
area of stunted population in Switzerland must, it seems to 
us, be due to the unfavourable influence of the habitat. If the 
Oberland were indeed, as Studer presumes because of its rela 
tive blondness, an area of late Teutonic colonization, it surely 
would be of greater average stature than it here appears. One 
other centre of relative shortness is clear in the Appenzells 
and Glarus. To test it I have traced it through a number 
of years of recruits. It appears in each contingent. Chalu- 
meau s ( n " > map brings it into strong relief. Perhaps here 
again some local influence has been in play. A field for an 
thropological research of great interest in this quarter of the 
country is as yet almost untouched. Detailed analyses are, 
however, needed. Cantonal averages show very little, for 
they include all extremes of environment at once. 

Another example of the competency of environment to con 
fuse the phenomena of race is offered by a detailed study of 
the school children in the canton of Berne by Dr. Studer ( 80) . 
We have just examined the distribution of stature in this re 
gion, noting the depressing effect of the high Alps in this re 
spect. Topographically this canton extends over three regions 
quite distinct in character. A middle strip along the valley of 
the Aar as far as the city of Berne consists of an elevated, not 
infertile table-land, with a rolling, hilly surface. This be 
comes gradually more rugged, until it terminates in the high 
mountains of the Bernese Oberland south of Interlaken. Here 
in this chain we have the most elevated portion of Switzerland ; 
and, we may add. one of the most unpropitious for agricul 
ture or industry. The peasantry hereabouts must live upon the 



tourist or not at all. The northern third of Berne covers the 
Jura Mountains, quite high, but of such geological formation 
that the soil yields not ungraciously to agriculture. Thus 
from the economic point of view we may divide the canton into 
two parts, setting aside the southern third the Oberland 
as decidedly inferior to the rest. The people of this region in 

the ante-tourist era could not but be unfavourably affected by 
their material environment. 

Our map shows that this economic contrast is duplicated 
in the anthropological sense by an appreciable increase of 
blondness within the Oberland, which becomes more marked 
as the fastnesses of the mountains are approached. North 
of the city of Berne there are from seven to eleven per cent of 
pure blonds ; in the Oberland sometimes upward of three times 


as many. Is it possible that this blondness in the mountains 
may be due to race? If so, it must be Teutonic. \Ye have 
just seen that Switzerland is cut in halves at this point by an 
intrusive strip of such Teutonic blondness. Dr. Studer ex 
plained the phenomenon on the assumption that this blondness 
migrating to the south along the Rhine, and then up the Aar, 
had heaped itself up, so to speak, against this great geograph 
ical barrier, by a colonization of lands hitherto unoccupied by 
the native inhabitants. This supposition might be tenable 
were not the evidence from all parts of Europe flatly opposed 
to it. There is nothing to show that the law of segregation 
of the Alpine type in the areas of isolation does not hold here 
as in the Tyrol, in western Switzerland, and all over the con 
tinent. Central Switzerland was historically overrun by the 
Helvetians, as we have said, who have been identified as Teu 
tonic by race. The Rhaetians were the more primitive Alpine 
type. Every principle of human nature and ethnology opposes 
the supposition that these conquering Helvetians would be 
content to leave the darker Rhsetians in full possession of the 
fertile plain of the Aar while they betook themselves to the 
barren valleys of the Oberland. Everywhere else in Europe 
the nile is, " To the conquerors belong the plains, to the van 
quished the hills." The blondness of the Oberland must there 
fore be regarded as racially anomalous. Another explanation 
for it must be found in the influence of environment. It is, in 
our opinion, traceable most probably to the effect upon the pig 
mental processes of the mountainous and infertile territory of 
these high Alps. In an earlier chapter * the evidence upon 
this point for Italy seemed to be quite clear. Further examples 
will be mentioned later. 

The broad-headed type not only forms the bulk of the pop 
ulation all through the Alps ; it is so much more primitive than 
all others that it lies closer to the soil. The racial character of 
the population varies in direct relation with the physical geog 
raphy of the country. The Tyrol is the most favoured spot in 
which to study the succession of the long and the broad heads 


respectively.* It is the geographical centre of the continent. It 
holds strategically the great highway of communication the 
Brenner Pass between the north and the south of Europe. 
As our map on the next page shows, it is also the crest of the 
great European watershed. From it flow the Inn River and 
the Drave into the Danube, thence to the Baltic Sea on the 
east; the Adige is an affluent of the Po, running due south 
to the Adriatic; and on the west the branches of the Rhine 
carry its waters into the Atlantic. Each of these great river 
systems has marked a line of human immigration and has di 
rected racial movement to this spot. By the Danube the Slavs 
have come, and by Innsbruck over the Brenner, the Teutons 
have passed across into the valley of the Adige and thence 
directly into the plain of Italy. Back over the same route have 
flowed many phases of Mediterranean culture into the north 
from the time of the Phoenicians to the present. The Tyrol, 
for these reasons, is the one spot in Europe in which racial 
competition has come to a focus. The population is exceed 
ingly mixed. I have seen men of the purest Italian type 
speaking the German tongue; and at Botzen blond Teutons 
who made use of good Italian. Despite this circumstance of 
racial intermixture, there are within the Tyrol at the same time 
a number of areas of isolation which possess very marked in 
dividuality. We thus have the sharpest contrasts between 
mixed and pure populations. The Oetzthal Alps, in the very 
centre of the country, are as inaccessible as any part of Eu 
rope. So rugged is this latter district that the dialects differ 
from valley to valley, and the customs and social institutions 

as well.f 

We have already discussed the variations of stature in this 
region (page 101). We have shown how sharp is the transi 
tion from a tall population north of the Alps to the stunted 


* The literature upon the Tyrol is especially rich. The best 
of the detailed researches of Holl, Tappeiner, Rabl-Riickhard, Zucker- 
kandl and others will be found in Toldt, Zur Somatologie der Tiroler, 
Sitzungsb. Anth. Ges. Wien, xxiv, 1894, pp. 77-85- Our map is con 
structed from his data. On languages consult Bidermann, Schneller, at 


f Tappeiner, 1878, p. 56, gives interesting examples. 



Brachycephalic disharmonic. 

Pure Dissentis type. 

BASEL, Teutonic type. Cephalic Index 64. 



people of Italian speech in the valley of the Adige. A similar 
tendency toward brunetness is perfectly certain. The northern 
half of the country is distinctly German in its colouring, while 
the south becomes suddenly Italian." 

Turning now to the anthropological map of this region, 
based upon a measurement of over twelve thousand skulls, it 





will be found that in nearly every case the broad heads become 
numerous in direct proportion to the increase in altitude. 
In other words, the broad open valleys leading out toward the 
great river systems of Europe are relatively dolichocephalic; 
while the side branches in the Oetzthal Alps, isolated from for 
eign influences, show a marked preponderance of round-head- 

* Moschen, 1892, with map ; Tappeiner, 1878, p. 288. 


edness. Thus in the Stanzerthal and the valley of the Schnals, 
indicated upon our map by the solid black tint, are two of the 
broadest-headed spots in the world. In the first almost sev 
enty per cent, in the second over ninety per cent of the cranial 
indices were above 85.* These both lie, it will be observed, 
well off the main line of travel, either by the Inn Valley or over 
the Brenner. At their outlets they contain many heads of 
medium breadth, but these become less frequent as we pene 
trate the highlands. Like them are nearly all the side valleys 
in this part of the Alps. So closely, indeed, does this physical 
trait follow the topography that Ranke of Munich, as we have 
already said, has endeavoured to connect broad-headedness and 
altitude as cause and effect. For us the true explanation of 
this phenomenon is entirely racial, f It is a product of genu 
ine social selection. The two great branches of narrow-head- 
edness, the blond Teuton at the north and the Mediterranean 
at the south with its dark eyes and hair, have invaded the Alps 
all the way from France to the Balkan states. At the time of 
their coming a broad-headed population, as it would appear, 
occupied the whole mountain chain. The result is that to-day 
its main peculiarity has become attenuated exactly in propor 
tion to the degree to which it has been exposed to racial inter 
mixture with the new-comers. 

Here is an example, then, of purely human stratification. 
The Alpine type has been overlaid by the new-comers, or else- 
has been gradually driven up and back into the areas of isola 
tion. Those who remained along the great routes of travel 
have been swamped in a flood of foreign intermixture. The 
only exceptions to the rule we have observed of a primitive 
broad-headed layer of population isolated in the uplands are 
offered by the two valleys of the Ziller in the northeast and of 
the Isel and Kalserthals just across the main chain of the Alps 
by Linz. In these places Roll (<84) has proved that the con 
verse of our proposition is true, since, as one ascends the val 
leys the broad heads become less frequent. No explanation for 
this has been offered ; but I have a suspicion that it points to 

* Rabl-Riickhard, 1879, p. 210. 

f Moschen, 1892, p. 125, discusses this. 



still a third layer of population. The Slavic peoples immi 
grating within the historic period are all very broad-headed. 
It is not impossible that this racial element which has overlaid 
the Teutons in parts of eastern Europe may have followed them 
into these valleys. Certain it is that Slavic skulls begin to 
occur in this region. * It may have happened in this way : 
\Yhen the long-headed Teutons came, they drove the primi 
tive Alpine population into the side valleys. Then, when the 
Slavs followed the Teutons, these latter types drifted up and 
back as well, merging with the original broad-headed stock to 
produce an intermediate type of head form. This would ob 
viously be less broad than the new Slavic type in relative purity 
along the main channels of immigration. 

The evidence from the Tyrol that in the Alps the broad 
heads lie nearest the soil is sustained by similar testimony from 
the other end of the same mountain chain. Bedot and Pitard 
have studied in some detail the population of the Yalais the 
valley of the upper Rhone in western Switzerland. Their re 
sults appear on our map at page 285. Here, precisely as in 
the Tyrol, the side valleys are distinctly broader-headed than 
that of the Rhone itself. Wherever the foreigner has come he 
has lowered the cephalic index. Thus, for example, in the open 
valley of the Rhone the average index is but 82, while in the 
Gorge du Trient, leading over toward Savoy, it rises 87. Few 
of the villages investigated are as isolated to-day as those in 
the Oetztal valleys of the Tyrol ; but in proportion as they 
lie off the main track the index rises appreciably. The evi 
dence is indubitable that the broad-headed type is the oldest 
and most primitive all through the Alps. 

The Netherlands are generally conceded to be Teutonic, 
just as Belgium is regarded as Gallic or French in its affinities. 
Religious differences seem to confirm the deduction. Histo 
rians Motley, for example assume the boundary between the 
Catholic and Protestant Low Countries to be dependent in 
large measure upon differences of physical descent. Nothing 

* Zuckerkandl, 1884, p. 124. 



could be more erroneous. We have already seen in Belgium, 
that the transition from an Alpine to a Teutonic population is 
entirely accomplished in passing from the Walloons to the 
Flemings.* In the Netherlands similar contrasts of population 
exist, although it is more difficult to correlate them exactly with 
the geographical character of the country. Nevertheless, the 
anthropology of this little nation is of exceeding interest, be 
cause it offers a clew to the problem of the origin of the curi 
ously tin-Teutonic populations which we have shown to exist 
in Denmark and southwestern Norway. 

Linguistically, the Netherlands to-day is at bottom entirely 
Teutonic, but it is dialectically divided into several distinct 
parts, f The Frisian language, which since the very earliest 
times has occupied its present territory, is of interest as being 
perhaps nearest to modern Saxon English and Lowland Scotch 
of all the continental languages. It is spoken principally in the 
province of Friesland (see map on page 296), in the hook of 
Noord-Holland, and on the islands along the coast, even as far 
north as the southern boundary of Denmark. J The language is 
slowly giving way before the aggressive Low German speech. 
The Saxon has crowded it out of Groningen and most of 
Drenthe, where it once prevailed. Frankish is crowding it 
back south of the Zuider Zee. Throughout Zeeland and south 
Holland a mixed Friso-Frankish language is spoken, which 
approaches the Flemish tcfward the Belgian frontier. Finally, 
in Lirnburg and parts of Noord-Brabant we come upon the 
Walloon linguistic influence, as an added element. Thus it 
will be seen that, despite the small size of this country, the 
greatest diversity of speech prevails. One is led to expect that 
conditions giving rise to such variety of language ought to be 
competent also to perpetuate racial peculiarities of importance. 
Such is indeed the case, although, curiously enough, such phys 
ical differences are quite independent of language in their dis 

* Page 162 supra. 

\ For maps and data consult Kuyper, 1883, and especially Winkler, 
1891. Lubach, 18633, p. 424, with map, treats of it fully also. 
\ Hansen, 1892, maps it in Schleswig. 


Very few anthropometric observations upon the living 
Dutch have been made; but research upon the cranial charac 
teristics of the people has been ardently prosecuted for more 
than a generation.* The material is difficult to handle, since 
it has never been systematically co-ordinated. We have made 
an attempt to do this in our map on the next page, which repre 
sents as accurately as may be the present state of our knowl 
edge concerning the head form of the people. It shows, as 
we might expect, that the greater portion of the country is en 
tirely Teutonic in respect of this characteristic. The people 
are predominantly long-headed, oval-faced, tallish, and blond. 
These latter traits are expressed with great purity, especially 
in Friesland and the neighbouring provinces.! It is curious to 
note also, as Lubach observes, that while the townspeople seem 
to be slightly different from the peasantry, betraying greater 
intermixture, few traces of any diversity between the upper 
and lower classes exist. This he asserts to be a result of the 
political homogeneity of the people and the absence of any 
hereditary ruling class of foreign origin or descent. Little by 
little, as we go south from Friesland, the people become darker- 
complexioned, the most noticeable change being in the shorter 
stature and more stocky habit. This we might expect, indeed, 
from what we know of the Walloons, who are of Alpine racial 

* The standard authority upon the Netherlands is the late Dr. A. Sasse, 
of Zaandam. To his son, Dr. J. Sasse, who is ably continuing his 
father s investigations, I am indebted for much assistance. Dr. De Man, 
of Middelburg, is also an authority upon the especially interesting dis 
trict of Zeeland. He has courteously placed much original matter at my 
disposition. In addition to these, Drs. Folmer, De Pauw, and Jacques 
have contributed to our knowledge of the country. Lists of their work 
will be found in our supplementary Bibliography. The best comprehen 
sive works are D. Lubach, De Bevoners van Nederland, Haarlem, 1863 ; 
A. Sasse, Ethnologic van Nederland, Tijd. Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 
1879, pp. 323-331, with map; J. Sasse, Over Zeeusche Schedels, Academ- 
isch Proefschrift, Amsterdam, 1891 ; and the later reports of Dr. A. Sasse 
as chairman of the Commissie voor de Ethnologic van Nederland in Ned. 
Tijd. voor Geneeskunde, especially 1893 and 1896. 

f Lubach, 1863 a, pp. 420 ct setj., gives the best general description of 
the population. Beddoe, 1885, pp. 38-43, gives a good summary also. 



Yirchow injected an element of interest into the ethnology 
of the Netherlands in 1876 by an attempt to prove craniologi- 



79 and 80 
81 62. 
85 66 


Data for this map are corrected from the original skull measurements by adding two 
units, to make them comparable with other maps based upon study of living 

cally that the Frisians were in reality not Teutons at all, but 
were of a more primitive or Neanderthaloid derivation.* His 

* Beitrage zur physischen Anthropologie der Deutschen, mit besonderer 
Berucksichtigung der Friesen, Abh. K. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, aus dem 


conclusions were based upon studies of a few crania from the 
islands of Urk and Marken, in the Zuider Zee. The Frisian 
skull, according to Yirchow, was not only peculiar but atavistic 
by reason of its peculiarly low vault and flat, retreating fore 
head. In this respect it seemed to approach the ancient type 
of the so-called Neanderthal race.* He did not deny that in 
other respects the general proportions, especially as measured 
by the cranial index, were quite similar to those of the other 
Teutonic peoples. Subsequent investigation has, I think it 
may be fairly said, entirely shaken confidence in Virchow s in 
ferences. When measured according to normal and well-ac 
cepted methods and in sufficient numbers to eliminate chance 
variation, the northern Dutch seem to be in their head form, as 
also in all their other physical characteristics, distinctly and 
purely Teutonic. 

Having vindicated the right of the northern and eastern 
Dutch to the title of Teutons, we come to a different problem 
in the case of the people of the provinces of Holland and Zee- 
land. As our map shows, a sudden and violent rise of cephalic 
index betrays the presence of a large population of Alpine or 
broad-headed affinity. Even here all along the seacoast the 
Teutonic characteristics seem to have persisted, probably due 
to roving bands from the north, similar to those which have 
settled all along the Htns Sa.miiiciim in France. But on the 
inner islands, especially in Xord and Zuid Beveland, there is 
every indication of a broad-headed Alpine colony of consider 
able size. This is shown by the dark tints upon our map. An 
extreme brachycephaly has been proved here by Dr. De Alan, 
who has most courteously sent me many photographs of crania 
from the region. We have already made use of two of these, 
at page 38, as illustrative of the limits of type variation with 
in the continent of Europe. f The long-headed one is from 

Jahre 1876. Its conclusions are ably contested by Dr. A. Sasse, 1879, 
and especially by Von Holder, 1880 ; and J. Sasse, 1896, furnishes a good 
review of the controversy. 

* Op. at., pp. 31, 75-109, 236, and 356. 

f In addition to his other papers, those of 1865 and 1893 are especially 
important. Consult on the finds at Saaftingen also ; Kemna, 1877 ; J. 
Sasse, 1891, pp. 45-54; and De Pauw, 1885. 



the seacoast, where Teutonic characteristics prevail; the other 
globular one is from a village in the middle of the brachy- 
cephalic area, submerged in the sixteenth century. These are 
each typical ; the contrast is too marked to need further com 
ment. There can be no longer any doubt that in these islands 
a settlement of the Alpine invaders took place at an early time. 
Whether they actually antedated the Teutons, as Dr. J. Sasse 
supposes,* or not, is matter for question. Miillenhof states 
that the Celts occupied the Rhine delta as early as 400 B. c. ; f 
perhaps these broad-headed Zeelanders are a heritage of their 
occupation. De Man Ki) certainly holds the brachycephaly 

Alpine type, Zeeland. Index, 86. 

Teutonic type. Blond. 

to represent an immigrant type more recent than the long 
headed population on the coast. At all events, Lubach, nearly 
forty years ago, long before any precise measurements were 
taken, commented upon the brunetness, the stocky build, and 
the round visage of the peasants of this district. In each of 
these respects they have been proved to differ from the Fries- 
landers farther north, who, as we have said, are Teutonic by 
descent. Quite often the type is disharmonic, arising from a 
cross of the two races, as in the case of the peasant illustrated 
in our portrait herewith. The black hair of this man and his 

1891, p. 84. 

f Virchow, 18763, p. 364. 


accentuated brachycephaly are in strong contrast with his 
elongated Teutonic face. The nearest blood relatives of these 
south Hollanders are the Walloons in Belgium * and the origi 
nal broad-headed element in the Danish population. From 
which of these colonies the Round-Barrow type invading the 
British Isles came we may never determine; we only know that 
the Alpine race touched the western ocean at this spot, and 
has here persisted in remarkable purity to this day. It seems 
as if a race had here found refuge in this secluded spot against 
the aggression of the Teutonic type, just as the Walloons are 
sheltered in the wooded uplands of the Ardennes plateau in 
Belgium a little farther south. 

* From Vanderkindere s data on the school children in Belgium, a 
tendency toward brunetness, more marked than usual in Flanders, 
becomes apparent in the direction of Zeeland. An Alpine racial occupa 
tion of this region would account for it. 



THE ethnic history of the British Isles turns upon two sig 
nificant geographical facts, which have rendered their popula 
tions decidedly unique among the other states of western Eu 
rope.* The first of these is their insular position, midway off the 
coast between the north and south of the continent. That nar 
row silver streak between Calais and Dover which has insured 
the political security and material prosperity of England in 

* For invaluable assistance I am deeply indebted to Dr. John Beddoe, 
F. R. S., late President of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, 
of Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts, not only for the loan of rare material for the 
illustration of this particular chapter, but for kindly criticism and interest 
throughout our whole series. To ex-President E. W. Brabrook, C. K., 
of the Anthropological Institute, London, also, I would acknowledge 
most gratefully my obligation. Recognition should be made of the 
courtesy of Mr. J. A. Webster, secretary, as well. The complete collec 
tion of photographs of the Institute has not only been opened to us ; 
a large part of it has even been subjected to the perils of transportation 
to America for our benefit. From these sources all of our portraits are 

Authorities comprehensively treating the anthropology of the British 
Isles are very few. Pre-eminent is Dr. John Beddoe s Races of Britain, 
Bristol and London, 1885 ; and his Stature and Bulk of Man in the 
British Isles, in Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of -London, iii, 
1869. A full list of his other valuable papers will be found in our Bibli 
ography. The monumental work of Davis and Thurnam, Crania Bri- 
tannica, two volumes, London, 1865, covers the whole subject of past and 
present populations. An essay, On Some Fixed Points in British Ethnol 
ogy, by the late T. H. Huxley, in the Contemporary Review for 1871, is a 
convenient summary, with no attention to the evidence of craniology, 
however. Finally, the reports of the Anthropometric Committee of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, especially its last 
one in 1883, should not be omitted. Many other papers of local impor 
tance are named in our Bibliography above mentioned. 


later times, has always profoundly affected her racial history. 
A partial bar against invasion by land, the fatal step once 
taken, it has immediately become an obstacle in the way of 
retreat. Invasion thus led inevitably to assimilation. Pro 
tected sufficiently against disturbance to assure that homo 
geneity of type which is attendant upon close contact, the 
islands at the same time could never suffer from the stagna 
tion which utter isolation implies. 

We are still further assured of the truth of this geographi 
cal generalization on comparison of the racial history of Eng 
land with that of Ireland; for we thereby have opportunity 
to observe the effects of different degrees of such insularity. 
In the latter case, it has become a bit too pronounced to be 
a favourable element in the situation. Disregarding her mod 
ern political history for we are dealing with races and not 
nations it is indeed true, as Dr. Beddoe says, that Ireland 
" has always been a little behindhand." Ethnic invasions, if 
they took place at all, came late and with spent energy; most 
of them, as we shall see, whether of culture or of physical types, 
even if they succeeded in reaching England, failed to reach 
the Irish shores at all. These laws apply to all forms of life 
alike. Thus the same geographical isolation which excluded 
the snakes of the mainland from Ireland we are speaking 
seriously of an established zoological fact and not a myth- 
was responsible for the absence of the peculiar race of men 
who brought the culture of bronze and other arts into Eng 
land in prehistoric times. It also accounts for the relative 
scarcity of the Teutonic invaders afterward. As we may grade 
both the flora and fauna of the islands in variety of species 
from the continent westward, so also may we distinguish 
them anthropologically. In flora, Ireland has but two thirds of 
the species indigenous to England and Scotland ; for the same 
reason her human population contains much less variety of 
human type.* Among the Irish peasantry there are no such 
contrasts as those we shall show to exist between the highland 
and the lowland Scotch, or between the Englishman in Corn 
wall and in Yorkshire. 

* Sir A. Geikie, in Macmillan s Magazine, March, 1882, pp. 367 et seq. 



A second geographical peculiarity of the British Isles has 
not been devoid of importance for us. The eastern island con 
tains both extremes of fertility and accessibility. Ireland is 
far more uniform. Another point for us to note also is that 


BELOW 150 

OVER 300 


the backbone of the larger island lies along the west coast. 
Both England and Scotland certainly present their best sides 
to the continent; all the \vay from Caithness to Kent either 
the most fertile lands, or the mouths of rivers leading to them, 









lie on the east. The same thing is partially true of Ireland, 
although more in respect of geology than topography, which 
latter is alone shown upon our map. The result, of course, 
is the accentuation of the contrasts between the populations 
of the east and west sides in either case. The best lands are 
at the same time nearest the mainland. All incentive to fur 
ther invasion beyond a certain point ceases at once. The sig 
nificance of this will appear in due time. We may realize its 
importance in advance, however, by supposing the situation 
reversed, with the goal of all invasions on the farther side of 
each island. Is there a doubt that Wales, the western Scot 
tish Highlands, and farther Ireland would have been far more 
thoroughly infused with foreign blood than they are in reality 
to-day? It makes a great difference whether a district is on 
the hither or the hinter side of Canaan. 

These truths, which we have here to apply to ethnic facts, 
hold good in social relations as well. Either extreme of hetero 
geneity or isolation is unfavourable to progress. This we may 
prove by applying the same laws to another country which in 
many respects is similar to the British Isles. Japan stands in 
much the same relation to Asia that Britain does to Europe. 
Like the British, her population is to-day quite well assimi 
lated, although compounded of several ethnic types different 
from those of the mainland. Here again it is a modest degree 
of isolation which has left her to digest in comparative quiet 
the Mongol, the Malay, and the Polynesian elements in her 
population ; and yet it is undoubtedly the very variety of these 
elements which makes the Japanese so apt in the ways of 

The most remarkable trait of the population of the British 
Isles is its head form; and especially the uniformity in this re 
spect which is everywhere manifested. The prevailing type 
is that of the long and narrow cranium, accompanied by an 
oval rather than broad or round face. This cephalic uniformity 
throughout Britain makes the task of illustrating types by 
means of portraits peculiarly difficult; for distinctions of race 
are reduced mainly to matters of feature and relative blondness, 
instead of the more fundamental characteristics. In this con- 



nection, by the way, it should always be borne in mind that 
when we speak of broad or oval faces we refer to the propor 
tions of the bony framework alone. We must look below the 
flesh, behind beard or whiskers, or else endless confusion will 
result. Full cheeks need not imply a broad face as we mean 
it. The width behind the malar bones is the crucial test. 



Measured by the cephalic index that is, the extreme 
breadth of the head expressed in percentage of its length 
from front to back the uniformity in cranial type all through 
the British Isles is so perfect that it can not be represented 
by shaded maps as we have heretofore been accustomed to do. 



Wherever heads have been measured, whether in the Aran 
Islands off the west coast of Ireland, the Hebrides and Scot 
tish Highlands, Wales and Cornwall, or the counties about 
London, the results all agree within a few units. These figures, 
noted upon the localities where they were taken, are shown 
upon our little sketch map on page 304. It will be observed 
at once that the indexes all lie between 77 and 79, with the 
possible exception of the middle and western parts of Scot 
land, where they fall to 76.* 

What do these dry statistics mean? In the first place, they 
indicate an invariability of cranial type even more noticeable 
than in Spain or Scandinavia. Compared with the results else 
where in central Europe, they are remarkable. On the conti 
nent near by, the range of variation of averages of cephalic 
index in a given country is never less than ten points ; in Italy 
and France it runs from 75 to 88. Oftentimes within a few 
miles it will drop five or six units suddenly. Here in the British 
Isles it is practically uniform from end to end. Highland and 
lowland, city or country, peasant or philosopher, all are prac 
tically alike in respect of this fundamental racial characteristic. 
Our second deduction from the data concerning the cephalic 
index is that here we have to do with a living population in 
which the round-headed Alpine race of central Europe is totally 
lacking; an ethnic element which, as we have already shown 
in our preceding chapters, constitutes a full half of the present 
population of every state of middle western Europe that is 
to say, of France, Belgium, Italy, and Germany. We have 
already proved that this Alpine race is distinctively a denizen of 
mountainous regions; we christened it Alpine for that reason. 
It clings to the upland areas of isolation with a persistency 
which even the upheavals of the nineteenth century can not 
shake. Almost everywhere it appears to have yielded the sea- 
coasts to its aggressive rivals, the Teutonic long-headed race 

* Beddoe, 1885, pp. 231-233; 1893, p. 104, and 1894, is authority on 
England, primarily ; Haddon and Browne are best on Ireland ; Beddoe, 
1887 a, on the Isle of Man ; Gray, 1895 b, gives an average of 77 for 169 
Scots on the east coast in Aberdeen. Cf. also Horton-Smith, 1896; 
MacLean, 1866; Venn, 1888, etc. Muffang, 1899, is fine. 


in the north and the dolichocephalic Mediterranean one on 
the south. This curious absence of the broad-headed Alpine 
race in the British Isles therefore is merely another illustra 
tion of its essentially continental character. 

Before we proceed to consider the other physical traits 
of the living population, we must draw in a background by 
a hasty summary of the facts which the science of archaeology 
has to offer concerning the prehistoric human types in the 
islands. In the first place, it is certain that the earliest in 
habitants were decidedly long-headed, even more so than any 
Europeans of to-day; far more so than the present British. 
The evidence concerning this most primitive stratum is care 
fully presented by Boyd Dawkins (>80) in his Early Man in 
Britain. These men. whose remains have been unearthed in 
caves, and whose implements have been discovered in the river 
drift of the late Glacial epoch, were decidedly dolichocephalic. 
Both in the stage of culture attained and in head form they 
were so like the Eskimo of North America that Xilsson more 
than a half century ago suggested a common derivation for 
both. Boyd Dawkins lends his support to the same hypothe 
sis, assuming that as the ice sheet withdrew to the north, these 
primitive folk followed it : just as we know to a certainty that 
the mammoth, mastodon, and other species of animals have 
done.* A former connection of Europe with Greenland would 
have made this migration "an easy matter. Whether this inter 
esting supposition be true or not. we know that the earliest 
type of man in Britain was as long-headed as either the African 
negro or the Eskimo that is to say, presenting a more ex 
treme type in this respect than any living European people 


The second population to be distinguished in these islands 
was characterized by a considerably higher culture; but it 
was quite similar to the preceding one. although somewhat 
less extreme in physical type, so far as we can judge by the 
head form. This epoch, from the peculiarities of its mode of 
interment, is known as the Long-Barrow period. f The human 

* 1880, p. 233 ; consult also his 1874 a and 1874 b. 

f The best authorities upon this and the succeeding type are Canon 


remains are found, often in considerable numbers, generally 
in more or less rudely constructed stone chambers covered 
with earth. These mounds, egg-shaped in plan, often several 
hundred feet long, are quite uniform in type. The bodies are 
found at the broader and higher end of the tumulus, which 
is more often toward the east, possibly a matter of religion, 
the entrance being upon this same end. These people were 
still in the pure stone age of culture; neither pottery nor metals 
seem to have been known. But a distinct advance is indicated 
by the skilfully fashioned stone implements. Such long bar 
rows occur most frequently in the southwest of England, in 
the counties of Wilts and Gloucestershire, and especially in the 
bleak uplands of the Coteswold Hills ; but they are also found 
much farther north as well. The people of this period were, 
as we have said, like their predecessors extremely long 
headed. The cephalic index in the life was as low as 72, sev 
eral units below any average in Europe to-day, save perhaps 
in parts of Corsica. It is worthy of note also that a remark 
able purity of type in this respect was manifested; positively 
no broad crania with indexes above 80 have ever been found. 
These long-barrow men were also rather undersized, about 
five feet five inches that is to say, an inch shorter than any 
English average to-day. Rolleston claims never to have 
found human remains characterized by a stature above five 
feet six inches. Beddoe ( 89) concedes it to have been a popu 
lation shorter than any now living in Britain. The full sig 
nificance of this important point will appear shortly. Finally, 
the evidence seems to bear out the conclusion that thus far 
we have to do with but one race type, which had, however, 
slowly acquired a low stage of culture by self-education. 

This neolithic, or stone age, primitive type is still repre- 

Greenwell s British Barrows, with its anthropological notes by Dr. Rolles 
ton, 1877, at pages 627-718 ; the Crania Britannica above mentioned, but 
more especially the essays by Dr. Thurnam in Memoirs of the Anthro 
pological Society of London, vol. i, pp. 120-168, 458-519, and vol. iii, pp. 
41-75. Consult also Rolleston in Jour. Anth. Inst., London, v, pp. 
120-172; Garson, 1883, and in Nature, November 15 and 22, 1894. The 
older authorities are Sir Daniel Wilson, 1851, pp. 160-189 ; Bateman, 1861 : 
also Laing and Huxley, 1866, especially pp. 100-120. 

3 o8 


sented in the present population, according to the testimony 
of those best fitted to judge. One of these neolithic types, 
judging by the combination of diminutiveness of stature, bru- 
netness, and accentuated dolichocephaly, is represented by 
our number 137 at page 330. Dr. Beddoe writes me that it is 
not confined to Devonshire, but is " common enough in other 
parts of England." 

The next event in the prehistoric history of the British Isles 
pardon the bull, it conveys our meaning is of profound 
significance. Often directly superposed upon the relics of the 
Long-Barrow period, and in other ways indicating a succession 
to it in time, occur the remains of an entirely different racial 
type. This stratum represents the so-called Round- Harrow 
period, from the circumstance that the burial mounds are no 
longer ovoid or elongated in ground plan, but quite circular 
or bell-shaped. The culture is greatly superior to that of its 
predecessor. Pottery, well ornamented, occurs in abundance; 
and the metals are known. Bronze implements are very com 
mon, and even a few traces of iron appear. Now the dead are 
often buried in urns, showing that incineration must have 
been practised. More remarkable than this advance in culture, 
and more directly concerning our present inquiry, the people 
were as broad-headed as the modern peasants of middle 
France. The cephalic index was fully ten points on the aver 
age above that of the loflg-barrow men, averaging about 83 
in the life. The former type has not entirely disappeared, but 
it is in a decided minority. So persistent is the difference that 
Dr. Thurnam s well-known axiom, "long-barrow, long skull: 
round-barrow, round head," is accepted as an ethnic law. It 
is impossible to emphasize too strongly the radical change in 
human type which is hereby implied. The contrast is every 
whit as marked as that between a modern Alpine peasant and 
a south Italian or Scandinavian. The new population differed 
in still another important respect from the underlying one. 
This is known from scores of detailed measurements of skele 
tons. The average stature was fully three inches greater, 
rising five feet eight inches. The Round-Barrow population, 
therefore, attained a bodily height more respectable as com- 


iRONZE AGE, Cumberland. 

BARLEY, Hertfordshire. 

113 Black hair and eyes. Eyes gray, hair dark brown. 114. 

CORNWALL. Index 77 .x. 








pared with the present living one than its stunted prede 
cessor. Dr. Beddoe has selected our portrait Nos. 109 and 
no as representing this almost extinct broad-headed type 
of the bronze age. It is said to be not uncommon in the re 
moter parts of Cumberland. Harrison * describes it best in 
the life. It is above the average in height, strong-jawed, some 
times fair in complexion, though more often dark. The head 
is broad and short, the face strongly developed at the cheek 
bones, " frowning or beetle-browed," the development of the 
brow ridges being especially noticeable in contrast with the 
smooth, almost feminine softness of the Saxon forehead. Our 
old British type from Barley, Herts (Xo. in), would seem 
to conform pretty well to this type. It is most prevalent 
among the remnants of the now well-nigh extinct yeomanry 
class. Another equally good example of this primitive old 
British type is shown in our " old black-breed " man from 
the Shetland Islands, shown at pages 302 and 303. These 
people are to-day nearly extinct in the islands, I am informed 
by Dr. Beddoe, being crowded out, as we shall see, by the Scan 
dinavian invaders. The effect of a cross with the Norsemen is 
clearly evident in our Xos. 107 and 108. On the mainland, 
this " old black breed " is still numerous in west Caithness and 
east Sutherland. 

The generally accepted view among anthropologists to-day, 
is that the Round-Barrow men came over from the mainland, 
bringing with them a culture derived from the East. We can 
never know with certainty whether they were Celtic immi 
grants from Brittany, where, as we have already shown, a 
similar physical type prevails to-day such is Thurnam s view : 
or whether they were the vanguard of the invaders from Den 
mark, where a round-headed type was for a time well repre 
sented an opinion to which Dr. Rolleston inclines. This 
latter hypothesis is strengthened by study of the modern popu 
lations, both of Xorway and the Danish peninsula. For ex 
ample, turn for a moment to our map on page 206, showing 
the head form in Scandinavia to-dav. Xotice how the tints 

1882, p. 246; Beddoe, 1885, p. 15. 


darken that is to say, the heads broaden in the southwest 
corner of Norway. The same thing is true just across the 
Skager Rack in Denmark proper, where the round-headed 
type is still more frequent than immediately to the south in 
Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover. This neighbourhood was 
once a distinct subcentre of distribution of this type. It might 
readily have come over to England from here, as the Jutes, 
Angles, and Saxons did a few centuries later. Differing in 
these details as to their precise geographical origin, all au 
thorities are nevertheless agreed that the round-barrow men 
came from the continent somewhere. Any other derivation 
would have been an impossibility. We also know that this 
Alpine immigrant type overran all England and part of Scot 
land. It never reached Ireland because of its remoteness; 
with the result that greater homogeneity of type prevails, while 
at the same time the island was deprived of a powerful stimu 
lus to advance in culture. This is the first indication of the 
geographical handicap under which Erin has always laboured. 
Finally, we have to note that this broad-headed invasion of 
the Round-Barrow period is the only case where such an ethnic 
element ever crossed the English Channel in numbers suffi 
cient to affect the physical type of the aborigines. Even here 
its influence was but transitory; the energy of the invasion 
speedily dissipated; for at the opening of the historic period, 
judged by the sepulchral. remains, the earlier types had con 
siderably absorbed the newcomers. 

The disappearance of the round-barrow men is the last 
event of the prehistoric period which we are able to distin 
guish. Coming, therefore, to the time of recorded history, 
we find that every influence was directed toward the complete 
submergence of this extraneous broad-headed type ; for a great 
immigration from the northern mainland set in, which, after 
six hundred years of almost uninterrupted flow, completely 
changed the complexion of the islands we speak literally 
as well as figuratively. The Teutonic invasions from (ier- 
many, Denmark, and Scandinavia are the final episodes in our 
chronicle. They bring us down to the present time. They 
offer us a brilliant example of a great ethnic conquest as well 


as of a military or political occupation. The Romans * came 
in considerable numbers; they walled cities and built roads; 
they introduced new arts and customs; but when they aban 
doned the islands they left them racially as they were before. 
For they appear to have formed a ruling caste, holding itself 
aloof in the main from intermarriage with the natives. Xot 
even a heritage of Latin place names remains to any consider 
able degree. Kent and Essex were of all the counties perhaps 
the most thoroughly Romanized ; and yet the names of towns,, 
rivers, and hills were scarcely affected. The people manifest 
no physical traits which we are justified in ascribing to them. 
The Teutonic invasions, however, were of a different char 
acter. The invaders, coming perhaps in hopes of booty, yet 
finding a country more agreeable for residence than their 
barren northern land, cast in their lot with the natives, in many 
districts forming the great majority of the population. We 
find their descendants all over Britain to-day. 

These Teutonic invaders were all alike in physical type, 
roughly speaking. We can scarcely distinguish a Swede from 
a Dane to-day, or either from a native of Schleswig-Holstein 
or Friesland, the home of the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons. They 
are all described to us by chroniclers, and our modern research 
corroborates the testimony, as tall, tawny-haired, fiercely blue- 
eyed barbarians. Evidence there is indeed that the Alpine 
broad-headed race once effected a lodgment in southwest Nor 
way, as we have already said. Our map of that country on 
page 206 shows a persistence greatly attenuated of that trait 
all along the coast. Archaeology shows it to have invaded 
Jutland also in early times; but it seems to be of secondary 
importance there to-day. The Danes are somewhat broader- 
headed than the Hanoverians perhaps; but in all other re 
spects they are tall and blond Teutons. 

Since we can not follow these invaders over Britain by 
means of their head form, they being all alike and entirely 
similar to the already prevailing type in the British Isles pre 
vious to their advent, we must have recourse to a contributory 

* On the Romans consult the Crania Britannica, pp. 175 et seq., and 
Beddoe, 1885, pp. 30-37. 


kind of evidence. We have at times made use of the testi 
mony of place names heretofore; but it is nowhere else in 
Europe so clear or convincing as in this particular case. We 
may trace with some surety, each current of the great Teu 
tonic inundation by means of them. Then, having done this 
and completed our historical treatment of the subject, we may 
once more take up the main thread of our argument by return 
ing to the study of the living population. We shall thus have 
the key to the situation well in hand. The distribution of 
colour of hair and eyes and of stature will have a real signifi 

Our map on the next page, adapted from Canon Taylor s 
exceedingly valuable little book entitled Words and Places, 
will serve as the mainstay of our summary. In choosing our 
shading for it, we had one object in mind, which we can not 
forbear from stating at the outset. The three shades denoting 
the Teutonic place names are quite similar in intensity, and 
sharply marked off from the Celtic areas, which we have made 
black. This is as it should be; for the whole matter involves 
a contrast of the three with the one which we know to be far 
more primitive and deep-seated. The witness of spoken lan 
guage, to which we shall come shortly, would suffice to con 
firm this, even had we no history to which to turn. Our map 
shows at a glance, an island where once all the names of natu 
ral features of the landscsrpe and of towns as well were Celtic. 
This primitive layer of names has been rolled back by pressure 
from the direction of the mainland. It is a unit opposed to 
the combined aggression of the Germanic tongues.* 

The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons set the Teutonic ball a-roll- 
ing. They came from the northern coast of Germany, from 
the marshes and low-lying country of Friesland. These bar 
barians seem to have followed close upon the heels of the re 
tiring Romans, making their appearance about the year 400 
of our era. The whole island lay open to them, and they made 
haste to overrun the best of it. They avoided the fens and 
forests, to which the natives withdrew. Within two hundred 

* Consult Beddoe, 1885, p. 66, for criticisms of evidence derived from 
place names. 


AFTER TAYLOR 93 ly Termission. 



years their influence had extended even to the uttermost parts 
of Ireland, over the whole of which, as our map shows, Saxon 
village names sporadically occur.* From their widespread dis 
tribution it would seem, as Taylor suggests, that the invaders 
often avoided the settled places and founded entirely new set 
tlements in virgin territory. The main centre of their occupa 
tion was in the southeast and middle of England, where, from 
their first landings in Kent and Essex, they transformed the 
entire country. Scotland also, south of Edinburgh, was in 
fused with Saxon blood if we may judge from our map. This 
district, from the river Tees to the Eorth, is in fact, as Taylor f 
says, as purely English as any part of the island. The Lothians 
were reputed English soil until the eleventh century. Scot 
land begins racially, not at the political boundary of the river 
Tweed and Solway Firth, but at the base of the Grampian 
Hills. \ The correspondence between our maps of physical 
geography and of Celtic place names in Scotland shows un 
doubtedly a relation of cause and effect. 

This first inoculation with Teutonic blood was an unwill 
ing one. We have every evidence that the struggle was bitter 
to the end. The tale of Saint Guthlac, a devout Saxon, shows 
it. Disturbed in his meditations one night by a great uproar 
outside his hermit hut, he engaged himself in prayer for 
preservation until the morning. The chronicler tells us that 
he was much relieved at* daybreak by the discovery that the 
midnight marauders were only dci ils, and not Welshmen.* So 
strong was race antipathy that the laws forbade a Briton 
from drinking from a cup touched by a Saxon till it had been 
scoured with sand or ashes.] | Two hundred years of such a 

* Canon Taylor has personally offered one criticism of our map which 
is worthy of note. The Saxon spots throughout Ireland seldom represent 
but a single village name. They were of necessity made somewhat too 
large relatively, for purposes of identification. The island is really far 
more exclusively Celtic than this map makes it appear. 

f Op. cit., p. 112. \ Cf. A. Geikie, 1887, p. 397. 

* Beddoe, 1885, p. 53. 

|| Davis and Thurnam give many other interesting examples. Gomme, 
in his Village Community in Britain, p. 240, gives testimony to the same 
effect from quite different sources. 



struggle could not but modify the purity of the native stock, 
as we shall be able to prove. It is probable, indeed, that more 
than half the blood in the island was by this time Saxon. 

About the year 850 came the second instalment of the 
Teutonic invasion at the hands of the Danes.* They put an 
end to the inroads of their Saxon predecessors by attacking 
them in the rear. Two contrasted kinds of expeditions seem 
to have been despatched against the island. Those which 
besieged London and skirted the southern coasts were mainly 
piratical; few names indicating any permanent settlement 
occur. These Danes were in search of booty alone. Farther 
north, especially in Lincolnshire and its vicinity, the charac 
ter of the names betokens intentional colonization, and a very 
intensive one at that. Thus, nearly a quarter of all the village 
names in Lincolnshire terminate in " by," as Whitby, Derby, 
and the like. The Saxon equivalent for this Danish word for 
village is " ham " or " ton," as Buckingham and Huntington. 
The line of demarcation of Danish settlement on the south is 
very sharp. The fens deterred them from extending in this 
direction, for the marshes were long a stronghold of the Brit 
ons, as we have seen. From the Wash north over Yorkshire 
to the Tees they occupied and settled the country effectively.! 
Three hundred years were necessary to accomplish this result. 

The Norwegians, coming next, mainly confined their at 
tention to the northern and western coasts of Scotland, shun 
ning their vigorous competitors to the south. They attacked 
the island from the back side. The fringe of Norse place names 
upon our map is very striking. These Teutons rarely pene 
trated far inland in Scotland, especially along this west coast. 
For here the country is nigged ; the only means of communica 
tion is by sea ; so that the isolated colonies of " baysmen " 
were speedily absorbed. They dislodged the Gaelic speech 
in eastern Caithness entirely, so that the country has been 
Teutonic for upward of one thousand years. Pure Norse was 
spoken for a long time both in northern Ireland and Scotland.]; 

* Taylor, op. cit., pp. 103-122 ; Beddoe, 1885, pp. 86-92. 
f Vide Beddoe, 1837, on Yorkshire. 
\ Noreen, 1890, p. 369. 


On the islands the Shetlands, Orkneys, and Hebrides the 
case was much the same. Here the aborigines were often en 
tirely replaced by a purely Scandinavian population. Such a 
family with strongly accentuated Norwegian peculiarities is 
depicted on this page. Its contrast with the aboriginal dark 
population, the " old black breed," needs no comment. Our 

Xo. 138 at page 330 is 
another good example 
of a pure blond Scan 
dinavian from this dis 
trict. One reason for the 
Teutonization of these 
islands, which should be 
noted, is that they were 
really wintering stations 
and bases of supplies for 
the expeditions along the 
coasts of Scotland, Ire 
land, and Wales during 
the summer season. The 
only other district where 
Norse settlements occur 
in frequency is, as our 
map shows, in Lanca 
shire and the lake dis 
trict. This may also have 
been a centre whence 
expeditions all about 
the western coasts took 
place, planting little sta 
tions where opportunity offered. One of the most important 
of these was in Pembrokeshire, that strip of coast which, as 
Laws ( SS) has shown in detail, has been the seat of so many 
foreign occupations. 

The Normans,* last of the Germanic series, came to the 
islands after thev had become so infiltrated with Teutonic 

Scandinavian types. Lewis, Hebrides Islands. 

* Davis and Thurnam, 1865, pp. 193 et scq. ; Beddoe, 1885, pp. 110-135. 



BRUNET WELSH TYPE, Cardiganshire 


BRUNET WELSH TYPE, Montgomeryshire. I2 6. 


settlements that but few traces of them separately can be de 
tected. They did not come as they entered Normandy, as 
colonizers; but as political conquerors, a few thousand per 
haps, forming a ruling class just as the Franks invaded south 
Germany or Burgundy. Their influence is most strongly 
shown in York and parts of Lancashire and Durham. Much 
of the land here they laid entirely waste; what they did with 
the native owners we can only surmise. At a later time a 
gradual influx of Norman blood made itself felt in the south 
and east of England, so that Dr. Beddoe concludes that by 
the time of Edward I perhaps a fifth of the population was 
of Xorman descent more or less indirectly. 

The Teutonic immigration had now run its course. The 
islands were saturated. Let us see what the anthropological 
effect has been, by returning once more to the consideration 
of physical characteristics alone. 

We are now prepared to show why it is that in head form 
the population of the British Isles to-day is so homogeneous. 
The average cephalic index of 78 occurs nowhere else so uni 
formly distributed in Europe, nor does it anywhere else descend 
to so low a level, save at the two extremes of the continent 
in Scandinavia and Spain. We have already shown that in 
these two outlying members of Europe we have to do with 
relatively homogeneous populations in this respect. Other 
facts, already recited, prove that this uniformity of head form 
is the concomitant and index of two relatively pure, albeit 
widely different, ethnic types Mediterranean in Spain, Teu 
tonic in Scandinavia. Purity of descent in each case that is 
to say, freedom from ethnic intermixture is the direct and 
inevitable outcome of peninsular isolation. It is now proper 
to ask and this is the crucial question, to whose elucidation 
all of our argument thus far has been contributory whether 
we may make the same assumption of racial purity concern 
ing the British populations. We have a case of insularity 
even more pronounced than in Spain or Scandinavia ; we have 
cephalic uniformity. The interest of our problem intensifies 
at this juncture. If relatively pure, have we to do here in 
Britain with the type of the Teuton or of the Iberian race? 


We arc generally known as Teutonic by descent. Or is there 
some complex product here made up of both ethnic elements,. 








CORRECTlON.-Gaelic is spoken only in the western half of Caithness. The linguistic 
boundary should be continued across this county on our map. 



in which case the apparent homogeneity revealed by the head 
form is entirely specious and misleading? As our mainstay in 
such matters, cephalic index, fails us utterly, since both north 
and south are precisely alike in this respect, we must rely upon 
the other, albeit less stable, physical traits. To these we turn 
next in order. 

A glance at the accompanying map of relative brunetness 
suffices to show a curious increase of pigmentation from north 
east to southwest, measured by the prevailing colour of the 
hair.* The map is almost the exact counterpart of our pre 
ceding one of place names. From our previous chapters we 
might have been led to expect such an increase from north 
to south; for that is the rule in every continental country we 
have studied. The phenomenon we found to be largely a 
matter of race; but that physical environment, notably cli 
mate, played an important part. Moreover, we proved that in 
elevated districts some factor conduced to increase the blond- 
ness, so that mountains more often contained a fairer popula 
tion than the plains roundabout. Here is a surprising contra 
diction of that law, if law it be; for the Grampian Hills in 
Scotland, wild and mountainous Wales, and the hills of Con- 
nemara and Kerry in western Ireland, contain the heaviest 
contingent of brunet traits in the island. The gradation from 
east to west is in itself a flat denial of any climatic influence, 
for the only change in that direction is in the relative humidity 
induced by the Gulf Stream. 

The darkest part of the population of these islands consti 
tutes the northern outpost of that degree of pigmentation in 
Europe. Western Ireland, Cornwall, and Argyleshire in Scot- 

* This map is constructed upon a system adopted by Dr. Beddoe as an 
index of pigmentation. It differs from others mainly in assigning 
especial importance to black hair as a measure of brunetness, on the 
assumption that a head of black hair betrays twice the tendency to 
melanosity of a dark brown one. Without accepting this argument as 
valid, the map in question seems to accord best with others constructed 
by the measurement of pure light and dark types on the German system. 
Dr. Reddoe regards this one as best illustrating the facts in the case. The 
maps of the Anthropometric Committee, 1883, working with the colour of 
hair and eyes combined, seem to be highly inconclusive. 



land are about as dark, roughly speaking, as a strip across 
Europe a little farther south, say from Xormandy to Vienna. 
Even in these most brunet areas pure dark types are not very 
frequent. No such extremes occur as Italy and southern 
France present. The prevailing combination is of dark hair 
and grayish or hazel eyes. Such is particularly the case among 
the western Irish and southern Welsh.* So striking is the 
brunetness in the latter case that we find an early writer in 
this century, the Rev. T. Price, (>29) ascribing the prevalence 
of black hair in Glamorganshire to the common use of coal 
as fuel. Such absurd hypotheses aside, we may be certain 
of the strongly accentuated brunetness of the peasantry here 
abouts. All our Welsh types are decidedly dark in this way. 
The opposite extreme of blondness corresponds, as nearly 
as we can judge, to the continental populations in the lati 
tude of Cologne. Light hair and brown or blue eyes be 
come common. Perhaps the lightest part of Britain is in Lin 
colnshire Dr. Beddoe states that the people here remind him 
strongly of the peasantry about Antwerp. f Portraits of a 
number of these blond Anglo-Saxon types appear in our series 
at page 308. None of these men are quite as fair as the pure 
Teutonic race in Scandinavia, although isolated examples in 
deed occur. We shall probably not be far wrong in the state 
ment that the extremes in the British Isles are about as far 
separated from one another as Berlin is from Vienna. In the 
darkest regions pure brunet types are more frequent than the 
blond by about fifteen per cent. In the eastern and northern 
counties, on the other hand, the blonds are in the majority 
by an excess of about five per cent. Everywhere, however, 
all possible crossings of characteristics appear, proving that 
the population is well on the road toward homogeneity. 

Blondness in some districts often takes the peculiar form 

* The recent work of Haddon and Browne, published in the Proceed 
ings of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, since 1893, on the western 
Irish, is our best recent authority on this people. Thus in the Aran 
Islands (1893, p. 784) while among the men only five per cent of fair hair 
occurred, almost ninety per cent of the eyes were classed as light. 

f Davis and Thurnam, 1865, p. 218 ; Beddoe, 1885, p. 252. 


of freckled skin and red hair. We in America are familiar 
with two types of Irish, for example; one thus constituted, 
while the other is more often compounded of the black or dark 
brown hair and steel-blue iris. This is known to the older 
anthropologists as the " light Celtic eye." It seems, from 
everyday observation, as if this latter variety were far more 
common among the women in our immigrants from Ireland. 
A similar contrast is remarkable in Scotland. Here, in fact, 
in some districts red-headedness is more frequent than almost 
anywhere else in the world, rising sometimes as high as eleven 
per cent.* In our chapter on Scandinavia we have undertaken 
to prove that this phenomenon is merely a variation of blond- 
ness, f At all events, investigation shows that red hair is most 
frequent in the lightest parts of the continent. In Scotland 
the same rule applies, so that the contrasts between east and 
west still hold good. The Camerons and Erasers are as dark 
as the Campbells are inclined to red-headedness. J As for the 
Balliols and Sinclairs, we expect them to be light, as their 
Xorman names imply. 

Seeking for the clew to this curious distribution of brunet- 
ness in the British Isles, we may make use for a moment of 
the testimony of language. The Celtic speech is represented 
to-day by Gaelic or Goidelic, which is in common use in parts 
of Scotland and Ireland; and secondly by Kymric or Bry- 
thonic, which is spoken in Wales. It was also spoken in Corn 
wall until near the close of the last century, when it passed 
into tradition. On our map of brunetness \ve have roughly 
indicated the present boundaries of these two branches of the 
Celtic-spoken language. It will be noted at once that the 
darkest populations form the nucleus of each of the Celtic 
language areas which now remain, especially when we recall 
what we have just remarked about Cornwall. Leaving aside 
for the moment the question whether this in any sense implies 
that the original Celts were a dark people, let us be assured 
that the local persistence of the Celtic speech is nothing more 

* Gray, 1895 a and 1895 b, finds in Aberdeen from five to seven per 
cent of this type. 

f See page 206 supra. \ Reddoe, 1867, p. 158. 



nor less than a phenomenon of isolation to-day. The aggres 
sive English language has been crowding its predecessor to 
the wall in every direction.* This has been proved beyond 
all possible doubt. In the nooks and corners, the swamps and 
hills, where the railroad and the newspaper are less important 
factors in everyday life, there we find a more primitive stratum 
of language. Is it not justifiable for us, from the observed 
parallel between speech and brunetness, to assume also that 
of the two the darkest type in the British Isles is the older? 
The women generally, conformably to a law of which we shall 
speak later, seem to be more persistent in their brunetness 
than the men.f This corroborates our view. Thus Gray,J 
among three thousand Scotch agricultural labourers in Aber- 
deenshire, found dark hair ten per cent more frequent among 
the women, while dark eyes occurred well-nigh twice as often. 
A hasty examination of Dr. Beddoe s tables indicates the 
same tendency all over the islands where the sexes are distin 
guished.* Pfitzner || observed the same phenomenon in Al 
sace, where, as in Britain, a dark population has been overrun 
by a Teutonic one. So striking was the contrast here that he 
even ascribes it to a real sexual peculiarity. 

One detail of our map confirms us in this opinion that a 
primitive dark population in these islands, now mainly of 
Celtic speech, has been overlaid by a lighter one. Notice the 
strongly marked island df brunetness just north of London. 
Two counties, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, are as 
dark as Wales, and others north of them are nearly as unique. 
All investigation goes to show that this brunet outcrop is a 
reality. It is entirely severed from the main centre of dark 
eyes and hair in the west, by an intermediate zone as light as 
Sussex, Essex, or Hampshire (Hants). Our stature map on 
page 327 makes the people in this vicinity very much shorter 
than those about. This again betokens a British lineage. The 
explanation is simple. We have already shown that the south 

* Ravenstein has mapped it in detail for different decades in the Jour 
nal of the Royal Statistical Society, London, vol. xlii, 1879, pp. 579-646. 

t Cf. page 399 infra. \ 1895 b, p. 21. 

* 1885, especially p. 186, | 1896, pp. 487-498. 


Saxons entered England by the back door. They spread in 
land from the southern coast, prevented from following up 
the Thames by the presence of London. On the other side 
the same invaders pushed south from the Wash and the Hum- 
ber. These two currents joined along the light intrusive zone. 
Our dark spot is the eddy of native traits, persistent because 
less overrun by the blond Teutons. The fens on the north, 
London on the south, with dense forests in early times, left 
this population relatively at peace. History teaches us this. 
Xatural science corroborates it strikingly. The fen district 
particularly was long a refuge of the old British peoples, who 
made it a secure base of operations against the invaders.* In 
a later chapter, considering purely social phenomena, we shall 
show that peculiarities in suicide, land tenure, habits of the 
people, and other details of these counties, are likewise the con 
comitants of this same relative isolation. The fact is all the 
more striking because the district lies so close to the largest 
city of Europe. Another locality where there is reason to sus 
pect that Teutonic intermixture was less intensive is in the 
region west of Lincoln, mainly in the counties of Notts and 
Derby. f Especially the northwestern corner of Derbyshire, 
lying in the Pennine hills. Taylor tells us the name is from 
the German " thier," a beast, so wild was the region. Never 
theless, the people seem to be quite light-haired, although they 
are very much shorter than the purely Teutonic people in Lin 
colnshire. Inspection of our several maps will make this clear. 
The variation of brunetness in Britain shown by our map 
is not a modern phenomenon, nor is its discovery even of 
recent date. So early do we find attention called by the chroni 
clers to this contrast between northeast and southwest, that, 
while of course largely a result of the Teutonic invasions of 
historic times, we can not believe that it should be entirely 
ascribed to them. They have in all likelihood merely accen 
tuated a condition already existing. This we assume from the 
testimony of Latin writers. J In fact Tacitus statements, the 

* Beddoe, 1867, p. 77 ; 1885, p. 53. 

f Davis and Thurnam, 1865, p. 212 ; Beddoe, 1885, p. 253. 

Huxley, 1871, is good on this. 


mainstay of the hypothesis of an Iberian substratum of popu 
lation in Britain, prove that long before the advent of the 
Saxons several distinct physical types coexisted in Roman 
Britain. One of these, he tells us in the eleventh chapter of 
his Agricola, was the Caledonian, "red-haired and tall"; the 
other, that of the Silures in southern Wales, with " dark com 
plexion and curly hair." He also notes the similarity in ap 
pearance between the southern Britons and the Gauls; and 
suggests a Germanic origin for the Caledonians, an Iberian 
one for the Welsh, and a Gallic one for the English. This 
is positively all that he said upon the subject, never having 
been in the country. Then Jornandes, an early Italian com 
mentator, added fuel to the flame by amending Tacitus words 
concerning the Silures of Wales, giving them not only " dark 
complexions," but " black, curly hair." Such were the humble 
beginnings of the Iberian hypothesis; notwithstanding which 
it has passed current for generations as if founded upon the 
broadest array of facts. What if we should conclude that the 
assumption is correct in the light of modern research! It is 
no justification for the positiveness with which the law has 
been laid down by hosts of secondary writers. By such a tenu 
ous historical thread hangs many another ethnic generaliza 
tion. May the day come when the science of anthropology 
assumes its due prominence in the eyes of historians, and ren 
ders the final judgment in such disputed cases of physical 

Many attempts have been made at a philological corrobora- 
tion of this Iberian hypothesis, classical in origin, as we have 
shown. We are told that even the word Britain is of such 
derivation by as eminent an authority as Canon Taylor. More 
recently, Rhys asserts that the word Brython merely meant 
the " cloth-clad " people, as distinct from the aborigines, who 
wore skins.* A play upon the words Iberia and Hibernia may 
have given rise to -the time-honoured Irish myths of such 
proud descent. f It is curious to note, moreover, as Elton sug- 

* Words and Places, second edition, p. 159; Rhys, 1884, pp. 210-214, 

f H. Martin. 1878, and Sir W. R. Wilde in Trans. Brit. Ass. Adv. 
Science, 1874, p. 121. Elton, 1890, pp. 133-154, after an able summary "f 

Braemar. REDDISH BLOND TYPES. Lochaber. 128. 

Edinburgh. SHORT DARK BRUNET TYPES. Argyleshire. 130. 






gests, that the short, dark-haired Irish type, to which alone 
the physical anthropologist allows such ethnic derivation 
to-day, is the very one the despised Firbolg to whom the 
native historians positively denied it. Such are the accidents 
by which science controverts mythical history. The principal 
net result of philological investigation on this question, was to 
lead to the well-known and widely accepted opinion of a 
Basque substratum in the British Isles. The Iberian hypothe 
sis of Tacitus was narrowed down to this. The argument was 
simple. In certain words were discovered traces of a primi 
tive non-inflectional origin. The Basque speech to-day is the 
only agglutinative one in western Europe. Wilhelm von 
Humboldt long ago proved to his own satisfaction that Basque 
is the modern representative of the ancient Iberian language. 
Hence it was assumed as a matter of course that Tacitus 
Silures must have been of Basque affinities. Thus nearly all 
writers on British ethnology are led to discover this pre-Celtic 
element in the islands. Even Dr. Becldoe regards a Basque- 
like physiognomy in parts of southern Wales as significant 
of possible relationship* The linguistic identification was 
rendered particularly plausible anthropologically because the 
Basques, as \ve have already shown, contain two radically dis 
tinct physical types. We know to-day that they are a people 
and not a race. Hence in the past, writers could find almost 
any type of head form necessary to prove their philological 
theses. Recent expert linguistic testimony on the subject still 
discovers some slight Iberian elements in the islands, par 
ticularly in the now extinct dialects of the Picts; but the evi 
dence is very inadequate, f Even were it more positive and 
definite, it would carry little weight with us in any case; for, 
as we must ever contend, language means often worse than 
nothing as to physical descent. Summing up the last two 

this linguistic and mythical testimony, finds " hardly any affirmative evi 
dence in its favour." Boyd Dawkins, 1880, pp. 330 et sey., agrees. Davis 
and Thurnam, p. 52, were doubtful about it; as also Rolleston, 1877. 

* 1885, p. 26. 

f Rhys, 1892; Fita, 1893; Beddoe, 1893, p. 101 ; Academy, September 
26, 1891. 




paragraphs, then, we conclude that the sole evidence worth 
considering, of an Iberian or Mediterranean substratum in the 
British Isles is that derived from physical characteristics and 
geographical probabilities. 

Professor Rhys, the best living authority, assents to this, 
being content " to leave the question of origin mainly to those 
who study skins and skulls." * Skulls are indeed Mediterranean 
in their dolichocephaly, but they are unfortunately just as 
much Teutonic. The difficulty is, as we have said, that all 
head forms in Britain to-day are similar. Skins including 
therewith, of course, hair and eyes supply the necessary proof; 
they suffice to render the Iberian theory highly probable. This, 
it should be observed, by no means implies any Basque affini 
ties, for this little people is in no wise typical of any great 
racial group. The theory is far broader than that. Neither is 
Britain in any wise peculiar in this respect. All Europe, as 
we shall hope to prove, contains the same primitive Mediter 
ranean substratum. It would be anomalous if in Britain any 
other condition prevailed.! This substratum is quite widely 
diffused, but it seems to be most clearly represented in the 
southern Welsh, the western (Firbolg) Irish, and possibly in 
the short and dark remnants throughout Scotland. 

Thus far all has been plain sailing. It seems as if the case 
were clear. An Iberian brunet, long-headed substratum, still 
persistent in the western, outposts of the islands, dating from 
the neolithic long-barrow period, or even earlier; and a Teu 
tonic blond one, similar in head form, in all the eastern dis 
tricts overrun from the continent, seem to be indicated. Xow 
we have to undertake the addition of a third physical trait- 
stature to the others, and the complexity of the problem 
appears. Our map on the opposite page shows that the Brit 
ish Isles contain variations in average of upward of four inches. 
Scotland, as we have shown elsewhere, contains positively the 
tallest population in Europe, and almost in the entire world. 

* 1884, p. 217. In his iSgo- Qi, xviii, p. 143. however, he reaffirms his 
belief in a neolithic " Ibero-Pictish " population. 

t Sergi, 1895 a, pp. 78-84, discusses this. Cf. the map in his appendix ; 
as also A. J. Evans, 1896. 



Even the average of five feet six inches and over in Wales and 
southwest England is not low; for this is greater than any 
on the continent south of the Alps. Broadly viewed, the facts 



Anthropometnc G>miniUa 
E>. A.A.5.-18&3. 
8585 Observations 

FIVE FEET (fpr<*unate) 


of head and face, as among the Bavarians, is also apparent.* 
Such a union of a long face with a broad and round head is 
illustrated by our portraits herewith (cf. also page 290). A truly 
harmonic head is shown in the case of the Hungarian type, with 
which the Austrian may profitably be compared as respects 
the facial proportions. In pigmentation, the attenuated Teu 
tonic strain is to-day most apparent in the lightness of the eyes, 
the hair being far more often of a dark shade. Vienna seems, 
judging by our little map, to have served as a focus about 
which the immigrant Teutonism has clustered. It is also curi 
ous to note how the immediate valley of the Danube denotes 
the area of Germanic intensity of occupation. The head form 
increases rapidly in breadth on leaving the river. The influ 
ence of the Bohemian and Moravian brachycephaly is clearly 
manifest on our map. In the other direction, south of the Dan 
ube, the increase is less sudden. It is also important to notice 
that this Teutonism is not only local; it is quite recent and 
superficial. Archaeology reveals the presence of an earlier 
population, distinctly allied to another race in its characteris 
tics, f This region was the seat of the very important early 
Hallstatt civilization, of which we shall have more to say. At 
present it is sufficient to emphasize the fact that the kingdom 
of Austria to-day is merely an outpost of Teutonic racial occu 
pation, betraying a strong tendency toward the Alpine type. 

Two great events in the history of northern Europe have 
profound significance for the anthropologist. The first is the 
marvellous expansion of the Germans, about the time of the 
fall of Rome ; the second is the corresponding immigration of 
Slavic hordes from the east. Both of these were potent enough 
to leave results persistent to this day. 

We know nothing of the German tribes until about 100 
B. c. Suddenly they loom up in the north, aggressive foes of 
the Romans. For some time they were held in check by the 
stubborn resistance of the legions; until finally, when the re 
straining hand of Rome was withdrawn, they spread all over 

* Beitrage zur Anth., Bayerns, v, 1883, p. 200. 
f Vide p. 498 infra. 



counties, Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, and the Anglian Scotch 
border counties are somewhat heavier. On the whole, the 
Scotch exceed the English by at least ten pounds, and the 
Irish by as much more. This is the normal relation. Tall 
people are generally heavy by reason of their stature. When 
ever it is otherwise we are led to suspect some disturbing 
influence. The difficulty is that in the matter of weight en 
vironment is so predominant a factor that the characteristic 
is of little value in our ethnographic inquiry. An abundance 
of good food will speedily raise an Irishman from his normal 
class into that of the naturally heavy Scotchman, and rice 
versa. There is consequently little to claim our attention fur 
ther respecting this trait. It is merely corroborative of the 
evidence of stature. 

Enough portraits have now been presented to admit of a 
few hasty generalizations concerning the facial features pecul 
iar to Britain. To be sure, all sorts of difficulties beset us at 
once. It is unfair to compare different ages, for example. The 
youthful countenance is less scarred by time. Nor, again, is 
it just to draw comparisons from different stations in life. In 
the same race the exposed farm labourer will differ from the 
well-fed and groomed country gentleman. Strongly marked 
racial differences between social classes exist all over the 
islands. The aristocracy everywhere tends toward the blond 
and tall type, as we should expect. We may, however, draw 
a few inferences from the data at our disposal, which seem to 
be well grounded in fact.* 

The most characteristic facial feature of the old British 
populations, be they Scotch, Irish, Welsh, " old black breed," 
or bronze age, as compared with the Anglo-Saxon, is irregu 
larity and ruggedness. The mouth is large, the upper lip 
broad, the cheek bones prominent. In the bronze-age type, as 
we have seen, the nose is large and prominent. In most of 
the other earlier types it is oftener merely broad at the nostrils, 
sometimes snubbed, as in our younger black-breed Shetlander 

* On this Harrison, 1882 and 1883, is best in accurate description of 
facial types. Vide also Mackintosh, 1866; MacLean, 1866 and 1890; Davis 
and Thurnam, 1865, p. 206 et seq. ; and in the appendix to Beddoe, 1885. 

INISHMAAN, Ireland. Index 82.3 



Small dark type. 




at page 302; not often very delicately formed. Perhaps we 
may best classify them under what Bishop Whately, in his 
Notes on Noses, terms the " anti-cogitative " type.* Most 
peculiar and persistent of all in these old British faces, how 
ever, is the " overhanging pent-house brows," so noticeable in 
the Gael.f The eyes are deep-set beneath brow ridges in 
which the bony prominence is strikingly developed. This 
endows the face oftentimes with a certain ruggedness and 
strength which is gratifying to the eye. In the Scotch also, 
according to MacLean, other peculiarities of the face are the 
straightness of the brows, seen in our Nos. 128, 131, and 
132 especially, as well as the great length of the lower jaw. 
The three main physical types in Scotland are well repre 
sented by our portraits at page 324. The upper pair, raw- 
boned and red-headed, is familiar enough, as also the equally 
tall, heavily built but dark type illustrated in our Moray and 
Inverness subjects. The middle pair, the little dark men, are 
representative of probably the oldest element of all in Scotland. 
This corresponds closely to the Silures of Wales, or the small, 
dark Firbolgs west of the Shannon in Ireland. The curly hair, 
shown in both our examples, is, I am informed by Dr. Beddoe, 
very common among men of this type. 

Nothing could be more convincing to the student of physi 
ognomy than the contrast between many of these faces which 
we have just described, and those of the typical Anglo-Saxons 
at page 308. Of course by reason of their blondness, often 
really florid, and the portliness of their figures, we immediately 
recognise them as Teutonic. With equal certainty may we 
point to the smooth regularity of their faces, noticeably the 
absence of the heavy, bony, brow ridges. The face is smooth, 
almost soft in its regularity. No. 115 is, I am informed by 
Dr. Beddoe, " an extremely good typical specimen; he abounds 
in Yorkshire." Nos. 117 and 118 are characteristic of the 

* Mackintosh, 1886, p. 14. 

f Cf. Barnard Davis, 1867, p. 70, cited by Beddoe, 1870: "The most 
distinctive features of the western Irish are seen to be derived from 
the strongly marked superciliary ridges, extending across the nose, 
making a horizontal line, upon which the eyebrows are placed and over 
hanging the eyes and face." 



British squire. The two young men represent the Englishman 
rather of the upper class. In many of these cases the finer 
mould of the features makes us suspect that they are not so 
much a matter of racial as of social or aristocratic selection, 
which is so constantly operative in these respects. 

One more facial type needs to be mentioned. It is com 
monest in Kent and in the Isle of Wight. It is generally 
ascribed to a Jutish ancestry.* Our two upper portraits at 
page 316 represent this adequately enough. These people are 
darkish in complexion. The principal peculiarity is their con 
vexity of profile from chin to forehead. The lips are rather 
thick; the nose is difficult to describe, unless we can agree 
to call it Jewish. Whether we may, indeed, accept it as 
Jutish, for we are accustomed to regard the Jutes as near rela 
tives of the Anglo-Saxons, is matter of question. It is cer 
tainly a noticeable type in the south and east of England, 
where Jutish settlements were common. 

A by no means negligible factor in the discussion as to the 
ethnic origin of the most primitive stratum of the populations 
of the British Isles is temperament. To treat of disposition 
thus as a racial characteristic is indeed to trench upon dan 
gerous ground. Nevertheless, remembering how potent en 
vironment, social or material, may readily become in such 
matters, even the most superficial observer can not fail to 
notice the profound contrast which exists between the tem- 
, perament of the Celtic-speaking and the Teutonic strains in 
these islands. These present almost the extremes of human 
development in such matters. They come to expression in 
every phase of religion or politics ; they can no more mix than 
water and oil. The Irish and Welsh are as different from the 
stolid Englishman as indeed the Italian differs from the 
Swede. f Far be it from us to beg the question by implying 
necessarily any identity of origin by this comparison; yet we 
can not fail to call attention to these facts. There is some 
deep-founded reason for the utter irreconcilability of the Teu- 

* Harrison, 1883. 

t Read Frances Power Cobbe.The Celt of Wales and the Celt of Ireland, 
Cornhill Magazine, xxxvi, 1877, pp. 661-678. 



tons and the so-called Celts. Our most staid and respectable 
commentators, the authors of the Crania Britannica, never 
weary of calling attention to it. Imagine an Englishman 
choosing one of their many examples of Celtic characteristics 
describing the emotional tumult of a marriage celebration in 
Cornwall by declaring that he " had never see sic a wedding 
before, it was just like a vuneral "! 

The Welsh disposition or temperament is less familiar to 
us in America than the Irish; it is the exact counterpart of 
it. The keynote of this disposition lies in emotion. As vehe 
ment in speech as the Alpine Celt in Switzerland, France, or 
Germany is taciturn; as buoyant and lively in spirits as the 
Teutonic Englishman is reserved; the feelings rise quickly 
to expression, giving the power of eloquence or its degen 
erate prototype loquacity. This mental type is keen in percep 
tion, not eminent for reasoning qualities; "a quick genius," 
as Matthew Arnold puts it, " checkmated for want of strenu- 
ousness or else patience." As easily depressed as elated, this 
temperament often leads, as Barnard Davis says, to " a tumult 
followed by a state of collapse." Apt to fall into difficulty by 
reason of impetuousness, it is readily extricated through quick 
resourcefulness. In decision, leaning to the side of sentiment 
rather than reason, " always ready," in the words of Henri 
Martin, " to react against the despotism of fact." Compare 
such an emotional constitution with the heavy-minded, lum 
bering but substantial English type. The Teutonic character 
is perhaps most strongly expressed in the Yorkshireman; I 
may quote Dr. Beddoe s words in this connection. It in 
cludes " the shrewdness, the truthfulness without candour, the 
perseverance, energy, and industry of the lowland Scotch, but 
little of their frugality, or of the theological instinct common 
to the Welsh and Scotch, or of the imaginative genius or more 
brilliant qualities which light up the Scottish character. The 
sound judgment, the spirit of fair play, the love of comfort, 
order, and cleanliness, and the fondness for heavy feeding, are 
shared with the Saxon Englishman; but some of them are 
still more strongly marked in the Yorkshireman, as is also 
the bluff independence a very fine quality when it does not 


degenerate into selfish rudeness." Bearing all these traits in 
mind, one realizes the possible " clashing of a quick percep 
tion with a Germanic instinct for going steadily along close 
to the ground." Ascribe it all to a difference of diet, if you 
please, as the late Mr. Buckle might have done; derive the 
emotional temperament from potatoes, and the stolid one from 
beef; or invent any other excuse you please, the contrast is a 
real one. It points vaguely in the direction of a Mediterranean 
blend in the Welsh and Irish, even to a lesser degree in the 
Highland Scotch. More we dare not affirm. 



ON the east, the west, and the north, the boundaries of the 
Russian Empire are drawn with finality. Its territory ends 
where the land ends. The quarter of this empire which is 
comprised in Europe is defined with equal clearness on three 
sides and a half. Only along the line of contact with west 
ern Europe is debatable territory to be found. Even here a 
natural frontier runs for a long way on the crest of the Car 
pathian Mountains. To be sure, Galicia, for the moment, owes 
political allegiance to Austria-Hungary; but the Ruthenians, 
who constitute the major part of her population, are nowise 
distinguishable from the Russians, as we shall soon see. This 
leaves merely the two extremes of the Baltic-Black Sea frontier 
in question. The indefiniteness of the southern end of this 
line, from the Carpathians down, is one cause of that Russian 
itch for the control of the Bosporus which no number of in 
ternational conventions can assuage. The Danube could never 
form a real boundary; a great river like that is rather a uni- 

* To a number of eminent anthropologists I am especially indebted for 
assistance in the collection of original Slavic materials used as the basis 
of this chapter. Among these should be especially mentioned with grate 
ful recognition of their invaluable aid : Prof. D. N. Anutschin, president 
of the Society of Friends of Natural Science, Ethnology, and Anthropology 
in the Imperial University at Moscow ; Prof. A. Taranetzki, of the Im 
perial Military Medical Academy, president of the Anthropological 
Society at St. Petersburg ; Prof. Lubor Niederle, of Prague ; Dr. Adam 
Zakrewski, chief of the Statistical Bureau at Warsaw ; Dr. Talko-Hrynce- 
wicz, now in Transbaikal, Siberia ; Dr. Wl. Olechnowicz, of Lublin ; Dr. 
H. Matiegka, of Prague; and Prof. N. N. Kharuzin, of St. Petersburg. 
In the translation of the Slavic monographs I have been aided by Robert 
Sprague Hall, Esq., of the Suffolk bar, and Dr. Leo Wiener, of Harvard 



fying factor in the life of nations than otherwise. Hence the 
great problems of the Balkan Peninsula. From the Car 
pathians north to the Baltic Sea, likewise, no geographical line 
of demarcation can be traced with surety. No water shed 
worthy of the name between the Dnieper and Vistula exists, 
although the waters of the one run east and the other west 
not far from the present boundary of Poland and Russia. The 
former country possesses no sharply defined area of character 
ization. The State of Texas has as clear a topographical title 
to independent political life. The partition of Poland was in 
a measure a direct result of geographical circumstances; and 
these have condemned this unhappy country, despite the de 
voted patriotism of her people, to a nondescript political ex 
istence in the future. By language the Poles are affiliated with 
Russia, not Germany; but in religion they are Occidental 
rather than Byzantine. Thus Poland stands to-day, padded 
with millions of politically inert Jews, as a buffer between 
Russia and Teutonism. It is a case not unlike that of Alsace- 
Lorraine. In both instances the absolute inflexibility of phys 
ical environment as a factor in political life is exemplified. 

From the Carpathian Mountains, where, as we have said, 
Russia naturally begins, a vast plain stretches away north and 
east to the Arctic Ocean and to the confines of Asia; an ex 
panse of territory in Europe eleven times as large as France.* 
It is not limited to Europe alone. Precisely the same forma 
tion, save for a slight interruption at the Ural Mountains, 
extends on across Asia, clear to the Pacific Ocean. European 
Russia, only one quarter the size of Siberia, is, however, the 
only part of immediate interest to us here. Nowhere in all its 
vast expanse is there an elevation worthy the name mountain. 
Even the most rugged portion, the Valdai Hills in southern 
Novgorod, are barely one thousand feet high; they are more 
like a table-land than a geological uplift. Across this bound 
less plain, the last part of Europe to emerge from the sea, slug 
gishly meander some of the longest rivers on the globe. Some 
conception of the flatness of the country may be gained from 

* Leroy-Beaulieu, i88i- 8g, gives a superb description of the country. 
Its simple geology is shown by map in Petermann, xli, 1895, No. 6. 



the statement that the projected new canal to connect the 
Baltic and Black Seas can be made available for navigation 
by the largest vessels from end to end by the construction of 
only two locks. 

Whatever its local character, be it great peat swamps or 
barren steppe, the impression of the country is ever the same. 
Monotony in immensity; an endless uniformity of geograph 
ical environment, hardly to be equalled in any country inhab 
ited by European peoples. Thus is the geographical environ 
ment of the Russian people determined in its first important 
respect. Their territory offers no obstacle whatever to ex 
pansion in any direction; the great rivers, navigable for thou 
sands of miles, are, in fact, a distinct invitation to such migra 
tions. On the other hand, this plain surface and the great 
rivers offer the same advantages to the foreigner as to the 
native; there is a complete absence of those natural barriers 
behind which a people may seek shelter from the incursions 
of others. The only natural protection which the region offers 
is in its dense forests and swamps. These, however, unlike 
mountains, offer no variety of conditions or natural products; 
they afford no stimulation to advance in culture; they retard 
civilization in the act of protecting it; they are better fitted 
to afford refuge to an exiled people than to encourage progress 
in a nascent one. 

The second factor in determining a geographical area of 
characterization is its relative fertility. As we have observed 
before, this invites or discourages the movement of popula 
tions, in armies or in peaceful migration, just as much as the 
configuration of the surface makes this an easy or difficult 
matter. Judged by this second criterion, the territory of Eu 
ropean Russia varies considerably. Leroy-Beaulieu divides 
it into three strips from north to south. The half lying north 
of a line from Kiev to Kazan (see map facing page 348), consti 
tuting the forest zone, is light soiled; it varies from heavy 
forest on the southern edge to the stunted growth of the arctic 
plains. South of the forest belt south of a line, that is, from 
Kiev to Kazan lies the prairie country. This is the flattest 
of all; over a territory several times the size of France, a hill 


of three hundred and fifty feet elevation is unknown. This 
prairie or woodless strip is of surpassing fertility the so-called 
Black Mould belt, just south of the forests, rivalling the basin 
of the Mississippi in its natural richness of soil. From this 
the country gradually becomes less and less fertile with the 
decreasing rainfall, as we go south. This brings us at last to 
the third region, that of the barren steppes, or saline deserts, 
which centre about the Caspian Sea. These are found also less 
extensively north of the Crimean Peninsula, as far west as 
the lower Dnieper. Their major part lies south and east of 
the Don River. As Leroy-Beaulieu observes, the real boundary 
between Europe and Asia, viewed not cartographically but 
in respect of culture and anthropology, lies not at the Ural 
River and Mountains at all, where most of our geographies 
place it. Sedentary, civilized, racial Europe, roughly speak 
ing, ends at a line, shown on our map, up the Don from its 
mouth to the knee of the Volga, thence up the latter and away 
to the northeast. This brings us to Asia, with its terrific ex 
tremes of continental climate, with its barren steppes, its slit- 
eyed Mongols, and its nomadic and imperfect culture. 

Over this great territory population is very unevenly scat 
tered. It conforms strictly in its density to the possibilities 
for support offered by the environment. The forest zone, with 
its thin soil and long winters, is well-nigh saturated with a 
population of fifteen to^ the square mile. Across the Black 
Mould strip population rises to a respectable European figure 
of sixty or even sometimes seventy-five to the square mile. 
An area about twice the size of France offers every advantage 
for the pursuit of agriculture. From this it falls to the figure 
of about two to the mile in the great Caspian depression, 
once the bed of an inland sea. The great aggregation of popu 
lation is, of course, about the historic centres, Moscow and 
Kiev. The latter is the expression of matchless advantages 
of soil and climate, while Moscow is rather the centre of an 
industrial population. Its commercial advantages are no less 
marked, lying as it does just between the head waters of the 
western rivers and the great water way to Kazan and the east 
down the course of the Volga. Novgorod, former centre of 



Russian civilization when fugitive in the forests of the north, 
at the time of the Mongol invasions, now is of little relative 
importance; and St. Petersburg, surrounded by Finnic swamps, 
is of course merely the artificial creation of an absolute mon 
arch. With great rapidity the population is retracing its steps 
in this century, expanding toward the east and south. It is 
moving away from Europe. The marshes and swamps which 
lie all along the Baltic Sea and the German frontier offer no 
inducement in that direction. Western Russia is indeed but 
scantily populated for the same reason. This fact, together 
with the intermission of Poland, has isolated the Russians as 
a people. A population about twice that of the United States 
has been left to evolve its individuality in complete separation 
from the rest of Europe. From the Carpathians to the Ural 
chain on the east, and to the Caucasus on the south, this vigor 
ous branch of the European races has expanded. It surely 
lags behind the rest of Europe in culture, as it has always 
done. But the fate of the Slav, lying on the outskirts of cul 
tural or little Europe, has always been to bear the brunt of 
the barbarian Asiatic onslaughts. Such a task of guarding 
the " marches " of Europe, has not been borne without leav 
ing a distinct impress upon the entire civilization of the coun 
try. The task before us is to inquire as to the original physical 
nature of this great nation; and then to investigate as to whether 
effects, analogous to those upon culture, have been produced 
by the peculiar geographical location and experience of Russia 
in the past. 

A word must be said, before we proceed to the physical 
anthropology of Russia, as to the languages which are spoken 
there. The true Russians form about one half the population 
of the European portion of the country; the rest are Letto- 
Lithuanians, of whom we shall speak in a moment, Poles, 
Jews, Finns, and Mongols, with a sprinkling of Germans. 
The true Russians are divided into three groups of very 
unequal size.* These are said to differ not only in language, 

* Rittich, 1878 b, has mapped their distribution in minute detail. His 
final work of 1885 is a model of cartographical completeness. Talko- 
Hryncewicz, 1893 and 1894, gives detailed maps of linguistic boundaries 
also. Velytchko, 1897, is the most recent. 



but in temperament as well. About fifty of the seventy- 
odd millions of them, known as Great Russians, occupy the 
entire centre, north, and east of the country. These are the 
" Muscovites," their historic centre being in the ancient capi 
tal city of Moscow. Next in numbers come the people of 
Little Russia, or Ukraine, who, as our maps designate, in 
habit the governments of the southwest, up against Galicia. 
They in turn centre politically in Kiev, covering a wedge- 
shaped territory, with its point lying to the east in Khar 
kov and Voronesh. The Cossacks, who extend down around 
the Sea of Azof into the Kuban, are linguistically Little 
Russians also. The third group, known as the White Rus 
sians, only four million souls in number, is found in the four 
governments shown on our map, extending from Poland up 
and around Lithuania. The White Russian territory is flat, 
swampy, and heavily forested, in strong contrast to the fertile, 
open Black Mould belt of Little Russia. In topography and in 
the meagreness of its soil, White Russia is akin to the sandy 
Baltic provinces from Lithuania north. Linguistically, the 
White and Great Russians are closely allied; the dialect of the 
Little Russians is considerably differentiated from them both. 
This is probably due to the Tatar invasions from the east 
across middle Russia. In face of these the Great Russians 
withdrew toward Moscow; the White Russians took refuge 
in their inhospitable swamps and forests; while the popula 
tion of the Ukraine was left to itself at the south. We shall 
not attempt to discuss the question as to which of these repre 
sents the purest Russian. Bearing in mind the constant migra 
tion of the Great Russians across Mongolian and Finnic terri 
tory, and the inviting character of the Ukraine ; one is disposed 
at once to adjudge with Leroy-Beaulieu that, of the three 
tribes, the White Russian in his forests and swamps, far re 
moved from Oriental barbarian influences, " is certainly the 
one whose blood is purest." Whether this is borne out by 
purely anthropological testimony we shall see later. 

Entirely distinct from the Slavs in language is the Letto- 
Lithuanian people, which, to the number of three million or 
more, occupies the territory between the White Russians and 





the Baltic Sea extending down into northern Prussia.* Their 
speech, in the comparative isolation of this inhospitable region 
an isolation which made them the last people in Europe 
to accept Christianity is the most archaic member of the 
great Aryan or inflectional family. Standing between Slavic 
and Teutonic, it is more primitive than either. Three tribes 
or peoples of them coexist here: Letts, Jmouds or Samo- 
gitians, and Lithuanians proper, as shown on our map. Con 
tact with the Finnic-speaking peoples north of them Esths, 
Livs, Tchouds, and Vods has modified the purity of the 
Lettic speech considerably.! These Finns, in turn, speak a 
language like that of the Magyars in Hungary, and the 
Basques, which is not European at all. It is similar in struc 
ture to the primitive languages of Asia and of the aborigines 
of America. It represents a transitional stage of linguistic 
evolution, through which the Aryan family has probably 
passed in earlier times. But the language of the Letto-Lithu- 
anians, while primitive in many respects, bears no relation 
structurally to the Finnic ; it is as properly Aryan as the speech 
of the Slavs. 

The perfect monotony and uniformity of environment of 
the Russian people is most clearly expressed anthropologically 
in their head form. Our results are shown graphically, it is be 
lieved for the first time, by the accompanying map of cephalic 
index.! Bearing in mind that the Poles and Letto-Lithua- 

* Miischner and Virchovv, 1891, have studied these Prussians. 

f The Livonian speech is now extinct. Stieda, Correspondenzblatt, 
1878, p. 126, states that in 1846 only twenty-two people still spoke it. 

t Our data for this map may be found mainly in the original and 
excellent compilation of Niederle, 1896 a, pp. 54-57. Additional material 
of great value, especially from unpublished sources, is given in Deniker, 
1897 and 1898 a ; while his announced work, in extenso (1898 b), promises 
to give the most notable results. It will be a contribution unsurpassed 
in comprehensiveness. We had, prior to the knowledge of these, inde 
pendently collected data from the original sources, published in L An- 
thropologie, vii, 1896, pp. 513-525 ; but these later authorities agree so 
perfectly with our own observations, that reference to them is sufficient. 
We can only add certain unpublished data on the Magyars from Dr. 
Janko, of Buda-Pesth ; Talko-Hryncewicz s (1897) recent observations in 
Podolia ; Vorob ef on the population of Riazan ; N. N. Kharuzin on Esth- 



nians along the Baltic Sea are not Russians properly, and 
excluding, of course, the Tatars of the Crimea, a moment s 
consideration of our map shows at once a great similarity 
of head form prevailing all over Europe from the Carpathian 
^Mountains east and north. The cephalic index oscillates but 
two or three points about a centre of 82. This is about the 
head form of the northwestern French ; appreciably broader, 
that is to say, than the standard for the Anglo-Saxon peoples. 
In places the breadth of head in Russia increases, especially 
among the Polesians isolated in the marshes of Pinsk and 
along the swamps of the Pripet River. These people are sup 
posed to be infused with Polish blood, which may account 
for it,* as the southeastern Poles are known to be quite bra- 
chycephalic. At other times, as in southern Smolensk, the 
index falls to 80. f Our widest range of variation in Russia 
is about five units. Compare this with our former results 

land, 1894, etc. In addition, in all that concerns Bohemia and its vicinity, 
we have had the benefit through the courtesy of Dr. Matiegka, of Prague, 
of unpublished maps, for comparison with our own. 

On the whole, owing especially to the zeal of the younger school of 
Slavic anthropologists by which we mean those who work from simple 
measurements on a large number of people rather than detailed descrip 
tions of a few skulls in the laboratory during the last five years, the main 
facts are perfectly well established. It remains to settle many points of 
detail, especially among the Hungarians and southern Slavs, but it is not 
likely that serious modification of the scheme will be necessary in Russia, 
at all events. Anutchin, Zograf, Talko-Hryncewicz, and their fellows 
have laid a solid foundation for future investigators. 

* Talko-Hryncewicz, 1894, p. 159, on the anomalous position of the Pole 
sians. Rittich, 1878 b, divides them dialectically between White and Little 
Russians. Talko-Hryncewicz, 1893, p. 133, and 1894, p. 172, gives his 
observations on head form. The seriation points to a strong brachy- 

The student of Slavic ethnology should carefully distinguish these 
Polesians from a number of other peoples of similar name. Thus there 
are also, besides the true Poles, the Podolians in the south Russian gov 
ernment of that name ; the Podlachians, inhabiting a small district in the 
government of Grodno on the Polish frontier ; and, finally, the Podhalians 
in the Carpathian Mountains. These last are best described by Lebon, 

f Deniker asserts an index of So.S in southern Volhynia and of 86 in 
southern Kiev ; but I am unable to confirm it by adequate data. 


VLADIMIR GOVERNMENT. Cephalic Index 84.2. 

VLADIMIR GOVERNMENT. Cephalic Index 82. 


VLADIMIR GOVERNMENT. Cephalic Index 85.7 



for western Europe. In France, less than half the size of this 
portion of the Russian territory covered by our map, the ce 
phalic index runs from 78 to 88. In Germany the limits are 
about the same; while in Italy, only one eighteenth the size 
of European Russia, the head form changes from an index of 
75 in Sardinia to one of 89 in the Alps of Piedmont. These are 
almost the extremes of long- and broad-headedness presented 
by the human species; the Russian type is about midway be 
tween the two. 

One cause of this unparalleled extension of a uniform type, 
measured by the proportions of the head a variability, not 
withstanding the size of the country, only about one third of 
that in the restricted countries of western Europe is not far 
to seek. It lies in the monotony of the Russian territory, 
which we have emphasized above. Once more are we con 
fronted with an example of the close relation which exists 
between man and the soil on which he lives. A variety of 
human types is the natural accompaniment of diversity in 
physical environment. Intermixture and comparative purity 
of race may coexist side by side. Switzerland and the Tyrol 
offer us violent contrasts of this sort. Russia, devoid of all 
obstacles in the way of fusion, presents a great mean or aver 
age type, about halfway between the two limits of variation 
of which the European races elsewhere can boast. But pass 
beyond the foothills of the Caucasus, and behold the change? 
A Babel of languages no less than sixty-eight dialects, in 
fact and half as many physical types, of all complexions, all 
head forms, and all sizes. Truly it seems to be a law that 
mountains are generators of physical individuality, while the 
plains are fatal to it. 

The population of Russia is not alone made up of Rus 
sians. In a preceding paragraph we have expressly excluded 
the population of the Baltic provinces. For the Letto-Lithu- 
anians are not Slavs, as we have already observed, and 
of course the Finnic peoples, Esths, Tchouds, and Vods, are 
still more distinct. Our map at once brings the peculiar head 
form of these groups into strong relief. All along the frontier 
of Germany, and away up to Finland, a strong tendency to 



long-headedness is manifested. This contrast is exemplified 
in our portraits distributed through this chapter. A narrow 
head generally is accompanied by a rather long and narrow 
face; our Mongol types, with their very round bullet heads, 
are characteristically broad and squarish-faced. This is par 
tially due to the prominence of the cheek bones. It is this 
latter characteristic of our American aborigines which gives 
them their peculiar Mongol aspect. I have observed the 
very broad face to be one of the most persistent traits in the 
cross-breeds. Dr. Boas has proved it statistically. Even 
a trace of Indian blood will often cause this peculiarity. Xow, 
the Russians express their relative broad-headedness, as com 
pared with the Letto- Lithuanians, in the relatively squarish 
form of their faces.* Our portraits make this difference ap 
parent at once. 

The head form and facial proportions of the purest of the 
Letto- Lithuanians, it will be observed, approximate quite 
closely to our Anglo-Saxon model. The Russians impress the 
English traveller as being quite squarish-faced and heavy- 
featured for this reason. The British Isles, as we have shown, 
manifest a cephalic index of about 78. This is, as one would 
expect, the type of the primitive Anglo-Saxons. It appears 
all through northern and western Germany. Its main centre 
of dispersion is in the Scandinavian Peninsula, just across 
the narrow inland sea. The query at once suggests itself as 
to the origin of this similar long-headedness on the Baltic 
coast in Russia. If the eastern Prussians have been proved 
to be Slavonized Teutons in type, why not assume with equal 
surety that the western Poles are Slavs, Teutonized away from 
their original characteristics? Action and reaction in anthro 
pology, as in physics, must always be equal and opposite in 
effect. Only thus can we account for the increased long- 
headedness in parts of Poland. And if it be Teutonic influ 
ence in this province, where shall we draw the line as we follow 

* Talko-Hryncewicz, 1893, p. 169. Majer and Kopernicki, 1885, p. 59, 
show the round broad face of the Poles in Galicia, as compared with the 
Ruthenians. The Carpathian mountaineers seem to be anomalously 
lonir-faced. (Kopernicki, 1889, p. 49; and Lebon, 1881, p. 233.) 


up the Baltic coast, over one language after another? Is there 
a Teutonic cross in the Lithuanians? If so, why not in Letts 
as well? And how about Esths and Tchouds? We shall see. 

South and west of the Carpathian Mountains a second great 
division of the Slavs exists^. This includes the Poles, Czechs, 
Slovaks. Moravians; and j-divided from them by the intrusive 
Magyars, who speak a Finnic language -the Slovenes, Serbo- 
Croatians, and Bosnians in the south. This congeries of scat 
tered Slavic nationalities seem to be, for some reason, politi 
cally adrift in Europe.* The Bulgars and Roumanians belong 
to a still different class. For the former, while Slavic in 
speech, is quite distinct in physical derivation; and the Rou 
manians, in origin probably allied to the Slavs, speak a cor 
rupted Romance language. Matters are indeed becoming 
mixed as we approach the Balkan Peninsula. This entire 
group of southwestern Slavs is characterized by a very preva 
lent broad-headedness, much more marked than among the 
Russians, as Weisbach has been proving for twenty-five years. f 
Their brachycephaly is directly conjoined to that of the Alpine 
highlands in the Tyrol, where we pass beyond the limits of 
Slavdom, and enter the territory once occupied by the Celts. 
Our map of head form points to a general broad-headedness 
over all the present Austro-Hungarian Empire, from which a 
spur seems to extend over into Little Russia, becoming lost in 
an expanse of longer-headedness in the plains beyond. All the 
mountainous regions are still characterized by brachycephaly; 
it is a repetition of the law which holds good all over western 
Europe. This brachycephaly is tempered only in those dis 
tricts like Austria, where we know both from language and 
history that the Teutonic influence has been strong. Other 
physical traits will corroborate this deduction shortly. Yet 
these Austrian Germans are to-day only distantly related to 
the blond Scandinavian Germans along the Baltic. They re 
semble the Bavarians and Swabians, who are, as we know, a 
cross between the blond Teutonic race and a thick-set, broad- 
headed Alpine one. Leaving aside for the moment the long- 

* Cf. page 411, supra. 

f Our Bibliography gives a complete list of all his papers. 



headed strip on the Black Sea, which will demand special con 
sideration, we can not resist the final inference that all this 
part of Europe, now inhabited by the southern Slavs, is fun 
damentally Alpine in racial type; although eroded in places 
by Teutonic influences from the north, and disturbed by the 
volcanic irruption of the Finnic Magyars and the Turkish 

The word Russian is undoubtedly derived from a root 
meaning red. Our adjective rufous, and the name Ruthenian, 
applied to the inhabitants of Galicia, bear the same significa 
tion. The name is aptly applied: for the Russians, wherever 
found, are characterized by a distinct tendency toward what 
we would term a reddish blondness. Yantchuk, in the gov 
ernment of Minsk, in White Russia, found almost half his 
peasants to have hair of this shade.* It is not a real red. It 
might be called either a light chestnut, a dark flaxen, or an 
auburn tint. This shade of hair, combined with what Talko- 
Hryncewicz terms a " beer-coloured " eye, is the centre from 
which variation up or down occurs. This range of variation 
is very considerable. It seems to conform to the general 
law for all Europe, to which we have already called attention 
in our chapter on the subject. Brunetness increases regularly 
from north to south. In Russia the population also manifests 
a distinct tendency toward darker hair and eyes from west 
to east. The Baltic Sea is the centre of distribution for blond- 
ness, here as in Germany. The relations are well illustrated 
by the following table; statistics offer merely a scientific con 
firmation of the facts of common observation. 

Percentage of types (hair, 
eyes, and skin 

47 6. 












T T. 

















These figures show that the Letto- Lithuanians are the 
lightest people in the group. They are characterized most 

1890 b, col. 69. 



Index 84. WEST COAST FINNS. Index 75.2. 




frequently by a blue eye, and light hair which rivals the Swed 
ish and Norwegian in its purity.* Two thirds of these Baltic 
peoples appear as pure blonds. The Poles are nearly as light, 
apparently. Majer and Kopernicki,! in fact, found more blond 
types among adults even than Virchow did among his Ger 
man school children; and this, too, despite the fact that the 
blondness of the latter would surely decrease with growth. 
Next to the Poles and Letto- Lithuanians come the White 
Russians and the people of Podolia (see map facing page 340), 
with still a majority of blond types. The Great Russians are 
somewhat darker, but even they are appreciably lighter in 
complexion than the Little Russians in the southern govern 
ments. The latter the Ukrainians are still blue or lightish 
in eye, but betray a strong predisposition for dark-brown hair. 
This latter is here as common as the light brown. J The " beer- 
coloured " eye, in most frequent combination with really dark 
hair, brings us to the culmination of brunetness among the 
Galicians in the Carpathian Mountains. These Gorali, as our 
table indicates, in contrast with the Letto-Lithuanians, show 
the clear brunet at last outweighing the blond. The name 
" black Russians," applied to these mountaineers to distin 
guish them from the Ruthenians, or " red Russians," of the 
plains of Galicia, appears to be deserved. They seem to con- 

* Talko-Hryncewicz is the only observer who has consistently applied 
a uniform system of observation to various localities. This table, ar 
ranged from his works of 1893, p. 112 ; 1894, p. 168 ; and 1897, p. 279, 
presents the best summary of his conclusions. He has covered Lithuania, 
White and Little Russia; adding results from Majer and Kopernicki, 
1877, p. 112, and 1885, p. 43, and Kopernicki, 1889, as to the Ruthenians 
and Poles in Galicia. We add, although not strictly comparable, Zograf s 
(1892 a, p. 165) results on the Great Russians. More definite comparisons, 
yielding, however, entirely parallel results, may be drawn from the colour 
of the hair alone. Thus we may include the Poles and even the southern 
Slavs as far as Bulgaria. To the tables in Talko-Hryncewicz s papers 
may then be directly added Weisbach s observations over a large field. 
Niederle, 1896 a, pp. 60 et seq., has done this most satisfactorily. 

f 1877, pp. 90 and 112, and 1885, p. 34. Elkind s results (1896, col. 
261) also show a marked blondness along the Vistula, though not quite so 
pronounced as in Galicia. Cf. also Schimmer, 1884, p. ix. 

\ Tschubinsky, 1878, p. 364, confirms these results. 


tain twice as many clear brunet types as the Ukrainians, who 
are in Russia accounted dark. Lebon ( 81) has proved that 
the Podhalians in these mountains are a local variety, being 
considerably lighter. He found nearly one third of them 
blond, while seventy per cent of them had light eyes. El- 
kind * found one third of the Poles along the Vistula to have 
blue eyes and dark-red hair. The light type is less frequent, 
however, than in Galicia, as Talko-Hryncewicz f proved. Be 
neath all these variations, however, underlies the rufous, or 
rather auburn, tendency of which we have spoken. It dis 
tinguishes the Russian blondness from that of all other Euro 
peans. We shall seek a cause for it when we come to con 
sider the Finns and other pre-Slavic inhabitants of the country. 

In this connection we can not resist calling attention to 
the bearing of this testimony upon Poesche s (>78) celebrated 
theory that the original centre of dispersion of the blond 
Aryans (?) lay in the great Rokitno swamps about Pinsk and 
along the Pripet in White Russia. We have seen that these 
people are indeed blond. Mainof J it was whose testimony to 
this effect gave Poesche his cue. Since we have proved how 
much less blond these White Russians are than their neigh 
bours toward the Baltic, it would seem as if we had effectually 
disposed of Poesche s theory at the same time. 

In stature the Russians are of medium height, but they 
betray the same susceptibility to the influences of environment 
as other Europeans. Our map herewith illustrates this clearly. 
This investigation of upward of two million recruits, by the 
eminent anthropologist Anutchin, shows a considerable varia 
tion according to the fertility of the country. Thus in the 
northern half, above Moscow and Kazan, the adult males are 
two inches shorter than in the Ukraine about Kiev, which lies 
in the heart of the Black Mould belt. The difference between 
White and Little Russians is due to the same cause. Other 
influences besides physical environment are, however, at work, 
beyond question. This is especially the case in Poland. This 
unhappy country is the adopted fatherland of millions of Jews. 

* 1896, col. 261. f 1890, p. 29. 

| Cong. int. des sciences geographiques, Paris, 1878, p. 269. 


RU551A- " ^m 

2.OI7OOO AFTER. ^\ - - - /) 


Z ,iW 

< 1 



There are almost more here than in all the rest of Europe 
put together. These Jews are one of the most stunted peoples 
in Europe. In how far this is the result of centuries of op 
pression, and in what degree it is an inherent ethnic trait, we 
need not stop to consider. It is an indisputably proved fact. 
The presence of this horde of Jews, often outnumbering the 
native Poles especially in the towns, is largely accountable 
for the short stature shown by our map. This does not exon 
erate the Poles by any means from the charge of relative 
diminutiveness.* The degree in which they are surpassed by 
their Slavic neighbours on the other side is shown by our 
map on page 350. Comparisons are facilitated by the uni 
formity of tints upon the two maps. Yet even here in Austria- 
Hungary the shortness of the Poles and Ruthenians, which 
together form the population of Galicia, may be partly at 
tributable to the large contingent of Jews. 

The clearest example of stature as an unmitigated ethnic 
trait, hereditary and persistent, is shown in the eastern half 
of Austria-Hungary (map on next page). Notice the light 
ness of shading among all the Germans (Deutsche) in Aus 
tria, in the Tyrol, and in the northwestern corner of Bohemia 
(Bohmen). These are just the districts where Teutonic infil 
tration from the north has been historically proved since early 
times. We have already mentioned it in our study of the head 
form. The German-speaking Austrians, then, are by nature 
and not by acquisition, an inch or two taller than many of 
the Slavic peoples subject to their political domination. It is 
the same phenomenon already so familiar to us in the case of 
the relatively gigantic Burgundian peasantry in France to-day; 
in the tallness of the people of Lombardy; and, above all, in 
the Tetttonizecl eastern half of the British Isles. This latter 
example comes directly home to us, because we in America 
owe a large measure of our surpassing stature to the same 
ethnic cause. Never has a physical trait shown so surprising 
a persistency as in the height of these Teutonic peoples. 

Just here a difficulty confronts us one which no anthro 
pologist has satisfactorily explained. Our second map shows 

* Talko-Hryncewicz, 1895, p. 264. See our chapter on Jews. 



a very tall population among the southern Slavs, the Slovenes, 
Serbo-Croatians, and Bosnians, contrasted with the short 
Poles, Ruthenians, and Slovaks in the northeast. This can 
not historically be traced to a Teutonic ancestry. Anthropo 
logically it is even less probable, because these southern Slavs 
are all very dark in hair and eye, being in this respect as in 
head form the polar extreme from the Teutons of the north. 
A distinct subcentre of giantism, inexplicable but established 





NOTE. Cf. Appendix F. 

beyond all doubt, exists just east of the Adriatic Sea. Its in 
fluence radiates through the Slovenes over into northeastern 
Italy. We find indication of it in the Rhsetian parts of Swit 
zerland. Deniker, in his recent classification of the anthropo 
logical types of Europe, carries it even further, under the defi 
nite name of the Adriatic or Dinaric race.* Who can affirm 

* 1898 a, with map. We emphasized the same fact in our general 
stature map of Europe ; see page 97 supra. 


that the tallness of the Tyrolese, who in their mountainous 
habitat, despite the depressing influence of their environment, 
surpass the Swiss, the Bavarians, the Austrians, and the Ital 
ians, may not possibly be due to a double ethnic source? At 
just this point in the Tyrol the Teutonic wave of tall stature 
from the north and the Adriatic one from the south come 
together. Thus, an exception to the law that, other things 
equal, the populations of mountains are unfavourably affected 
in stature by their environment may possibly be explained. 

Turning back to our map of stature in Russia, facing page 
348, we observe a distinctly lighter shading that is to say, a 
taller stature along the coast of the Baltic Sea. This is merged 
in the mediocre stature of the Great Russians, a little east of 
Novgorod. Although unfortunately our map does not give 
the data for Finland, we know that a similar superiority of 
stature extends all across this province. All the Finns in this 
part of Russia are very tall. G. Retzius ( TO) , Bonsdorff,* 
Hjelt (>T2) , Elisyeef ( 87) , and all observers agree in this.f An 
average height not a whit less than that of the pure Scandi 
navians in Norway and Sweden is proved. It lessens toward 
the north in contact with the Lapps, most stunted of men, 
at an average of only five feet for adult males. It decreases 
on the east among the Karelian Finns, falling rapidly to the 
Russian average. Bear in mind that in no other part of north 
ern Europe, save in Scandinavia just across the Baltic Sea, 
is an average stature anywhere near that of the Finns to be 
found: that a cross with the Swedes in consequence is inade 
quate as an explanation for this tallness; that wherever there 
is contact with the Slav precisely as in Austria-Hungary, 
where, as we have seen, an ethnic trait ran up against Slav 
dom the bodily height falls to mediocrity: and draw the only 
inference possible both from geography and physical anthro 
pology. We shall deal with the philologists later. 

Summarizing our results thus far, we find two physical 

* Cited by Topinard, Elements, p. 494. 

t On the Esths, Grube, 1878 ; A. N. Kharuzin, 1894. Waldhauer, 1879. 
on the Livs; Waeber, 1879, on the Letts. Kollmann, i88i- 83, gives a 
-fine resume oi this work. 



types more or less clearly coexisting in the Russian people, 
and throughout all the Slavs, too, for that matter. One is tall, 
blondish, and long-headed; the other is brachycephalic, darker- 
complexioned, and of medium height. The relative propor 
tions of each vary greatly from one region to another. Among 
Lithuanians and Poles, the former is more noticeable; in the 
Ukraine the other type becomes more frequent; the Great 
Russians stand between the two; while among the southern 
Slavs the blond, long-headed variety entirely disappears.* 
Xot only do the relative proportions of these component types 
vary from one region to another. Distinct differences in the 
several social strata of the same locality appear. The tall 
dolichocephalic blonds are more characteristic of the upper 
classes as a rule, so far as the matter has been examined.! 
Our results for western Europe are entirely harmonious with 
this tendency. And, thirdly, it is curious to note that the rela 
tive proportions of these two ethnic types have changed en 
tirely since prehistoric times. This point is of so great signifi 
cance that we must examine it a bit more in detail. 

Nowhere else in Europe is the complete submergence of 
an old race by an intrusive one more clear than in the Slavic 
portion of Europe. Bogdanof, founder of Russian archae 
ology, devoted his entire life to proof of this fact in his own 
country. J The first indications of this submerged aboriginal 
population were given, by crania from tumuli, which are 
scattered all over Russia from the Carpathians almost to the 
Ural chain, and even beyond in Siberia. These Kiirgans. so 
called, are merely large mounds of earth from twenty to fifty 
feet high, sometimes single, sometimes arranged in series for 

* Zograf, 1892 a, p. 173, describes these. Lebon, iSSi, p. 233, finds the 
same two types in Podhalia. 

f Olechnowicz, 1893, 1895 a, and 1897, has obtained some highly inter 
esting results among the petite noblesse in Poland. Talko-Hryncewicz, 
1897 b, confirms it. 

\ The facts yielded by his first investigation in 1867 have been con 
firmed by every observation since. We are fortunate in that a complete 
summary of his life work was given by himself at the International Con 
gress of Anthropology at Moscow in 1892. Titles of all his monographs 
will be found in our Bibliography. 


miles. They are not unlike the simpler relics of our own 
mound builders. The dead level of the country makes them 
in the open prairies often of great service to herdsmen in 
tending their flocks. These tumuli were found for the most 
part to date from the stone age; no implements or ornaments 
of metal were unearthed in them. The absence of weapons 
or utensils of war in them also denoted a peaceable folk.* 
The population must have been considerable, for these tumuli 
are simply innumerable. The men of this Kurgan period 
betrayed a notable homogeneity of type, even more uni 
form than that of the modern living population. The crania 
were almost invariably of a pure, long-headed variety; the 
cephalic indexes ranging as low as or lower than that of the 
purest living Teutonic peoples to-day. Remembering that the 
modern Russians are well up among the moderately broad- 
headed Europeans, it will be seen what this discovery implied. 
Nothing else was known save that this extinct people were 
very tall, considerably above the standard of the Russian 
mujik to-day, and it seemed as if their hair betrayed a tend 
ency toward red.f The most obvious explanation, in view 
of the fact that Finnic place names occurred all over Russia, 
was that these tumuli were the remains of an extinct sub 
stratum of Finns, driven out or absorbed by the incoming 
Slavs. Their civilization, made known to us by Uvarof ( 7 "". 
and more recently by Inostranzef (?82) , was definitely connected 
with that of the Merian people, so called by the historians. \ 

Soon a new and significant point began to be noted. While 
the range of this primitive long-headed people so different 
from the living Russians, was distinctly set on the north and 
east, no definite limits could be set to it toward the southwest. 
In the meanwhile Kopernicki and others, from 1875 on, began 
to find evidence of the same dolichocephalic stratum of popu- 

* Kohn and Mehlis, 1879, ii, p. in, compare them with the Reihen- 
graber in this respect. (/. Zaborowski, Bull. Soc. d Anth., 1898, pp. 

-i ii. 


Niederle, 1896 a, p. 88. Minakoff, 1898, has investigated this more 
fully, asserting the reddish cast to be due to the degeneration of age. 

\ Bogdanof, 1893, p. 2, gives a full list of the authorities, Karamsine, 
Solovief, Beliaef, Hatzouk, etc. 



lation, underlying all the Slavs in Podolia and Galicia.* Their 
track has been followed, entirely antedating the modern Slavs, 
down into Bohemia and Moravia, by Xiederle f and Matiegka, J 
and as far as Bosnia; where, in the great discoveries at Gla- 
sinac,* the existence of this same aboriginal population was 
abundantly proved. On the west, Lissauer followed it across 
Prussia beyond the Vistula. || Thus on every side it was traced 
to the limits of Slavdom, and found to underlie it throughout. 
The next step taken by the archaeologists was to examine the 
graves of the early historic period. Bogdanof A investigated 
the ancient cemeteries at Moscow and elsewhere, and found 
that the brachycephaly of the living Russians in its present 
form is even more recent than history. Thus, while in the 
Kurgan stone age three fourths of the skulls were dolicho 
cephalic, in the Slav period from the ninth to the thirteenth 
century only one half of them were of this form, and in purely 
modern cemeteries the proportion was ten per cent less even 
than this. Added confirmation of this proof of the extreme 
recency of the Russian broad-headedness was almost the last 
service rendered to science by the late lamented Professor 
Zograf.O In Bohemia Matiegka has done the same, showing 
that even as late as the sixth to the twelfth centuries the Czechs 
were less extremely broad-headed than to-day.J Two explana 
tions were suggested for this widespread phenomenon. Bog 
danof and a few others -asserted that civilization implied an 
increased broad-headedness, and that a morphological change 
had taken place in the same people; while the majority of an 
thropologists found in it proof of an entire change of race since 

* Kohn and Mehlis, 1879, give a complete rc snnit of Kopernicki s results 
in an excellent work which seems to be little known. See especially vol. 
ii, pp. 108-110, 152, 153. 

f 1891 a, 18943, p. 277, and best of all in his masterly work of 1896 a, 
pp. 67-75, where he gives data for all Slavic countries in detail. His 
paper in French, at the Moscow Congress of 1892, gives a mere outline of 
the results obtained. Palliardi, 1894, deals with Moravia also. 

\ 1892 b and 1894 a. 

* Weisbach, 1895 a, p. 206 ; 1897 b, p. 575 ; also L Anth., v, p. 567. 
|| i874- 7S. A 1879 b. and iS8og. 

Q 1896, p. 52. | 1891, pp. 133, 134. 



the earliest times.* The first explanation, even granting that 
the brachycephalic races as a rule are endowed with a greater 
cranial capacity than the long-headed ones, could hardly be 
accorded a warm reception in any of the Anglo-Saxon coun 
tries like our own. To relegate long-headedness to an inferior 
cultural position would result not only in damning the entire 
Teutonic race, but that one also which produced the early 
Semitic, Greek, and Roman civilizations. Xo explanation for 
the recency of broad-headedness in the Slavic countries is, 
then, tenable for a moment, save that the brachycephalic con 
tingent is a newcomer in the land. 

Which of these two elements in the population, which have 
contended so long for mastery among the people of this part 
of Europe, represents the primitive Slavic type? It is a deli 
cate matter, by no means free from national prejudice. The 
Germans have always looked down upon their eastern neigh 
bours, by reason of their backwardness in culture. Our ig 
noble word " slave," originally signifying the illustrious or 
renowned, is a product of this disdain in Europe of the Slav.f 
To find the primitive Slavic type, therefore, in that variety, 
which accords so completely with our pattern of the Teutonic 
race, is as disheartening to the Germans as for the Slavs them 
selves; it runs counter to their distrust of modern aggressive 
Teutonism. Even science is not free to violate the provisions 
of the Triple Alliance with impunity. 

The most generally accepted theory among anthropologists 
as to the physical relationship of the Slavs, is that they were 
always, as the majority of them are to-day, of the same stock 
as the broad-headed Alpine (Celtic) race. This latter occupies, 
as we have seen, all the central part of western Europe. It 
predominates among the north Italians, the French in Au- 
vergne and Savoy, and the Swiss. It prevails in the Tyrol 
and all across southern Germany, in Alsace-Lorraine, Wur- 
temberg, and Bavaria. The French anthropologists, espe 
cially Topinard, have emphasized the direct similarity in head 

* Vide p. 40 supra. 

\ Consult Lefevre, 18965, p. 351; Canon Taylor, Words and Places, 
p. 303, and Leroy-Beaulieu, i893- 96, i, p. 97, on this. 


form which exists between all these people and the Slavs. 
The name Celto-Slavic has been applied to broad-headed 
race by virtue of this fact.* It was a logical deduction from 
the first discovery of broad-headedness among the Slavs by 
A. Retzius ( 4:!) , von Baer ( tl0) , and Weisbach ( " 4) . The main 
objection to it came from the philologists, who found the 
Slavic languages much nearer the Teutonic than the Celtic 
branch. f This Celto-Slavic theory, affirmed by the French 
anthropologists mainly on the ground of similarity of head 
form, is generally sustained by the Germans on the basis of 
their investigations of relative brunetness among school chil 
dren. The Germans have consistently maintained the exist 
ence of a radical difference of origin between themselves and 
the Slavs. The Slavic portions of Germany, such as Mecklen 
burg, Posen, and Brandenburg, as we have shown in an earlier 
chapter, are certainly darker in the colour of hair and eyes 
than the purely Teutonic ones, like Hanover and Schleswig- 
Holstein. Schimmer J has especially called attention to the 
contrast in Bohemia. The Czechs and the Germans have 
always kept distinct from one another. The relative brunet 
ness of the former is very marked. Children of Czech par 
entage betray about twice the tendency to brunetness of hair 
and eyes of the pupils in the purely German schools. The 
Poles are almost the lightest of all the Slavs. Their contrast 
with the Czechs in Austria-Hungary is also very marked. Yet 
even they, blondest of trie Slavs, are in Posen and Silesia, as 
Yirchow s ( 80b) maps prove, relatively much darker than the 

Another trait which many of the German anthropologists, 
notably Kollmann < <82b >, hold to be Slavic, is the gray or green 
ish-gray eye, in contradistinction to the light blue of the pure 

* Sergi, 1898 a, chapter vi, has perhaps best expressed and proved this 
relationship. Hovelacque and Hervc, 1887, p. 564, assert that no Slavic- 
type really exists in fact. 

f Krek, 1887, is the leading authority. Niederle, 18963, pp. 13 to 32, 
gives a fine review of all the linguistic data. Schrader, 1890, p. 56, out 
lines all these theories. Bopp, Zeuss, Grimm, Fick, and Schleicher all 
insist upon the affinity of the Slav and the Teuton. 

\ 1884, pp. 16 and 19. 


Teuton or the distinct brown and black of southern Europe. 
This colour, so frequent among the Russians, is very common 
all through the Alpine highlands.* It corroborates the testi 
mony of the head form as to the affinity of the Alpine (Celtic) 
type and the Slav; unless we agree with Kollmann and Virchow 
that this grayness of eye is merely the result of a cross be 
tween the blond and brunet varieties.! In this sense it is 
merely a neutral or intermediate characteristic. At all events, 
even denying validity to the witness of the gray eye, plenty 
of evidence remains to show that the modern Slavic popula 
tion of eastern Europe is, in the same latitude, more inclined 
to brunetness than the Teuton. The presence among the Rus 
sian people themselves of a medium-statured, dark-complex 
ioned, and broad-headed majority is acknowledged by all. 
That this represents the original Slavic stock is certainly the 
most logical direct inference. It is the opinion tacitly at least 
accepted by most of the English writers. J Direct evidence 
as to the former coloration of the Slavs is very scanty. The 
testimony of the old travellers like Ibrahim ibn Jacub as to 
the black hair and beards of the Czechs, contrasted with the 
Saxons, adduced by Dr. Beddoe* in favour of a dark Slavic 
origin, is contested by Niederle.|| No such unanimity of testi 
mony as is found from Tacitus, Martial, and a host of other 
Latin writers as to the blondness of the Teutons can be ad 
duced. On the whole, the chroniclers leave the matter as un 
settled as ever. The only reliable testimony is that of the 
living populations of Slavic speech. 

The native anthropologists are divided in theory as to the 
type of their Slavic ancestors. No one pretends to question 
the facts in the case; the divergence of opinion is merely as 
to which stratum of population, which region, or which social 
class of the two we have described, is entitled to claim the 
honoured title. Thus Anutchin, A Taranetzki,0 Talko-Hrynce- 

* Studer, 1880, p. 70. 

f Ranke, Der Mensch., ii, p. 253 ; also p. 267. Cf. Rhamm in Globus, 
Ixxi, No. 20. 

\ Beddoe, 1893, p. no, and Taylor, 1890, p. 104. * 1893, p. 70. 

|| 1896 a, pp. 80-87, Riving much historical testimony. 

A 1893, pp. 279-281. () 1884, pp. 63-65. 


wicz,* Olechnowicz,f Kopernicki,J Pic,* Ikof, and Yantchuk ^ 
identify the modern broad-headed population as a Slavic in 
vader of originally Finnic territory ; while Bogdanof,0 Zograf,! 
and especially Xiederle,! represent the claims of the extinct 
Kurgan people to the honoured name of Slav. Lerov-Beau- 
lieu seems to represent a popular tendency in favour of this 
latter view.t For our own part, we rather incline to agree 
with Matiegka that it is a question which the craniologists 
are not competent to settle.** That the Alpine (Celtic) racial 
type of western Europe is the best claimant for the honour 
seems to us to be the most logical inference, especially in the 
light of studies of the living aborigines of Russia, to which 
we must now turn. 

Three ethnic elements are generally recognised as com 
ponent parts of the Russian people the Slav, the Finn, and 
the Mongol-Tatar. The last two lie linguistically outside the 
family of related peoples which we call Aryans, the only other 
non-Aryan language in Europe being the Basque. ft In any 
classification according to physical characteristics, we must, 
however, set aside all the evidences of language as untrust 
worthy. To admit them as a basis of classification would in 
volve us at once in inextricable confusion. JJ These tribes have 

* 1893, p. 171. t l8 93, P- 37 ; 1895, p. 70. 

\ Kohn and Mehlis, vol. ii, pp. 114, 153, and 164. In his 1869, p. 629, 
he asserts the Ruthenians tobe nearest the original Slavic type. 

* Athenaeum, Prague, viii, p. 193. || 1890, col. 103. 

A 1890 a, col. 202. lS 93, PP- 10 and 13. 

$ 1896, p. 63. 

$ 1891 a, 1892 a, and especially in his positively brilliant 1896 a, pp. 50 
et seq. Consult his answer to criticisms, 1891 b, and in Globus, vol. Ixxi. 
No. 24 also. His bibliography of the subject is superb. 

% 1893-96, vol. i, pp. 96 and 108. ** 1891, p. 152. 

ff Consult Chapter VIII. 

\\ The errors of such a classification are well exemplified in Leroy- 
Beaulieu s otherwise excellent work, in which his aborigines are utterly 
confused in relationship. Rittich in all his work, and Keane, 1886, as 
well as in his Ethnology, 1896, pp. 303 et .M/., are equally at sea. Since 
the days of Nilsson and Prichard, the philologists have befogged the 
questions of physical descent. Niederle, 18963, in his appendix upon the 
subject, seems to be very confused. Cf. Topinard, 1878, p. 465. 

SAMOYED. Cephalic Index 86.8. 

1 55- Cephalic Index 86. 

Cephalic Index 79. 




all been more or less nomadic for ages in this great plain 
country; they have taken on and put off customs, language, 
and religion time and again, according to circumstances. The 
latter characteristic, religion, in fact, affords us a far better 
standard for ethnic classification than language; since the Finns 
have persisted in Christianity, the Turks and Tatars have held 
to Mohammedanism, and the Mongols proper to Buddhism, 
with a remarkable constancy. The varying proportions of 
barbarism in each group are well illustrated by this fact. For 
in race, as in religion, the Finns are truly indigenous to western 
Furope, the Tatar- Turks are Oriental, while the Mongols 
proper are Asiatic. 

The evils incident to any linguistic classification of the 
aborigines in Russia are best illustrated by a comparison of 
the Lapps with the Livs, Esths, and Tchouds of the Baltic 
provinces: both groups alike speak Finnic languages; the 
philologists-, therefore, from Castren to Mikkola, class them as 
alike members of a Finnic " race," along with the Magyars or 
Hungarians, who are also Finnic in speech. Xothing could 
be more absurd than to assert a community of physical origin 
for the three. The Magyars, among the finest representatives 
of a west European type, are no more like the Lapps than the 
Australian bnshmen ; and the Baltic Finns are equally distinct. 
The Lapps, as our portraits at page 208 illustrate, are among 
the broadest-headed of men.* Their squat faces show it. In 
stature they are among the shortest of the human species. 
Yirchow s t celebrated hypothesis that they are a " patho 
logical race" seems excusable on this ground. Their hair 
and eyes are very dark brown, often black. Could any type 
of human beings be further removed from this than the Finns 
described to us by G. Retzius, Bonsdorff, Elisyeef, or Mainof? 
These latter Finns are among the tallest of men, with fair 
skin, flaxen or tow-coloured hair, and blue eyes. Turn to our 
ma]) at page 362. Tt shows us among the Fsths on the Baltic 
coast, through the Cheremiss on the Volga, and clear beyond 

* Sommier, 1886; Kelsief, 1886; N. N. Kharuxin, 1890; Garson, i8S6a, 
and others have studied them in detail, 
f 1875, a and b. 


the Ural Mountains among Ostiaks and Yoguls in Siberia, 
a long-headedness not a whit less pronounced than through 
out Teutonic Germany. The contrast of tints on our map cor 
responds to a radical contrast of physical type. 

The same utter confusion of racial that is to say, of 
somatological relations, incident to a linguistic division of the 
Finns, appears at once in any like attempt to classify the 
Turkish-speaking branch of the Asiatic peoples. For the 
Chouvaches, just across the Volga from the Cheremiss,* not 
in any important respect to be distinguished from them phys 
ically, as our map shows, have by chance adopted the language 
and religion of the neighbouring Tatars. It is as absurd to 
class them with the latter as Turks by race, as to jumble the 
broad-headed and brunet Samoyeds, who are quite like the 
Lapps, with the Zyrians just south of them ; f or to confuse 
the Tatars as a class with the Kirghez. Comparison of our 
portraits of each will manifest this at once. The Tatars of 
the_ Crimea whether, as the historians assert, because of early 
Gothic influence or otherwise are in many cases entirely Eu 
ropean. To class them as Mongols because being closely 
massed, somewhat isolated, and possessed of glorious tradi 
tions from the past, they have preserved their Asiatic speech, 
is a travesty upon science. 

Turning to the Russian aborigines, then, with an eye single 
to their purely physical characteristics, we may relegate them 
to two groups, sharply distinguished in isolation, but inter 
mixed along their lines of contact. Our map of cephalic index 
facing page 362 will roughly make the division clear. Our 
several pages of portraits (portraits, pp. 346 and 364) will 
strengthen the contrast. The first group is distinctly long 
headed, with an index as low as 79 or 80, among the Livs. 
Esths, Cheremiss, Chouvaches, and Yogul-Ostiaks in Siberia. 

* Nikolski, 1897. 

f Keane calls the Samoyeds Finns, Ethnology, p. 305. To be sure 
they speak Finnic, but are really Mongols. Mainof is clearest, perhaps, 
in classing them as "black Finns." On the Samoyeds consult Szom- 
bathy in Mitt. Anth. Ges., Wien, xvi, pp. 25-34, ar d Virchow, Verh. 
Anth. Ges., ix, 1879, PP- 330-346. 



These are all more or less clearly blond, with a distinctly rufous 
tendency, even among the extreme eastern tribes of Voguls 
and Ostiaks.* Sometimes, as among the Votiaks, whom Dr. 
Beddoe f inclines to identify with the Budini of the Greeks 
because of their red hair, we find this trait very marked, espe 
cially in the beard. It seems to be somewhat less pronounced 
along the Baltic, where the Livs, Esths, and Tchouds shade 
off imperceptibly into the pure blond Letto- Lithuanians. Here 
we discover the source of that peculiar reddish blondness of 
the modern Russians of which we have spoken, for a wide 
spread admixture of blood in the Slav from this stock is recog 
nised by all. In this first type we recognise the Finn, using 
the linguistic term guardedly, with the express reservation 
that not every tribe of Finnic speech is of this racial ancestry. 
These are the tall people who in the Eddas are called Jotuns, 
or giants. The word Tchoud applied by the Slavs to the Finns 
also means a giant. \ Mythology confirms our anthropological 

Our second physical type of the Russian aborigines is the 
polar extreme from this long-headed, red-blond one. We 
may follow it on our map by the black tints, indicating a preva 
lent broad-headedness. This is best exemplified at the two 
extremes of Russia, in the Lapp at the northwest and the 
Kalmuck and Kirghez hordes of the Caspian steppes. The 
Samoyeds are merely a continuation of the Lapp type toward 
Asia along the arctic." These people correspond closely to 
what we popularly regard as Mongolian. They are all dark or 
black haired, with swarthy skins; they are peculiarly beardless 
(portraits, pp. 358 and 208). With the round face, bullet head, 
high cheek bones, squint eyes, and lank hair, they constitute 

* Sommier, 1887, p. 104; iSSS. The Ostiaks and Voguls are, accord 
ing to Anutchin, 1893, the original Voguls, who were settled in Perm a 
few centuries ago. Their emigration across the Urals is of comparatively 
recent date. Cf. also Vambery, 1885, p. 62 ; and Zaborowski, Bull. Soc. 
d Anth., 1898, pp. 73-111. 

^ T 893. P- 42. Cf. Topinard, Anthropology, p. 465. 
j Taylor, 1888, p. 249. 

* Zografs work on the Samoyeds is summarized in Revue d Anth., 
-Perie 2, iv, p. 296; Bogdanof s at ibid., p. 117. 

3 62 


an unmistakable type.* We may provisionally call it Mongol 
for want of a better word, but it must not be confused with 
the Turk or Tatar, which is nothing of the sort. Many of 
these people speak Finnic languages, so that in a sense it is 
still proper to class them as Finns. If so, they should be dis 
tinguished from the other variety. Mainof does this best by 
classing the two as " light " and " black " Finns respectively. 
This second group is not characterized by any peculiarity 
of stature, as the Finns seem to possess. From Yavorski s 
data f we note an extreme variability in this trait in both 
Mongols and Finns. The western Finns show a strong tend 
ency to a very tall stature; the pure Mongols are also rather 
above medium height; but many of both stocks are exceed 
ingly degenerate in this respect. The Lapps and Samoyeds 
could not but be stunted by their environment ; \ and even 
the Ostiaks, Permiaks, Yotiaks, and Cheremiss, driven from 
the valleys where alone the Russians can win a subsistence, 
to the sterile uplands on the upper river courses, have cer 
tainly been starved into relative diminutiveness. It is along 
the line of these tribes just named, and above all among the 
Bashkirs,** that we discover a variety of mongrels, compounded 
of Finn and Mongol, with a strong infusion of Tatar through 
the whole. Kazan, at the elbow of the Volga, is truly a meet 
ing place of the tribes. The intermingling of strains of blood, 
of religions, customs, -and of linguistic stocks may be ob 
served here at a maximum. Especially among the Mordvins, 
widely disseminated in little groups, not aggregated in solid 
communities, as among Cheremiss or Chouvaches, has the 
infusion of Tatar traits taken place. An interesting fact in 
this ethnic intermixture is the extreme insidiousness of the 
Mongolian features. This is a fertile source of confusion of 
the Finn and the Asiatic tribes. Many long-headed, red- 

* On the Kalmucks and Mongols, consult Ivanovski, 1893 and 1896; 
Metchnikoff, 1878; Schendrikovski, 1894; Deniker, 1883; Chantre, 1885- 
87, iv, p. 250; and also Hovelacque, Etudes de Linguistique, 1878, pp. 
271 et scq. 

t 1897, p. 196. 

\ Yavorski, p. 196 ; N. N. Kharuzin, 1890 a, p. 155. 

* Weissenberg, 1892 ; Sommier, iSSi ; Nazarof, 1890. 




RU53 I A, 



blonds, as among the Ostiaks and Zyrians, who are surely 
Finnic at bottom, superficially resemble the Mongols in cast 
of countenance. Perhaps our dolichocephalic Kalmuck, de 
picted at page 358, is of some such mixed origin. His features 
are ultra-Mongolic. His head form is quite foreign to that 
racial type.* In the case of the Basques, we have explained 
how unreliable these facial features are as a test of physical 
descent; for, being distinctive and noticeable, they are imme 
diately subject to the disturbing influences of artificial selec 
tion. They may thus wander far from their original type, 
becoming part of the local ideal of physical beauty prevalent 
among a primitive people. Only in this way can we explain 
the almond eyes, flat noses, and high cheek bones of tribes 
which by their blondness and head form betray unmistakably 
a Finnic descent. This combination of Mongol features and 
Finnic or dolichocephalic head form, occurs sporadically 
throughout western Asia, especially near the Himalayas, where 
the two extreme human types, both of face and head, are in 
close juxtaposition. Where intermixture has taken place, the 
resultant is often a curious blend between the Hindu and the 

One objection to our ascription of the name Finn to a long 
headed type is bound to arise. We must meet it squarely. 
If the Finns are of this stock, why is all Finland relatively so 
broad-headed as our map (facing page 362) makes it appear? 
Here is the largest single aggregation of Finnic-speaking peo 
ple; ought we not to judge of the original type from their char 
acteristics in this region? By no means, for Finland is the 

* Cf. portraits of Ostiaks in Jour. Anth. Inst., i894- 95. Talko- 
Hryncewicz, 1893, p. 171, remarks upon the effect of a Mongol cross to 
broaden the face, as among the Permiaks, Votiaks, and Esths. Bogdanof, 
1893, p. 10, remarks upon this broad face of even the Kurgans of early 
times in eastern Russia. Cf. Beddoe, 1893, p. 40 ; Niederle, 1896 a, p. 147 ; 
Keane, 1896, p. 306. 

f Cf. Ujfalvy, Les Aryens, etc., 1896, pp. 398-408, on the interpreta 
tion of cephalic index among Mongol peoples. His curious thesis that the 
Mongols are originally dolichocephalic, because such head forms, as 
among the Ladakis, are often conjoined with Mongolic facial traits, seems 
without foundation. 


refuge of a great body of aborigines driven forth from Great 
Russia by the advent of the Slavs, just as also all along the iso 
lated peninsulas of the Baltic and in the Valdai Hills north of 
Tver. But in Finland, in contradistinction to these other places 
of refuge, the Finns were crowded in together against the 
Lapps. Especially in the north we see clear evidence of inter 
mixture. The Russian Lapps are very much less broad-headed 
than their pure Scandinavian fellows, by reason of such a cross.* 
Can we deny, contrariwise, that a similar rise of index in the 
case of the Finns must have ensued for the same reason? The 
Karels, further removed from the Lapps, are somewhat longer- 
headed; the Baltic Finns, being quite free from their influence, 
are much more so. Moreover, all along the southwest coast 
of Finland the heads are much longer. Observations upon 
twenty-eight Finns in the lumber camps of Wisconsin by my 
friend Mr. David L. Wing, yielded an average index of only 
78.9, while thirty-nine Swedes were two units lower. Grant 
ing that the infusion of Swedish blood all along this Baltic 
coast must be reckoned as a factor, a distinct tendency to such 
long-headedness among the Finns appears. Coupled with 
the long-headedness of the Cheremiss, Vogul-Ostiaks, and 
others, and especially the tendency of the mongrel Bashkirs 
to dolichocephaly as we leave the Caspian Mongol influence 
and approach the Ural Mountains, our affirmation of an origi 
nal long-headedness oi this type seems to be justified. 

In assigning a relationship to these various peoples, let 
us avoid the gratuitous assumption that because a people 
speak a primitive type of language they are necessarily bar 
barians. Great injustice to an important constituent in the 
Russian people will inevitably result. It may often happen 
to be true; but in Russia, although both Finns and Tatars have 
clung to a Ural-Altaic agglutinative language, they are not 
all deficient in mentality. Xothing could be more contrary 
to fact. Neither Basques nor Magyars are barbarians. The 
Finnic languages, while a trifle clumsier perhaps, are power 
ful and rich in many respects. In culture also there are Finns 

* Kelsief, 1886, and N. X. Kharuzin, 1890 a and b. 

COAST TATARS, Goursuf, Crii 

Mf)KI)VIX, Volj;a. 



and Finns. To be sure, the whole eastern branch along the 
Volga and in Asia are truly aboriginal in civilization, as in the 
case of the Chouvaches and Yotiaks. Expelled from all the 
lands worth cultivation, even as in the case of the Yoguls 
and Ostiaks driven out of Europe altogether, it is a wonder 
that they are not less civilized than we find them. On the 
other hand, the Baltic Finns in their general standard of life, 
intellectually and morally, compare very favourably with the 
Russian " mujik." Helsingfors, capital of Finland, is one of 
the finest cities in Russia. Its university ranks high among 
those of Europe. Finnic scholars, poets, and musicians there 
have been of note. Once for all, then, let us fully disabuse our 
selves of the notion that there is anything ignoble in a Fin 
nish ancestry. Had Yirchow and De Quatrefages fully done so, 
much of the acerbity in their celebrated controversy over the 
Finnic origin of the Prussians would have been avoided.* 

If our original Finns are proved to be long-headed blonds, 
oftentimes very tall; if the Letto-Lithuanians, contrasted with 
the Russian Slavs, betray the same physical tendencies; if, 
just across the Baltic Sea, the main centre of this peculiar 
racial combination is surely located in Scandinavia; and, 
finally, if in every direction from the Baltic Sea, whether east 
across Russia or south into Germany, these traits vanish into 
the broader-headed, darker-complexioned, medium-statured, 
and stocky Alpine (Celtic?) type; how can we longer deny 
that Finns, Letto-Lithuanians, and Teutons are all offshoots 
from the same trunk? A direct physical relationship between 
the three, referring them all to a so-called Nordic race, is con 
firmed by the very latest and most competent authority; f 
and this in absolute independence of our own conclusions. 

* Cf. page 219 supra. 

f Consult Deniker s map of the races of Europe, 1898 a, reproduced in 
our Appendix D. Talko-Hryncewicz, 1893, p. 170, emphasizes the simi 
larity of Letto-Lithuanians and Finns. Canon Taylor, iSSS, in his 
brilliant revival of Diefenbach s (1861) theory of Aryan evolution from a 
blond Finnic ancestry, arrives at precisely the same conclusion. Kohn 
and Mehlis, vol. ii, pp. 108 and 153, acknowledged the similarity of Koper- 
nicki s Kurgan people and the Teutonic Reihengraber ; as does Bogdanof, 
< PP- 19-21 also. 



If it be established by further investigation, our theory 
goes far to simplify the entire problem of the physical anthro 
pology of Europe. It is not a new idea. Diefenbach ( 01 
and Europeans ( 7n) advanced it a generation ago on the basis 
of the then recent archaeological discoveries of a long-headed, 
tall race in the tumuli of the stone age ; although it never gained 
any acceptance at the time. A curious corollary of this theory 
is that De Ouatrefages and Yirchow, in their celebrated inter 
national controversy over the origin of the Prussians, were 
both partly in the right. A irchow resented the view of a 
Finnic origin of his people as an insult, because Lapps and 
Finns were then confused with one another, and he certainly 
was right in denying any affinity of Prussians with Lapps. 
De Quatrefages, in asserting that the Prussians were of Finnic 
ancestry, was equally in the right, if our theory be true; but 
he erred in supposing that this damned them as non-Teutonic. 
For us the Prussians, along with the Hanoverians and Scan 
dinavians, are all at bottom Finnic. We would not stop here. 
We would agree absolutely with Europeans in his further 
hypothesis that these Finns of northern Europe are directly 
related with that primitive Mediterranean long-headed stock, 
sprung from the same root as the negro, which we have shown 
to underlie all the other races of Europe.* Its blondness is 
an acquired characteristic, due to the combined influences of 
climate and artificial o; natural selection. From this centre 
in the north, invigorated by the conditions of its habitat, and 
speedily pressing upon the meagre subsistence afforded by 
Xature. this race has once again during the historic period 
retraced its steps far to the south, appearing among the other 
peoples of Europe as the politically dominant Teutonic race. I 

The anthropological history of northeastern Europe is now 
clear. Leaving aside the question of the original centre of 

* Cf. page 461 in this connection. 

f See page 467 infra. This is in perfect accord with Sergi s most 
recent work in Centralblatt fiir Anthropologie, 1898, p. 2; and with 
Niederle s conclusions (1896 a, p. 131 ; and especially in Globus, vol. 
Lxxi, No. 24). ( / . Taylor, iSSS, criticised in Schrader and Jevons, 1890, 
p. 104. 



dispersion of the Slavic languages, generally placed some 
where along the tipper Dnieper,* it would seem that the Slavs 
as a physical type penetrated Russia from the southwest, where 
they were physically an offshoot from the great Alpine race 
of central Europe. In so doing they forced a way in over 
a people primitive in culture, language, and physical type. 
This aboriginal substratum is represented to-day by the Finns, 
now scarcely to be found in purity, pushed aside into the 
nooks and corners by an intrusive people, possessed of a 
higher culture acquired in central Europe. Yet the Finn has 
not become extinct. His blood still flows in Russian veins, 
most notably in the Great and White Russian tribes. The 
former, in colonizing the great plain, has also been obliged 
to contend with the Asiatic barbarians pressing in from the 
east. Yet the impress of the [Mongol-Tatar upon the physical 
type of the Great Russian, which constitutes the major part 
of the nation, has been relatively slight; for instead of amal 
gamation or absorption as with the Finn, elimination, or what 
Leroy-Beaulieu calls " secretion," has taken place in the case 
of the Mongol hordes. t They still remain intact in the steppes 
about the Caspian; the Tatars are banished to the eastern 
governments as well, save for those in the Crimea. The Asi 
atic influence has been perhaps more powerful in determining 
the Great Russian character than the physical type. A strug 
gle for mastery of eastern Europe with the barbarians has 
made the great Russian more aggressive; vigour has to some 
degree developed at the expense of refinement. The result 
has been to generate a type well fitted to perform the arduous 
task of protecting the marches of Europe against barbarian 
onslaught, and at the same time capable of forcefully extend 
ing European culture over the aborigines of Asia. 

* Niederle, 18963, p. 77; Beddoe, 1893, p. 35. 
f Op. cit., i, pp. 71, 82, and 109. 



SOCIAL solidarity, the clearest expression of which to-day 
is nationality, is the resultant of a multitude of factors. Fore 
most among these stand unity of language, a common heritage 
of tradition and belief, and the permanent occupation of a 
definite territory. The first two are largely psychological in 
essence. The third, a material circumstance, is necessary 
rather to insure the stability of the others than for its own 
sake; although, as we know, attachment to the soil may in 
itself become a positive factor in patriotism. Two European 
peoples alone are there, which, although landless, have suc 
ceeded, notwithstanding, in a maintenance of their social con 
sciousness, almost at the level of nationality. Both Gypsies 
and Jews are men without a country. f Of these, the latter 
offer perhaps the more remarkable example, for the Gypsies 
have never disbanded tribally. They still wander about east 
ern Europe and Asia Minor in organized bands, after the 
fashion of the nomad peoples of the East. The Jews, on the 

* In the preparation of this article I have to acknowledge the courtesy 
of Mr. Joseph Jacobs, of London, whose works in this line are accepted 
as an authority. In its illustration I have derived invaluable assistance 
from Dr. S. Weissenberg, of Elizabethgrad, Russia, and Dr. L. Bertholon, 
of Tunis. Both of these gentlemen have loaned me a large number 
of original photographs of types from their respective countries. Dr. 
Bertholon has also taken several especially for use in this way. The 
more general works upon which we have relied are : R. Andree, Zur 
Volkskunde der Juden, Bielefeld, 1881 ; A. Leroy-Beaulieu, Les Juifs et 
I Antisemitisme, Paris, 36 ed. 1893 : and C. Lombroso, Gli Antisemitismo, 
Torino, 1894. 

f- Freeman, 1877 c, offers an interesting discussion of this. He adds 
the Parsees to this category of landless peoples. 


other hand, have maintained their solidarity in all parts of 
the earth, even in individual isolation one from another. They 
wander not gregariously in tribes, often not even in families. 
Their seed is scattered like the plant spores of which the bota 
nists tell us ; which, driven by wind or sea, independently travel 
thousands of miles before striking root or becoming fecund. 
True, the Jews bunch wherever possible. This is often a neces 
sity imposed for self-preservation; but in their enforced migra 
tions their associations must change kaleidoscopically from 
place to place. Xot all has been said even yet of the unique 
achievement of this landless people. That the Jews have pre 
served their individuality despite all mutations of environ 
ment goes without saying. They have done more. They have 
accomplished this without absolute unity of language. Forced 
of necessity to adopt the speech of their immediate neigh 
bours, they have been able either to preserve or to evolve a 
distinctive speech only where congregated in large numbers. 
In Spain and the Balkan states they make use of Spanish; in 
Russia and Poland they speak a corrupt German; and in the 
interior of Morocco, Arabic. Nevertheless, despite these dis 
couragements of every kind, they still constitute a distinctive 
social unit wherever they chance to be. 

This social individuality of the Jews is of a peculiar sort. 
Bereft of linguistic and geographical support, it could not be 
political. The nineteenth century, says Anatole Leroy-Beau- 
lieu, is the age of nationality: meaning obviously territorial 
nationality, the product of contiguity, not birth. To this, he 
says, the Jew is indifferent, typifying still the Oriental tribal 
idea. As a result he is out of harmony with his environment. 
An element of dislike of a political nature, on the part of the 
Christian is added to the irreconcilability of religious belief. 
It has ever been the Aryan versus the Semite in religion 
throughout all history, as Renan has observed; and to-day it 
has also become the people versus the nation, as well as the 
Jew versus the Christian. Granted that this political dis 
sonance is largely the fault of the Gentile, its existence must 
be acknowledged, nevertheless. 

How has this remarkable result been achieved? How, be- 



reft of two out of three of the essentials of nationality, has the 
Jew been enabled to perpetuate his social consciousness? Is 
the superior force of religion, perhaps abnormally developed, 
alone able to account for it all? Is it a case of compensatory 
development, analogous in the body to a loss of eyesight reme 
died through greater delicacy of ringer touch? Or is there 
some hidden, some unsuspected factor, which has contributed 
to this result? We have elsewhere shown that a fourth ele 
ment of social solidarity is sometimes, though rarely, found 
in a community of physical descent; that, in other words, 
to the cementing bonds of speech, tradition, belief, and con 
tiguity, is added the element of physical brotherhood that 
is to say, of race. Can it be that herein is a partial explana 
tion of the social individuality of the Jewish people? It is 
a question for the scientist alone. Race, as we constantly 
maintain despite the abuses of the word, really is to be meas 
ured only by physical characteristics. The task before us is 
to apply the criteria of anthropological science, therefore, to 
the problems of Jewish derivation and descent. Only inci 
dentally and as matters of contributory interest, shall we con 
sider the views of the linguists, the archaeologists, and the 
students of religious traditions. Our testimony is derived from 
those physical facts which alone are indicative of racial descent. 
To these the geographer may add the probabilities derived from 
present distribution in Europe. Xo more do we need to settle 
the primary racial facts. Further speculations concerning mat 
ters rather than men belong to the historian and the philologist. 
The number and geographical distribution of the chosen 
people of Israel is of great significance in its bearing upon 
the question of their origin.* While, owing to their fluid 

* Andree, iSSi, pp. 194 et set/., with tables appended ; Jacobs, 1886 a, 
p. 24 ; and quite recently A. Leroy-Beaulieu, 1893, chapter i, are best on 
this. Tschubinsky, 1877, gives much detail at first hand on western 
Russia. In the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Anglo-Jewish Associa 
tion, London, 1888, is a convenient census, together with a map of dis 
tribution for Europe. On America, no official data of any kind exist. 
The censuses have never attempted an enumeration of the Jews. Schim- 
mer s results from a census of iSSo in Austria-Hungary are given in 
Statistische Monatsschrift, vii, pp. 489 ,/ .</. 


ubiquitousness, it is exceedingly difficult to enumerate them 
exactly, probability indicates that there are to-day, the world 
over, between eight and nine million Jews. Of these, six 
or seven million are inhabitants of Europe, the remainder being 
sparsely scattered over the whole earth, from one end to the 

Their distribution in Europe, as our map opposite shows, 
is exceedingly uneven. Fully one half of these descendants 
of Jacob reside in Russia, there being four or five million Jews 
in that country alone. Austria-Hungary stands next in order, 
with two million-odd souls. After these two there is a wide 
gap. Xo other European country is comparable with them 
except it be Germany and Roumania with their six or seven 
hundred thousand each. The British Isles contain relatively 
few, possibly one hundred thousand, these being principally 
in London. They are very rare in Scotland and Ireland- 
only a thousand or fifteen hundred apiece. Holland contains 
also about a hundred thousand, half of them in the celebrated 
Ghetto at Amsterdam. Then follows France with eighty thou 
sand more or less, and Italy with perhaps two thirds as many. 
From Scandinavia they have always been rigidly excluded; 
from Sweden till the beginning, and from Norway until nearly 
the middle, of this century. Spain, although we hear much of 
the Spanish Jew, contains practically no indigenous Israelites. 
It is estimated that there were once about a million there set 
tled, but the persecutions of the fifteenth century drove them 
forth all over Europe, largely to the Balkan states and Africa. 
There are a good many along the Mediterranean shores of 
Africa, principally in Morocco and Tripoli. The number de 
creases as we approach Egypt and Palestine, the ancient centre 
of Jewish dispersion. As to America, it is estimated, although 
we know nothing certainly, that there are about half a million 
Jews scattered through our cities in the United States. New 
York city, according to the last census, contained about eighty 
thousand Poles and Russians, most of whom, it may be as 
sumed, were Jews. But they have come since in ever-increas 
ing numbers with the great exodus from Russia, at the rate 
of scores of thousands annually. A recent writer places their 


present number in New York city at a quarter of a million. 
The British provinces, on the other hand, do not seem to offer 
great attractions; as late as 1870, for example, the census 
in Xova Scotia did not discover a solitary Jew. 

A more suggestive index of the problems of Jewish dis 
tribution is offered in the ratio of the number of Jews to 
the entire population. This is directly illustrated by our 
map. To be sure this represents the situation twenty years 
ago, but no great change in relativity is to be suspected 
since that time. Even the wholesale exodus from Russia of 
recent years, has not yet drawn off any large proportion of its 
vast body of population. Inspection of our map shows that 
the relative frequency of Jews increases in proportion to the 
progressive darkening of the tints. This brings out with 
startling clearness, the reason for the recent anti-Semitic up 
rising in both Russia, Austria, and the German Empire. A 
specific " centre of gravity " of the Jewish people, as Leroy- 
Beaulieu puts it, is at once indicated in western Russia. The 
highest proportion, fifteen per cent more or less, appears, 
moreover, to be entirely restricted to the Polish provinces, 
with the sole exception of the government of Grodno. About 
this core lies a second zone, including the other west Russian 
governments, as well as the province of Galicia in the Austro- 
Hungarian Empire. Germany, as it appears, is sharply di 
vided from its eastern neighbours, all along the political fron 
tier. Not even its former Polish territory, Posen, is to-day 
relatively thickly settled with Jews. Hostile legislation it is, 
beyond a doubt, which so rigidly holds back the Jew from 
immigration along this line. Anti-Semitismus is not to-day, 
therefore, to any great extent an uprising against an exist 
ing evil; rather does it appear to be a protest against a future 
possibility. Germany shudders at the dark and threatening 
cloud of population of the most ignorant and wretched descrip 
tion which overhangs her eastern frontier. Berlin must not, 
they say, be allowed to become a new Jerusalem for the horde 
of Russian exiles. That also is our American problem. This 
great Polish swamp of miserable human beings, terrific in its 
proportions, threatens to drain itself off into our country as 


well, unless we restrict its ingress. As along the German 
frontier, so also toward the east, it is curious to note how 
rapidly the percentage of Jews decreases as we pass over into 
Great Russia. The governments of St. Petersburg, Novgo 
rod, and Moscow have no greater Jewish contingent of popu 
lation than has France or Italy; their Jewish problem is far 
less difficult than that of our own country is bound to be in 
the future. This clearly defined eastern boundary of Jndcn- 
tJniin is also the product of prohibitive legislation. The Jews 
are legally confined within certain provinces. A rigid law 
of settlement, intended to circumscribe their area of density 
closely, yields only to the persuasion of bribery. Not Russia, 
then, but southwestern Russia alone, is deeply concerned over 
the actual presence of this alien population. And it is the 
Jewish element in this small section of the country wdiich con 
stitutes such an industrial and social menace to the neigh 
bouring empires of Germany and Austria. In the latter coun 
try the Jews seem to be increasing in numbers almost four 
times as rapidly as the native population.* The more elastic 
boundaries of Jewish density on the southeast, on the other 
hand, are indicative of the legislative tolerance which the 
Israelites there enjoy. Wherever the bars are lowered, there 
does this migratory human element at once expand. 

The peculiar problems of Jewish distribution are only half 
realized until it is understood that, always and everywhere, 
the Israelites constitute pre-eminently the town populations.! 
They are not widely disseminated among the agricultural dis 
tricts, but congregate in the commercial centres. It is an un 
alterable characteristic of this peculiar people. The Jew be 
trays an inherent dislike for violent manual or outdoor labour, 
as for physical exercise or exertion in any form. He prefers 
to live by brain, not brawn. Leroy-Beaulieu seems to con 
sider this as an acquired characteristic due to mediaeval pro 
hibition of land ownership or to confinement within the Ghetto. 
To us it appears to be too constant a trait the world over, to 

* Andree, op. cit., p. 258. 

\ This is clearly shown by Schimmer in Statistisrhc Monatsschrift, vii, 
pp. 489 et scq. See also Leroy-Beaulieu, i, p. 118 ; Andree, pp. 33 and 255. 


justify such an hypothesis. Fully to appreciate, therefore, what 
the Jewish question is in Polish Russia, we must always bear 
this faet in mind. The result is that in many parts of Poland 
the jews form an actual majority of the population in the 
towns. This is the danger for Germany also. Thus it is Ber 
lin, not Prussia at large, which is threatened with an overload 
of Jews from the country on the cast. This aggregation in 
urban centres becomes the more marked as the relative fre 
quency for the whole country lessens. Thus in Saxony, which, 
being industrial is not a favourite Jewish centre, four fifths 
of all the Jewish residents are found in Dresden and Leipsic 
alone.* This is probably also the reason for the lessened fre 
quency of Jews all through the Alpine highlands, especially 
in the Tyrol. These districts are so essentially agricultural 
that few footholds for the Jew are to be found. 

A small secondary centre of Jewish aggregation appears 
upon our map to be manifested about Frankfort. It has a 
peculiar significance. The Hebrew settlers in the Rhenish 
cities date from the third century at least, having come there 
over the early trade routes from the Mediterranean. Germany 
being divided politically, and Russia interdicting them from 
i no A. n., a specific centre was established especially in Fran- 
conia. Frankfort being the focus of attraction. Then came 
the fearful persecutions all over Kurope, attendant upon the 
religious fervour of the Crusades. The Polish kings, desiring 
to encourage the growth of their city populations, offered 
the rights of citizenship to all who would come, and an ex 
odus in mass took place. They seem to have been welcomed, 
till the proportions of the movement became so great as to 
excite alarm. Its results appear upon our map. Thus we 
know that many of the Jews of Poland came to Russia as a 
troublesome legacy on the division of that kingdom. At the 
end of the sixteenth century but three German cities re 
mained open to them namely, Frankfort. Worms, and Furth.t 
Yet it was obviously impossible to uproot them entirely. To 

* See also map in Kettler, 1880. 

f J. C. Majer (1862, p. 355) ascribes the present shortness of stature in 
Fu rth and parts of Franconia to this Jewish influence. 


their persistence in this part of Germany is probably due the 
small secondary centre of Jewish distribution, which we have 
mentioned, indicated by the darker tint about Frankfort, and 
including Alsace-Lorraine. Here is a relative frequency not 
even exceeded by Posen, although we generally conceive of 
this former Polish province as especially saturated with Jews. 
It is the only vestige remaining to indicate what was at one 
time the main focus of Jewish population in Europe. It affords 
us a striking example of what legislation may accomplish eth 
nically, when supplemented, or rather aggravated, by religious 
and economic motives. 

Does it accord with geographical probability to derive our 
large dark area of present Jewish aggregation entirely from 
the small secondary one about Frankfort, which, as we have 
just said, is the relic of a mediaeval centre of gravity? The 
question is a crucial one for the alleged purity of the Russian 
Jew; for the longer his migrations over the face of the map, 
the greater his chance of ethnic intermixture. 

The original centre of Semitic origins linguistically has 
not yet been determined with any approach to certainty. The 
languages to be accounted for include Arabian, Hebrew, 
Syrian or Aramean, and the ancient Assyrian. Of these, the 
first is the only one now extant, spoken by the nomad Bed 
ouins. Orientalists are not unanimous in their views." Sayce, 
Schrader, and Sprenger say the family originated in central 
Arabia. Renan prefers a more northern focus, (luidi ( 7!)) , 
from comparison of the root words in its various members, 
traces it to Mesopotamia. Thus he finds a common root in 
all for " river," but various ones for " mountain." The origi 
nal Semites, he also argues, must have dwelt near the sea, 
for a common root for this obtains. This would exclude 
Armenia. The absence of any common root for desert also 
eliminates Arabia, according to his view. Rut, on the other 
hand, how about Kremer s argument, based upon acquaint 
ance with the camel, but not the ostrich? All this in any 

* Guidi, 1879; Berlin, 1881 ; Goldstein, 1885, p. 650; Ilommel, 1892; 
Schrader, 1890, p. 96; Brinton, 1890, p. 132; and Keane, 1896, p. 391, 
discuss it. 


event, we observe, has to do with languages and not racial 
types. Few ancient remains have been found, owing to the 
widespread repugnance to embalming of the dead. The main 
problem for the somatologist is to have some clew as to 
whether the family is of Asiatic or African descent. So far 
as our data for living types are concerned, we get little com 
fort. Physical traits of the Arabs fully corroborate Brinton s 
and Jastrow s ( 90) hypothesis of African descent; but, on the 
other hand, many of the living Syrians of Semitic speech are, 
according to Chantre (<93) , as brachycephalic as the Armenians. 
This, as we shall see in our next chapter, would preclude such 
an African derivation. It seems most probable, in view of 
these facts, that the family of languages has spread since its 
origin over many widely variant racial groups. To identity 
the original one would be a difficult task. 

A moot point among Jewish scholars is as to the extent 
of the exodus of their people from Germany into Poland. 
Bershadski has done much to show its real proportions in 
history. Talko-Hryncewicz * and Weissenberg f among an 
thropologists, seem to be inclined to derive this great body 
of Polish Jews from Palestine by way of the Rhone-Rhine- 
Frankfort route. They* are, no doubt, partially in the right; 
but the mere geographer would rather be inclined to side 
with Jacques ( 91) . He doubts whether entirely artificial causes, 
even mediaeval persecutions, would be quite competent for so 
large a contract. There is certainly some truth in Harkavy s 
theory, so ably championed by Ikof, that a goodly propor 
tion of these Jews came into Poland by a direct route from 
the East.J A lost Jewish scholars had placed their first ap 
pearance in southern and eastern Russia, coming around the 
Black Sea, as early as the eighth century. Ikof, however, finds 
them in the Caucasus and Armenia one or two centuries be 
fore Christ* Then he follows them around, reaching Ru- 
thenia in the tenth and eleventh centuries, arriving in Poland 

* 1892. t 1895, p. 577- 

J 1884, p. 383. Cf. criticism by Talko-Hryncewicz, 1892, p. 61. 

* On the Jews in the Caucasus, Seydlitz, iSSi, p. 130; Chantre, 1885- 
87, iv, p. 254. 


from the twelfth to the fourteenth. The only difficulty with 
this theory is, of course, that it leaves the language of the 
Polish Jews out of consideration. This is, in both Poland 
and Galicia, a corrupted form of German, which in itself would 
seem to indicate a western origin. On the other hand, the 
probabilities, judging from our graphic representation, would 
certainly emphasize the theory of a more general eastern im 
migration directly from Palestine north of the Black and Cas 
pian Seas. The only remaining mode of accounting for the 
large centre of gravity in Russia is to trace it to widespread 
conversions, as the historic one of the Khozars. Whichever 
one of these theories be correct and there is probability of 
an equal division of truth among them all enough has been 
said to lead us geographically to suspect the alleged purity of 
descent of the Ashkenazim Jew. Let us apply the tests of 
physical anthropology. 

Stature. A noted writer, speaking of the sons of Judah, 
observes: " It is the Ghetto which has produced the Jew and 
the Jewish race ; the Jew is a creation of the European middle 
ages; he is the artificial product of hostile legislation." This 
statement is fully authenticated by a peculiarity of the Israel 
ites which is everywhere noticeable. The European Jews are 
all undersized; not only this, they are more often absolutely 
stunted. In London they are about three inches shorter than 
the average for the city.* Whether they were always so, as 
in the days when the Book of Xumbers (xiii, 33) described 
them " as grasshoppers in their own sight," as compared with 
the Amorites, sons of Anak, we leave an open question. We 
are certain, however, as to the modern Jew. He betrays a 
marked constancy in Europe at the bodily height of about 
fivejeet four inches (1.63 metres) for adult men. This, accord 
ing to the data afforded by measurements of our recruits dur 
ing the civil war, is about the average of American youth 
between the ages of fifteen and sixteen, who have still three, 
almost four, inches more to grow. In Bosnia, for example, 
where the natives range at about the American level that 

* Jacobs, 1890, p. Si. 



is to say, among the very tallest in the world (1.73 metres) 
the Jews are nearly three inches and a half shorter on the 
average.* If we turn to northern Italy, where Lombroso ( ! 
has recently investigated the matter, we apparently find the 
Jew somewhat better favoured by comparison. He is in 
Turin less than an inch inferior to his Italian neighbours. 

(5 FT 5 INJ& 
ill.65 M. 

jl.63 - 




But why? Xot because taller than in the case of Bosnia, for 
his stature in both places is the same. The difference de 
creases, not because the Jew in Piedmont is taller, but solely 
because the north Italians are only of modern height. So it 

* Gliick, 1896 ; and Weisbach, 1877 and 1895 a. 


goes all over Austria and Russia: the diminutiveness is plainly 
apparent.* There are in all Europe only two exceptions to 
the rule we have cited. Anutchin finds them in Odessa and 
Riga slightly to exceed the Christians, and Dr. Bertholon 
informs me that in Tunis the Jews are rather taller than the 
average. Everywhere else the testimony as to their shortness 
is unanimous. In order to emphasize this point it will repay 
us to consider the adopted fatherland of the chosen people a 
bit more in detail. 

Our map on the opposite page shows the average stature of 
Poland by districts. This unhappy country appears to be 
populated by the shortest human beings north of the Alps; 
it is almost the most stunted in all Europe. The great major 
ity of the districts, as our map shows, are characterized by a 
population whose adult men scarcely average five feet four 
inches (1.62 metres) in height. This is more than half a head 
shorter than the type of the British Isles or northern Ger 
many. What is the meaning of this? Is it entirely the fault 
of the native Poles? We know that the northern Slavs are all 
merely mediocre in stature. But this depression is too serious 
to be accounted for in this way; and further analysis shows 
that the defect is largely due to the presence of the vast horde 
of Jews, whose physical peculiarity drags down the average 
for the entire population.! This has been proved directly. 
Perhaps the deepest pit in this great " misery spot," as we 
have termed such areas of dwarfed population elsewhere, is in 
the capital city of Warsaw, where Elkind found the average 
stature of two hundred male Jews to be less than five feet three 
inches and a half (1.61 metres). \ The women were only four 
feet eleven inches tall on the average. Compare the little 
series of maps given on the next pages if further proof of 
this national peculiarity be needed. Two of these, it will be 

* Majer and Kopernicki, 1877, p. 36, for Ruthenia ; Stieda, 1883 a, p. 
70; Anutchin, 1889, p. \\\ctseq. 

f Zakrezewski, 1891, p. 38. Cf. map of Russia facing p. 348. It brings 
out the contrast very strongly. 

\ Centralblatt fiir Anthropologie, iii, p. 66. Uke, cited by Andree, 
1881, p. 32, agrees. 


observed, give the average height of Jews and Poles respect 
ively, dividing the city into districts. The social status of these 
districts is shown upon our third map. Comparison of these 
three brings out a very interesting sociological fact, to which 
we have already called attention in our earlier chapter on the 
subject. The stature of men depends in a goodly measure 
upon their environment. In the wards of the city where pros 
perity resides, the material well-being tends to produce a stat 
ure distinctly above that of the slums. In both cases, Poles 
and Jews are shortest in the poorer sections of the city, dark 
tinted on the maps. The correspondence is not exact, for the 

number of observations 
is relatively small; but it 
indicates beyond doubt 
a tendency commonly 
noticeable in great cities. 
But to return to our di 
rect comparison of Poles 
and Jews. The defi 
ciency of the latter, as a 
people, is perfectly ap 
parent. The most high 
ly favoured Jewish popu 
lation socially in the 
whole city of Warsaw in 
fact, can not produce an 
average stature equal to 
that of the very poorest 
Poles; and this, too, in 
the most miserable section of the capital city of one of the most 
stunted countries in Europe. 

We may assume it as proved, therefore, that the Jew is 
to-day a very defective type in stature. He seems to be sus 
ceptible to favourable influences, however; for in London, the 
West End prosperous Jews almost equal the English in height, 
while they at the same time surpass their East End brethren 
by more than three inches.* In Russia also they become taller 

* Jacobs, 1889, p. Si. 


After Zakreiewski 

1.660 -1.666 M. 

1.650 -1.655 M. 
1.642. ~ 1. 650 M. 

72,8 Observation*. 



as a class wherever the life conditions become less rigorously 
oppressive. They are taller in the fertile Ukraine than in 
sterile Lithuania; they sometimes boast of a few relatively 
tall men.* These facts all go to show that the Jew is short, 
not by heredity, but by force of circumstances ; and that where 
he is given an even chance, he speedily recovers a part at 
least of the ground lost during many ages of social persecu 
tion. Jacobs mentions an interesting fact in this connection 
about his upper-class English Jews. Close analysis of the data 



l. 62- 1.629 =5 Ft 37ins. 

l.60 -1.61 

1.5. R. 

- After Zalcrewwsk, 55 
>&9 Observations. 


After 25". 



seems to show that, for the present at least, their physical 
development has been stretched nearly to the upper limit; for 
even in individual cases, the West End Jews of London mani 
fest an inability to surpass the height of five feet nine inches. 
So many have been blessed by prosperity that the average 
has nearly reached that of the English ; but it is a mean stature 
of which the very tall form no component part. Thus perhaps 
does the influence of heredity obstruct the temporary action 
of environment. 

* Talko-Hryncewicz, 1892, pp. 7 and 58. 

3 82 


Whether the short stature of the Jew is a case of an ac 
quired characteristic which has become hereditary, we are 
content to leave an open question. All we can say is that 
the modern Semites in Arabia and Africa are all of goodly 
size, far above the Jewish average.* This would tend to make 
us think that the harsh experiences of the past have subtracted 
several cubits from the stature of the people of Israel. In self- 
defence it must be said that the Christian is not entirely to 
blame for this physical disability. It is largely to be ascribed 
to the custom of early marriages among them. This has prob 
ably been an efficient cause of their present degeneracy in 
Russia, where Tschubinsky describes its alarming prevalence. 
Leroy-Beaulieu says that it is not at all uncommon to find 
the combined age of husband and wife, or even of father and 
mother, to be under thirty years. The Shadchan, or marriage 
broker, has undoubtedly been an enemy to the Jewish people 
within its own lines. In the United States, where the Jews are, 
on the other hand, on the up grade socially, there are indi 
cations that this age of marriage is being postponed, perhaps 
even unduly, f 

A second indication in the case of the Jew of uncommonly 
hard usage in the past remains to be mentioned. These people 
are, anthropologically as well as proverbially, narrow-chested 
and deficient in lung capacity. Normally the chest girth of a 
well-developed man ought to equal or exceed one half his 
stature, yet in the case of the Jews as a class this is almost 
never the case. Majer and Kopernicki \ first established this 
in the case of the Galician Jews. Stieda * gives additional testi 
mony to the same effect. Jacobs || shows the English Jews 
distinctly inferior to Christians in lung capacity, which is gen 
erally an indication of vitality. In Bosnia, Gliick A again refers 
to it as characteristic. Granted, with Weissenberg.O that it 

* Collignon, 1887 a, pp. 211 and 326; and Bertholon, 1892, p. 41. 

f Jacobs, 1891, p. 50, shows it to be less common in other parts of 
Europe. In the United States, Dr. Billings finds the marriage rate to be 
only 7.4 per 1,000 about one third that of the Northeastern States. 

\ 1877, p. 59. * 1883, p. 71- II 1889, P- 8 4- 

A 1896, p. 591. lS 95, P- 374- 


is an acquired characteristic, the effect of long-continued sub 
jection to unfavourable sanitary and social environment, it has 
none the less become a hereditary trait; for not even the per 
haps relatively recent prosperity of Jacob s West End Jews 
has sufficed to bring them up to the. level of their English 
brethren in capacity of the lungs. 

At this point a surprising fact confronts us. Despite the 
appearances of physical degeneracy which we have noted, the 
Jew betrays an absolutely unprecedented tenacity of life. It 
far exceeds, especially in the United States, that of any other 
known people.* This we may illustrate by the following ex 
ample: Suppose two groups of one hundred infants each, one 
Jewish, one of average American parentage (Massachusetts), 
to be born on the same day. In spite of all the disparity of 
social conditions in favour of the latter, the chances, deter 
mined by statistical means, are that one half of the Americans 
will die within forty-seven years; while the first half of the 
Jews will not succumb to disease or accident before the ex 
piration of seventy-one years. The death rate is really but 
little over half that of the average American population. This 
holds good in infancy as in middle age. Lombroso has put 
it in another way. Of one thousand Jews born, two hundred 
and seventeen die before the age of seven years; w T hile four 
hundred and fifty-three Christians more than twice as many 
are likely to die within the same period. This remarkable 
tenacity of life is well illustrated by the table on the next page 
from a most suggestive article by Hoffmann, f We can not 
forbear from reproducing it in this place. 

From this table it appears, despite the extreme poverty of 
the Russian and Polish Jews in the most densely crowded 
portions of New York; despite the unsanitary tenements, the 
overcrowding, the long hours in sweat shops; that neverthe- 

* On Jewish demography, consult the special appendix in Lombroso, 
1894 b ; Andree, iSSi, p. 70 ; Jacobs, 1891, p. 49. Dr. Billings, in Eleventh 
United States Census, 1890, Bulletin No. 19, gives data for our country. 
On pathology, see Buschan, 1895. 

f The Jew as a Life Risk ; The Spectator (an actuarial journal), 1895, 
pp. 222-224, and 233, 234. Lagneau, 1861, p. 411, speaks of a viability in 
Algeria even higher than that of the natives. 



Death Rates per 1,000 Population in the Seventh, Tenth, and 
Thirteenth Wards of New York City, 1890, by Place of Birth. 



United States 
(includes col 



Russia and 
(mostly Jews) 


26. 2; 

At 18 

Under 15 years . . . 
15 to 25 years. .... 


7. ^ 


O A."\ 


I? TC 



25 to 65 years 

21 .64 

2K Q2 


65 and over 

lOd 72 

IO5 Q6 

88 CT 



less, a viability is manifested which is simply unprecedented. 
Tailoring is one of the most deadly occupations known; the 
Jews of New York are principally engaged in this employ 
ment; and yet they contrive to live nearly twice as long on the 
average as their neighbours, even those engaged in the out 
door occupations. 

Is this tenacity of life despite every possible antagonistic 
influence, an ethnic trait; or is it a result of peculiar customs 
and habits of life? There is much which points to the latter 
conclusion as the correct one. For example, analysis of the 
causes of mortality shows an abnormally small proportion of 
deaths from consumption and pneumonia, the dread diseases 
which, as we know, are responsible for the largest proportion 
of deaths in our American population. This immunity can 
best be ascribed to the excellent system of meat inspection 
prescribed by the Mosaic laws.* It is certainly not a result 
of physical development, as we have just seen. Hoffmann 
cites authority showing that in London often as much as a 
third of the meats offered for sale are rejected as unfit for 
consumption by Jews. Is not this a cogent argument in favour 
of a more rigid enforcement of our laws providing for the 
food inspection of the poor? 

A second cause conducive to longevity is the sobriety of 
the Jew, and his disinclination toward excessive indulgence 
in alcoholic liquors. Drunkenness among Jews is very rare. 
Temperate habits, a frugal diet, with a very moderate use 
of spirits, render the proportion of Bright s disease and affec- 

* Jacobs, 1886 a, p. 7, discusses these fully. 


tions of the liver comparatively very small. In the infectious 
diseases, on the other hand, diphtheria and the fevers, no such 
immunity is betrayed. The long-current opinion that the 
Jews were immune from cholera and the other pestilences of 
the middle ages is not to-day accepted.* A third notable 
reason for this low death rate is also, as Hoffmann observes, 
the nature of the employment customary among Jews, which 
renders the proportion of deaths from accidental causes ex 
ceedingly small. In conclusion, it may be said that these peo 
ple are prone to nervous and mental disorders; insanity, in 
fact, is fearfully prevalent among them. Lombroso asserts 
it to be four times as frequent among Italian Jews as among 
Christians. This may possibly be a result of close inbreeding 
in a country like Italy, where the Jewish communities are small. 
It does not, however, seem to lead to suicide, for this is extraor 
dinarily rare among Jews, either from cowardice as Lom 
broso suggests, or more probably for the reason cited by 
Morselli namely, the greater force of religion and other 
steadying moral factors. 

Tradition has long divided the Jewish people into two dis 
tinct branches: the Sephardim or southern, and the Ashkena- 
zim, or north European. Mediaeval legend among the Jews 
themselves traced the descent of the first from the tribe of 
Judah; the second, from that of Benjamin. The Sephardim 
are mainly the remnants of the former Spanish and Portuguese 
Jews. They constitute in their own eyes an aristocracy of 
the nation. They are found primarily to-day in Africa; in 
the Balkan states, where they are known as Spagnuoli; less 
purely in France and Italy. A small colony in London and 
Amsterdam still holds itself aloof from all communion and 
intercourse with its brethren. The Ashkenazim branch is nu 
merically far more important, for the German, Russian, and 
Polish Jews comprise over nine tenths of the people, as we 
have already seen. 

Early observers all describe these two branches of the 

* Buschan, 1895, p. 46. 


Jews as very different in appearance. Vogt in his Lectures 
on Man assumes the Polish type to be descended from Hindu 
sources, while the Spanish alone he held to be truly Semitic. 
Weisbach * gives us the best description of the Sephardim 
Jew as to-day found at Constantinople. He is slender in habit, 
he says ; almost without exception the head is " exquisitely " 
elongated and narrow, the face a long oval; the nose hooked 
and prominent, but thin and finely chiselled; hair and eyes 
generally dark, sometimes, however, tending to a reddish 
blond. This rufous tendency in the Oriental Jew is empha 
sized by many observers. Dr. Beddoe f found red hair as fre 
quent in the Orient as in Saxon England, although later re 
sults do not fully bear it out.} This description of a reddish 
Oriental type corresponds certainly to the early representa 
tions of the Saviour; it is the type, in features perhaps rather 
than hair, painted by Rembrandt the Sephardim in Amster 
dam being familiar to him, and appealing to the artist in pref 
erence to the Ashkenazim type. This latter is said to be char 
acterized by heavier features in every way. The mouth, it is 
alleged, is more apt to be large, the nose thickish at the end, 
less often clearly Jewish perhaps. The lips are full and sen 
sual, offering an especiarcontrast to the thin lips of the Sephar 
dim. The complexion is swarthy oftentimes, the hair and eyes 
very constantly dark, without the rufous tendency which ap 
pears in the other branch. The face is at the same time fuller, 
the breadth corresponding to a relatively short and round head. 
Does this contrast of the traditional Sephardim and Ash 
kenazim facial types correspond to the anthropometric criteria 
by means of which we have analyzed the various populations 
of Europe? And, first of all, is there the difference of head 
form between the two which our descriptions imply? And, 
if so, which represents the primitive Semitic type of Palestine? 
The question is a crucial one. It involves the whole matter 
of the original physical derivation of the people, and the rival 
claims to purity of descent of the two branches of the nation. 

* 1877, p. 214. t i 8f)I b . PP- 22 7 and 331. 

^ Gliick, 1896 a. Jacobs, 1890, p. 82, did not find a trace of it in the 
Sephardim congregation in London. See Andree, 1878, in this connection. 

ARAB. Index 76. 

MUSSULMAN, Tunis. Index 75. 

JEW, Tunis. Index 75. 


In preceding chapters we have learned that western Asia is 
quite uniformly characterized by an exceeding broad-headed- 
ness. This is especially marked in Asia Minor, where some of 
the broadest and shortest crania in the world are to be found. 
The Armenians, for example, are so peculiar in this respect that 
their heads appear almost deformed, so flattened are they at 
the back. A head of this description appears in the case of the 
Jew from Ferghanah in our second portrait series (page 394). 
On the other hand, the peoples of African or negroid deriva 
tion form a radical contrast, their heads being quite long and 
narrow, with indices ranging from 75 to 78. This is the type 
of the living Arab to-day. Its peculiarity appears in the promi 
nence of the occipital region in our Arab and other African 
portraits. Scientific research upon these Arabs has invariably 
yielded harmonious results. From the Semites in the Canary 
Islands,* all across northern Africa, f to central Arabia itself, \ 
the cephalic indices of the nomadic Arabs agree closely. They 
denote a head form closely allied to that of the long-headed 
Iberian race, typified in the modern Spaniards, south Ital 
ians, and Greeks. It was the head form of the ancient Phoe 
nicians and Egyptians also, as has recently been proved beyond 
all question.* Thus does the European Mediterranean type 
shade off in head form, as in complexion also, into the primi 
tive anthropological type of the negro. The situation being 
thus clearly defined, it should be relatively easy to trace our 
modern Jews; if, indeed, as has so long been assumed, they 
have remained a pure and undefiled race during the course 
of their incessant migrations. We should be able to trace their 
origin if they possess any distinctive head form, either to the 
one continent or the other, with comparative certainty. 

During the last quarter of a century about twenty-five hun 
dred Jews have submitted their heads to scientific measure- 

* Verneau, iSSi a, p. 500. 

f Primer Bey, 1865 b ; Gillebert d Hercourt, 1868, p. 9 ; and especially 
Collignon, 1887 a, pp. 326-339 ; Bertholon, 1892, p. 41 ; also Collignon, 
1896 b. 

\ Elisyeef, 1883. 

* Bertholon, 1892, p. 43 ; Sergi, 1897 a, chapter i, and even more 
recently Fouquet, 1896 and 1897, on the basis of De Morgan s discoveries. 



ment. These have naturally for the most part been taken 
from the Great Russian and Polish branch; a few observers, 
as Lombroso, Ikof, Jacobs, Gliick, and Livi, have taken ob 
servations upon a more or less limited number from southern 
Europe. For purposes of comparison we have reproduced 
herewith a summary of all the results obtained thus far. In- 




Cephalic Index. 

Lombroso, 1894 a. Turin, Italy. 
Weisbach, 77. . . . Balkan states. 
Majer and Koper- 

nicki, 77 Galicia. 

Blechmann, 82.. . W. Russia. 
Stieda, 83 a (Dy- 

bowski) Minsk, Russia. 

Ikof, 84 Russia. 

Ikof, 84 i Constantinople. 

Ikof, 84 Crimea. 

Majer and Koper- 

nicki, 85 Galicia. 

Jacobs, 90 England. 

Jacobs, 90 England (Sephardim), 


wicz, 92 Lithuania. 

Deniker, 98 a . . . ; Caucasia. 
\Veissenberg, 95 . | South Russia. 
Weissenberg, 95 . : South Russia. 

Gliick, "96 ! Bosnia (Spanuoli). 

Livi, 96 a Italy. 

Elkind, 97 Poland. 

Deniker, 98 Daghestan. 

Ammon, 99 Baden. 






17 crania. 
30 crania (Karaim). 




50 women. 











80. i 


( Men, 81.9 
( Women, 82.9 



spection of the table shows a surprising uniformity. Ikof s 
limited series of Spagnuoli from Constantinople, and that of 
the Jews from Caucasia and Daghestan, are the only ones 
whose cephalic index lies outside the limits of 80 to 83. In 
other words, the Jews wherever found in Europe betray a 
remarkable similarity in head form, the crania being consid 
erably broader than among the peoples of Teutonic descent. 
As we know, the extremes of head form in Europe measured 
by the cephalic index extend from 74 to 89; we thus observe 
that the Jews take a place rather high in the European series. 
They are about like the northern French and southern Ger 
mans. More important still, they seem to be generally very 


closely akin in head form to the people among whom they 
reside. Thus in Russia and Poland scarcely an appreciable 
difference exists in this respect between Jews and Christians. 
The same is true in Turin, while in the direction of Asia our 
Jews are as bullet-headed as even the most typical Armenians 
and Caucasians round about them. 

This surprising similarity of head form between the Jews 
of north and south Europe bears hard upon the long-accepted 
theory that the Sephardim is dolichocephalic, thereby remain 
ing true to the original Semitic type borne to-day by the 
Arabs. It has quite universally been accepted that the two 
branches of the Jews differed most materially in head form. 
From the facial dissimilarity of the two a correlative difference 
in head form was a gratuitous inference. Dr. Beddoe ob 
serves that in Turkey the Spagnuoli " seemed " to him to be 
more dolichocephalic. A few years later Barnard Davis (>67) 
" suspected " a diversity, but had only three Italian skulls to 
judge from, so that his testimony counts for little. Then Weis- 
bach ( 77) referred to the " exquisitely " long heads of the Spag 
nuoli, but his data show a different result. Ikof with his small 
series of crania from Constantinople, is the only observer who 
got a result which accords in any degree with what we know 
of the head form of the modern Semitic peoples. On the 
other hand, Gliick in Bosnia and Livi in Italy find no other 
sign of long-headedness than a slight drop in index of a point 
or two. Jacobs in England, whose methods, as Topinard 
has observed, are radically defective, gives no averages for his 
Sephardim, but they appear to include about eleven per cent 
less pure long-headed types than even their Ashkenazim 
brethren in London. This, it will be noted, is the exact oppo 
site of what might normally be expected. This tedious sum 
mary forces us inevitably to the conclusion that, while a long 
headed type of Sephardim Jews may exist, the law is very 
far from being satisfactorily established. 

Thus, from a study of our primary characteristic the pro 
portions of the head we find our modern Jews endowed with 
a relatively much broader head than that of the average Eng 
lishman, for example: while the best living representative of 


the Semitic peoples, the Arab, has a head which is even longer 
and narrower than our own type. It is in short one of the 
longest known, being in every way distinctly African. The 
only modern Jews who even approach this type would seem 
to be those who actually reside to-day in Africa, as in the 
case of our two portrait types from that region. Two possible 
explanations are open to us : either the great body of the Jews 
in Europe to-day certainly all the Ashkenazim, who form 
upward of ninety per cent of the nation, and quite probably 
the Sephardim also, except possibly those in Africa have 
departed widely from the parental type in Palestine; or else the 
original Semitic type was broad-headed, and by inference 
distinctly Asiatic in derivation; in which case it is the modern 
Arab which has deviated from its original pattern. Ikof is the 
only authority who boldly faces this dilemma, and chooses 
the Asiatic hypothesis with his eyes open.* Which, we leave 
it to the reader to decide, would be the more likely to vary 
the wandering Jew, ever driven from place to place by con 
stant persecution, and constantly exposed to the vicissitudes 
of life in densely populated cities, the natural habitat of the 
people, as we have said; or the equally nomadic Arab, who, 
however, seems to be invariable in type whether in Algeria, 
Morocco, or Arabia Felix itself? There can be but one an 
swer, it seems to us. The original Semitic stock must have 
been in origin strongly dolichocephalic that is to say, African 
as the Arabs are to-day; from which it follows naturally, that 
about nine tenths of the living Jews are as widely different in 
head form from the parent stock to-day as they well could 
be. The boasted purity of descent of the Jews is, then, a 
myth. Renan ( 83) is right, after all, in his assertion that the 
ethnographic significance of the word Jew, for the Russian 
and Danubian branch at least, long ago ceased to exist. Or, 
as Lombroso observes, the modern Jews are physically more 
Aryan than Semitic, after all. They have unconsciously taken 
on to a large extent the physical traits of the people among 

* Compare Brinton, 1890 a, p. 132, and 1890 b, for interesting linguistic 
data on the Semites. 


whom their lot has been thrown. In Algiers they have re 
mained long-headed like their neighbours; for, even if they 
intermarried, no tendency to deviation in head form would 
be provoked. If on the other hand they settled in Piedmont, 
Austria, or Russia, with their moderately round-headed popu 
lations, they became in time assimilated to the type of these 
neighbours as well. 

Nothing is simpler than to substantiate the argument of 
a constant intercourse and intermixture of Jews with the Chris 
tians about them all through history, from the original exodus 
of the forty thousand (?) from Jerusalem after the destruction 
of the second temple. At this time the Jewish nation as a 
political entity ceased to exist. An important consideration 
to be borne in mind in this connection, as Neubauer (>86) sug 
gests very aptly, is that opposition to mixed marriages was 
primarily a prejudice of religion and not of race. It was dis 
sipated on the conversion of the Gentile to Judaism. In fact, 
in the early days of Judaism marriage with a non-believer was 
not invalid at all, as it afterward became, according to the 
Jewish code. Thus Josephus, speaking of the Jews at Antioch, 
mentions that they made many converts receiving them into 
their community. An extraordinary number of conversions to 
Judaism undoubtedly took place during the second century 
after Christ. As to the extent of intermarriage which ensued 
during the middle ages discussion is still rife. Renan, Neu 
bauer, and others interpret the various rigid prohibitions 
against intermarriage of Jews with Christians as, for ex 
ample, at the church councils of 538, 589 at Toledo, and of 
743 at Rome to mean the prevalent danger of such prac 
tices becoming general ; while Jacobs, Andree, and others are 
inclined to place a lower estimate upon their importance. 
Two wholesale conversions are known to have taken place : the 
classical one of the Khozars in South Russia during the reign 
of Charlemagne, and that of the Falashas, who were neigh 
bouring Arab tribes in Yemen. Jacobs has ably shown, how 
ever, the relatively slight importance of these. It is probable 
that the greatest amount of infusion of Christian blood must 
have taken place, in any event, not so much through such 


striking conversions as insidiously through clandestine or ir 
regular marriages. 

We find, for example, much prohibitive legislation against 
the employment of Christian servants by Jews. This was di 
rected against the danger of conversion to Judaism by the 
master with consequent intermarriage. It is not likely that 
these prohibitions were of much avail, for despite stringent 
laws in Hungary, for example, we find the archbishop of that 
country reporting in 1229 that many Jews were illegally liv 
ing with Christian wives, and that conversions by thousands 
were taking place. In any case, no protection for slaves was 
ever afforded. The confinement of the Jews strictly to the 
Ghettos during the later centuries would naturally discourage 
such intermixture of blood, as also the increasing popular 
hatred between Jew and Christian ; but, on the other hand, the 
greater degree of tolerance enjoyed by the Israelites even dur 
ing this present century would be competent speedily to pro 
duce great results. Jacobs has strenuously, although perhaps 
somewhat inconclusively, argued in favour of a substantial 
purity of the Jews by means of a number of other data such 
as, for example, by a study of the relative frequency of Jewish 
names, by the supposed relative infecundity of mixed mar 
riages, and the like. Recent statistics also point in this direc 
tion. Thus in Germany about ninety-five per cent of the Jews 
marry those of their own belief.* Experience and the facts 
of everyday observation, on the other hand, tend to confirm 
us in the belief that racially no purity of descent is to be sup 
posed for an instant. Consider the evidence of names, for ex 
ample. We may admit a considerable purity, perhaps, to the 
Cohns and Cohens, legitimate descendants of the Cohanim, 
the sons of Aaron, early priests of the temple. Their marital 
relations were safeguarded against infusion of foreign blood 
in every possible way. The name is, perhaps, in its various 
forms, the most frequent among Jews to-day. But how shall 
we account for the equally pure Jewish names in origin, such 
as Davis, Harris, Phillips, and Hart? How did they ever 

* Pubs. American Statistical Association, iii, i892- 93, p. 244, from 
Zeits. Kon. preuss. stat. Bureaus, 1891. 


stray so far from their original ethnic and religious significance, 
unless the marital bars were lowered to a large degree? Some 
of them certainly claim a foremost position numerically in our 
Christian English directories. We have an interesting case 
of indefinite Jewish delimitation in our portraits. The middle 
one at page 387 is certainly a Jewish type. Dr. Bertholon 
writes me that all who saw it immediately asserted it to be a 
Jew. Yet the man was a professed Mussulman in fact, even 
though his face was against him. 

There is, as we have sought to prove, no single uniform 
type of head peculiar to the Jewish people which may be re 
garded as in any sense racially hereditary. Is this true also 
of the face? Our first statement encounters no popular dis 
approval; for most of us never, perhaps, happened to think of 
this head form as characteristic. But the face, the features! 
Is this another case of science running counter to popular 

The first characteristic to impress itself upon the layman 
is that the Jew is generally a brunet. All scientific observers 
corroborate this impression, agreeing that the dark hair and 
eyes of this people really constitute a distinct racial trait. 
About two thirds of the Ashkenazim branch in Galicia and 
Russia where the general population is relatively quite blond, 
is of the brunet type, this being especially marked in the darker 
colour of the hair. For example, Majer and Kopernicki,* in 
Galicia, found dark hair to be about twice as frequent as the 
light. Elkind,f in Warsaw, finds about three fifths of the men 
dark. In Bosnia, Gliick s observations on the Sephardim type 
gave him only two light-haired men out of fifty-five. In Ger 
many and Austria \ this brunet tendency is likewise strongly 
emphasized. Pure brunet types are twice as frequent in the 
latter country, and three times as frequent in Germany, among 
Jewish as among Christian school children. Ammon ron) finds 
black hair most frequent among Jews in Baden, all recruits 
showing a strong tendency in the same direction. Facts also 

* 1877, pp. 88-90 ; 1885, p. 34. 

f Centralblatt fiir Anthropologie, vol. iii, p. 66. 

\ Virchow, 1886 b, p. 364; Schimmer, 1884, p. xxiii. 


seem to bear out the theory, to which \ve have already alluded, 
that the Oriental Jews betray a slightly greater blond tendency, 
thus inclining to rufous. In Germany also the blond tendency 
becomes more frequent in Alsace-Lorraine. This comparative 
blondness of the Alsatian Jew is not new, for in 1861 the origin 
of these same blonds was matter of controversy. Broca be 
lieved them to be of northern derivation, while Pruner Bey 
traced them from a blondish Eastern source. The English 
Jews seem also to be slightly lighter than their continental 
brethren, even despite their presumably greater proportion of 
Sephardim, who are supposed to be peculiarly dark. As to the 
relative red blondness of the Oriental Jew, the early observa 
tions of Dr. Beddoe, and those of Langerhans * as to the blue 
eyes and red-brown hair of the Druses of Lebanon, while sub 
stantiated by some observers, is controverted by Jacobs and 
others. Perhaps, as Dr. Beddoe suggests, a cross with the 
blond Amorites may account for the phenomenon. At all 
events, the living Semites are dark enough in type: and the 
evidence of the sacred books bears out the same theory of an 
original dark type. Thus " black " and " hair " are commonly 
synonymous in the early Semitic languages. In any case, 
whatever the colour in the past, we have seen that science cor 
roborates the popular impression that the modern Jews are 
distinctively of a brunet type. This constitutes one of the prin 
cipal traits by which they may be almost invariably identified. 
It is not without interest to notice that this brunetness is more 
accentuated oftentimes among the women, who are, the world 
over, persistent conservators of the primitive physical charac 
teristics of a people, f 

Secondly, as to the nose. Popularly the humped or hook 
nose constitutes the most distinctive feature of the Jewish face. 
Observations among the Jews in their most populous centres 
do not, however, bear out the theory. Thus Majer and Koper- 
nicki (>8B) , in their extended series, found only nine per cent 
of the hooked type no greater frequency than among the 

* 1873, p. 270. 

f Weissenberg, 1895, p. 567, finds brunets twice as frequent among the 
south Russian Jewesses as among the men. 

FERGHANAH, Turkestan. 

171. HERAULT, France. 

ELIZABETHGRAD, Russia. 172. 


173. SPAGNUOLI, Bosnia. 

ELIZABETHGRAD, Russia. 174. 



Poles; a fact which Weissenberg confirms as to the relative 
scarcity of the convex nose in profile among his South Rus 
sian Jews. He agrees, however, that the nose is often large, 
thick, and prominent. Weisbach ( 77) measured the facial fea 
tures of nineteen Jews, and found the largest noses in a long 
series of people from all over the earth; exceeded in length, 
in fact, by the Patagonians alone. The hooked nose is, indeed, 
sometimes frequent outside the Jewish people. Olechnowicz 
found, for example, over a third of the noses of the gentry in 
southeast Poland to be of this hooked variety. Running the 
eye over our carefully chosen series of portraits, selected for 
us as typical from four quarters of Europe Algeria, Russia, 
Bosnia, and the confines of Asia representing the African, 
Balkan Spagnuoli, and Russian Ashkenazim varieties, visual 
impressions will also confirm our deduction. The Jewish nose 
is not so often truly convex in profile. Nevertheless, it must 
be confessed that it gives a hooked impression. This seems 
to be due to a peculiar " tucking up of the wings," as Dr. 
Beddoe expresses it. Herein lies the real distinctive quality 
about it, rather than in any convexity of outline. In fact, it 
often renders a nose concave in profile, immediately recognis 
able as Jewish. Jacobs * has ingeniously described this " nos- 
trility,"as he calls it, by the 
accompanying diagrams : 
"\Yrite, he says, a figure 6 
with a long tail (Fig. i); 
now remove the turn of 
the twist, and much of 

. Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

the Jewisnness disappears; 

and it vanishes entirely when we draw the lower continuation 
horizontally, as in Fig. 3. Behold the transformation! The 
Jew has turned Roman beyond a doubt. \Yhat have we proved, 
then? That there is in reality such a phenomenon as a Jewish 
nose, even though it be differently constituted from our first 
assumption. A moment s inspection of our series of portraits 
will convince the sceptic that this trait, next to the prevalent 

* 1886 a, p. xxxii. 



dark hair and eyes and the swarthy skin, is the most distinctive 
among the chosen people. 

Another characteristic of the Jewish physiognomy is the 
eyes. The eyebrows, seemingly thick because of their dark 
ness, appear to be nearer together than usual, arching smoothly 
into the lines of the nose. The lids are rather full, the eyes 
large, dark, and brilliant. A general impression of heaviness 
is apt to be given. In favourable cases this imparts a dreamy, 
melancholy, or thoughtful expression to the countenance; in 
others it degenerates into a blinking, drowsy type; or, again, 
with eyes half closed, it may suggest suppressed cunning. The 
particular adjective to be applied to this expression varies 
greatly according to the personal equation of the observer. 
Quite persistent also is a fulness of the lips, often amounting 
in the lower one almost to a pout. The chin in many cases 
is certainly rather pointed and receding, Jacobs to the contrary 
notwithstanding. A feature of my own observation, perhaps 
not fully justified, is a peculiar separation of the teeth, which 
seem to stand well apart from one another. But a truce to 
speculations. Entering into greater detail, the flat contradic 
tions of different observers show that they are vainly general 
izing from an all too najrrow base of observations. Even the 
fancied differences in feature between the two great branches 
of the Hebrew people seem to us to be of doubtful existence. 
Our portraits do not bear it out. It seems rather that the 
two descriptions of the Ashkenazim and Sephardim types 
which we have quoted, denote rather the distinction between 
the faces of those of the upper and the lower classes. Enough 
for us to know that there is a something Jewish in these 
faces which we instantly detect. We recognise it in Rem 
brandt s Hermitage, or in Munkaczy s Christ before Pilate. 
Not invariable are these traits. Not even to the Jew himself 
are they always a sure criterion. Weissenberg gives an inter 
esting example of this.* To a friend, a Jew in Elizabethgrad, 
he submitted two hundred and fifty photographs of Russian 
Jews and Christians in undistinctive costume. Seventy per 

* 1895, p. 563. 


cent of the Jews were rightly chosen, while but ten per cent 
of the Russians were wrongly classed as Jews. Of what con 
cern is it whether this characterization be entirely featural, or 
in part a matter of expression? The first would be a matter 
of direct heredity, the second partakes more of the nature 
of a characteristic acquired from the social environment. Some 
one Jacobs, I think speaks of it as the " expression of 
the Ghetto." It certainly appears in the remarkable series 
of composite Jewish portraits published in his monograph. 
It would not be surprising to find this true. Continued hard 
ship, persecution, a desperate struggle against an inexorable 
human environment as well as natural one, could not but write 
its lines upon the face. The impression of a dreary past is 
deep sunk in the bodily proportions, as we have seen. Why 
not in the face as well? 

We are now prepared, in conclusion, to deal with what is 
perhaps the most interesting phase of our discussion. It is 
certainly, if true, of profound sociological importance. We 
have in these pages spoken at length of the head form pri 
mary index of race; we have shown that there are Jews and 
Jews in this respect. Yet which was the real Jew it was not 
for us to decide; for the ninety-and-nine were broad-headed, 
while the Semite in the East is still, as ever, a long-headed 
member of the Africanoid races. This discouraged our hopes 
of proving the existence of a Jewish cephalic type as the result 
of purity of descent. It may indeed be affirmed with certainty 
that the Jews are by hereditary descent from early times no 
purer than most of their European neighbours. Then we dis 
covered evidence that in this head form the Jews were often 
closely akin to the people among whom they lived. In long 
headed Africa they were dolichocephalic. In brachycephalic 
Piedmont, though supposedly of Sephardim descent, they were 
quite like the Italians of Turin. And all over Slavic Europe 
no distinction in head form between Jew and Christian existed. 
In the Caucasus also they approximate closely the cranial char 
acteristics of their neighbours. Hypnotic suggestion was not 
needed to find a connection here, especially since all history 
bore us out in the assumption of a large degree of intermixture 


of Gentile blood. Close upon this disproval of purity of type 
by descent, came evidence of a distinct uniformity of facial 
type. Even so impartial an observer as Weissenberg cer 
tainly not prejudiced in favour of cephalic invariability con 
fesses this featural unity. 

How shall we solve this enigma of ethnic purity and yet 
impurity of type? In this very apparent contradiction lies the 
grain of comfort for our sociological hypothesis. The Jew 
is radically mixed in the line of racial descent; he is, on the 
other hand, the legitimate heir to all Judaism as a matter of 
choice. It is for us a case of purely artificial selection, operative 
as ever only in those physical traits which appeal to the senses. 
It is precisely analogous to our example of the Basques in 
France and Spain. What we have said of them will apply 
with equal force here. Both Jews and Basques possessed in 
a high degree a "consciousness of kind"; they were keenly 
sensible of their social individuality. The Basques primarily 
owed theirs to geographical isolation and a peculiar language; 
that of the Jews was derived from the circumstances of social 
isolation, dependent upon the dictates of religion. Another 
case in point occurs to us in this connection. Chantre ( " J5) , in 
a recent notable work, has shown the remarkable uniformity 
in physical type among the Armenians. They are so peculiar 
in head form that we in America recognise them at once by 
their foreshortened and sugar-loaf skulls, almost devoid of 
occiput. They too, like the Jews, have long been socially 
isolated in their religion. Thus in all these cases, Basques, 
Armenians, and Jews, we have a potent selective force at work. 
So far as in their power lay, the individuality of all these people 
was encouraged and perpetuated as one of their dearest pos 
sessions. It affected every detail of their lives. Why should 
it not also react upon their ideal of physical beauty? and why 
not influence their sexual preferences, as well as determine 
their choice in marriage? Its results became thus accentuated 
through heredity. But all this would be accomplished, be it 
especially noted, only in so far as the physical traits were con 
sciously or unconsciously impressed upon them by the facts 
of observation. There arises at once the difference between 


artificial selection in the matter of the head form and that con 
cerning the facial features. One is an unsuspected possession 
of individuality, the other is matter of common notice and, it 
may be, of report. What Jew or Christian, till he became an 
thropologist, ever stopped to consider the shape of his head, 
any more than the addition of a number of cubits to his stat 
ure? Who has not, on the other hand, early acquired a dis 
tinct concept of a Jewish face and of a distinctly Jewish type? 
Could such a patent fact escape observation for a moment? 

We are confirmed in our belief in the potency of an artificial 
selection such as we have described, to perpetuate or to evolve 
a Jewish facial type by reason of another observation. The 
women among the Jews, as Jacobs * notes in confirmation of 
our own belief, betray far more constantly than the men the 
outward characteristics peculiar to the people. We have al 
ready cited Weissenberg s testimony that brunetness is twice 
as prevalent among Russian Jewesses as among the men. Of 
course this may be a matter of anabolism, pure and simple. 
This would be perhaps a competent explanation of the phe 
nomenon for physiologists like Geddes and Thompson. For 
us this other cause may be more directly responsible. Arti 
ficial selection in a social group wherein the active choice of 
mates falls to the share of the male, might possibly tend in 
the direction of an accentuated type in that more passive sex 
on which the selective influence directly plays. At all events, 
observations from widely scattered sources verify the law that 
the facial individuality of a people is more often than other 
wise expressed most clearly in the women. "Ghus, for example, 
Lagneau asserts this to be true of the Basques in France. The 
women betray the Mongol type more constantly than the men 
among the Asiatic tribes of eastern Russia, as well as among 
the Turkomans.! Mainof, best of authority, confirms the same 
tendency among those of Finnic descent.^ The Scttc Commit 

* 1886 a, p. xxviii. 

f Sommier, 1887, reprint p. 116. Yambery, 1885, p. 404. Cf. Zograf, 
1896, p. 50, on crania from the sixteenth century in Moscow ; and Ranke, 
1897 a, p. 56, on the persistent brachycephaly of women in Munich. 

\ Congres int. des sciences geographiques, Paris, 1875, p. 268. 


in northern Italy still preserve their German language as evi 
dence of a historic Teutonic descent. They seem to have lost 
their identity entirely in respect of the head form,* but Ranke f 
states that among the women the German facial type con 
stantly reappears. A better example than this is offered among 
the Hamitic aborigines of Africa north of the Sahara. These 
peoples, from Abyssinia to Morocco, really belong to the white 
races of Europe. Among nearly all their tribes the negroid 
traits are far more accentuated among the women, according 
to Sergi.;}: In the British Isles, as we have seen, a brunet 
substratum of population is overlaid by a Teutonic blond one. 
Darkness of hair, and particularly of eyes, is in many places 
characteristic of the women.* This is so noticeable in Alsace, 
where a similar supersession of a dark by a light population 
has occurred, that Pfitzner || is led to affirm that abundant pig 
mentation constitutes a real sexual peculiarity among women. 
Another interesting case of this kind is offered by the Bul 
garian women, who seem to represent a more primitive cranial 
type than the men. A It is not necessary to cite more specific 
testimony. The law occupies a respected place among an 
thropologists. That the Jews confirm it, would seem to 
strengthen our hypothesis at every point. 

Our final conclusion, then, is this: It is paradoxical, yet 
true, we affirm. The Jews are not a race, but only a people, 
after all. In their faces we read its confirmation : while in re 
spect of their other traits we are convinced that such indi 
viduality as they possess by no means inconsiderable is of 
their own making from one generation to the next, rather 
than a product of an unprecedented purity of physical descent. 

* Livi, 1896 a, pp. 137 and 146. 

f Beitrage zur Anth. Bayerns, vol. ii, 1879, P- 75- 

t Africa, Antropologia della Stirpe Camitica, Torino, 1897, p. 263. 

* Haddon and Browne, 1893, pp. 782-786 ; Gray, 1895 b, p. 21 ; Ellis, 
Man and Woman, p. 226. 

|| 1897, pp. 484-498. A Vide page 427 infra. 

Havelock Ellis, Man and Woman, second edition, p. 367, gives other 



THE significant geography of the Balkan Peninsula may 
best be illustrated by comparing it with the other two south 
European ones, Italy and Spain.* The first point to notice is 
that it is divided from the mainland by rivers and not by a well- 
defined mountain chain. Iberia begins definitely at the Pyre 
nees, and Italy proper is cut off from Europe by the Apen- 
nine chain. On the other hand, it is along the line of the 
Danube and of its western affluent, the Save (see map at 
page 403) that we find the geographical limits of the Balkan 
Peninsula. This boundary, as will be observed, excludes the 
kingdom of Roumania, seeming to distinguish it from its trans- 
Danubian neighbour Bulgaria. This is highly proper, viewed 
both in respect of the character of its population as we shall 
see, and also from the standpoint of geography and topog 
raphy as well. For Roumania is for the most part an ex 
tensive and rich alluvial plain; while the Balkan Peninsula, 
as soon as you leave the Bulgarian lowlands, is characteris 
tically rugged, if not really mountainous. 

From Adrianople west to the Adriatic, and from the Bal 
kan Mountains and the Save River south to the plains of 
Epirus and Thessaly, extends an elevated region upward of two 
thousand feet above the sea, breaking up irregularly into peaks 

* A very concise description of the geography of this region in its 
relation to man will be found in A. S. White (The Balkan States, Scottish 
Geographical Magazine, ii, 1886, pp. 657-676, with maps). Freeman s 
brilliant Essays, particularly those of 1877 and 1879, should be read in 
this connection. 




often rising above five thousand feet.* There is no system in 
these mountains. Here again is a contrast with other areas 
of characterization in Europe. In the main, in Albania, Mon 
tenegro, and Herzegovina the course of these chains is parallel 
to the Adriatic ; in its eastern half they are rather more at 
right angles to the Black Sea; but definiteness of topography 
is lacking throughout. The land is rudely broken up into 
a multitude of little " gateless amphitheatres," too isolated for 
union, yet not inaccessible enough for individuality. As White 
observes, " if the peninsula, instead of being the highly moun 
tainous and diversified district it is, had been a plateau, a very 
different distribution of races would have obtained at the pres 
ent day." Nor can one doubt for a moment that this dis 
ordered topography has been an important element in the 
racial history of the region. 

In its other geographical characteristics this peninsula is 
seemingly more favoured than either Spain or Italy. More 
varied than the former, especially in its union of the two flora 
of north and south; far richer in contour, in the possession of 
protected waters and good harbours than Italy; the Balkan 
Peninsula nevertheless has been, humanly speaking, unfortu 
nate from the start. The reason is patent. It lies in its central 
or rather intermediate location. It is betwixt and between; 
neither one thing nor the other. Surely a part of Europe, its 
rivers all run to the east and south. " By physical relief it 
turns its back on Europe," continually inviting settlement from 
the direction of Asia. It is no anomaly that Asiatic religions, 
Asiatic institutions, and Asiatic races should have possessed 
and held it ; nor that Europe, Christianity, and the Aryan- 
speaking races should have resisted this invasion of territory, 
which they regarded in a sense as their own. In this pull and 
haul between the social forces of the two continents we finally 
discover the dominant influence, perhaps, which throughout 
history has condemned this region to political disorder and 
ethnic heterogeneity. 

As little racial as of topographical system can we discover 

* A good geological and topographical map will be found in Mitt. 
Geog. Gesell., Wien, xxiii, 1889. 


in the Balkan states. Only in one respect may we venture upon 
a little generalization. This is suggested by the preliminary 
bird s-eye view which we must take as to the languages spoken 
in the peninsula. This was a favourite theme with the late 
historian, Freeman.* It is developed in detail in his luminous 
writings upon the Eastern question. The Slavs have in this 
part of Europe played a role somewhat analogous to, although 
less successful than, that of the Teutons in the west. They 
have pressed in upon the territory of the classic civilizations 
of Greece and Rome, ingrafting a new and physically vigorous 
population upon the old and partially enervated one. From 
some centre of dispersion up north toward Russia, Slavic- 
speaking peoples have expanded until they have rendered all 
eastern Europe Slavic from the Arctic Ocean to the Adriatic 
and yEgean Seas. Only at one place is the continuity of Slav 
dom broken; but this interruption is sufficient to set off the 
Slavs into two distinct groups at the present day. The north 
ern one, of which we have already treated, consists of the 
Russians, Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks. The southern group, 
now before us, comprises the main body of the Balkan peo 
ples from the Serbo-Croatians to the Bulgars, as shown upon 
the accompanying map. Between these two groups of Slavs 
and herein is the significant point is a broad belt of non- 
Slavic population, composed of the Magyars, linguistically 
now as always, Finns; and the Roumanians, who have become 
Latin in speech within historic times. This intrusive, non- 
Slavic belt lies along or near the Danube, that great highway 
over which eastern peoples have penetrated Europe for cen 
turies. The presence of this water way is distinctly the cause 
of the linguistic phenomenon. Rome went east, and the Finns, 
like the Huns, went west along it, with the result as described. 
Linguistically speaking, therefore, the boundary of the south 
ern Slavs and that of the Balkan Peninsula, beginning, as 
we have said, at the Danube, are one and the same. 

We may best begin our ethnic description by the appor 
tionment of the entire Balkan Peninsula into three linguistic 

* 1877 d, pp. 382 et seq. especially. 


divisions, viz., the Greeks, the Slavs, and the Tatar-Turks. 
Of these the second is numerically the most important, com 
prising the Serbo-Croatians, and, in a measure, the Bulgarians. 
As for the Albanians, the place of their language is still un 
determined. Their distribution is manifested upon our map, 
to which we have already directed attention. These Slavs, 
with the Albanians, form not far from half the entire popula 
tion.* Next in order come the Greeks, who constitute prob 
ably about a third of the total. As our map shows, this 
Greek contingent is closely confined to the seacoast, with the 
exception of Thessaly, which, as an old Hellenic territory, we 
are not surprised to find Greek in speech to-day. The Slavs 
contrasted with the Greeks, are primarily an inland popula 
tion ; the only place in all Europe, in fact, where they touch 
the sea is along the Adriatic coast. Even here the proportion 
of Greek intermixture is more considerable than our map 
would seem to imply. The interest of this fact is intensified 
because of the well-deserved reputation as admirable sailors 
which the modern Dalmatians possess. They are the only 
natural navigators of all the vast Slavic world. Everywhere 
else these peoples are noted rather for their aptitude for agri 
culture and allied pursuits. There is still another important 
point to be noted concerning the Greeks. They form not only 
the fringe of coast population in Asiatic as well as in Euro 
pean Turkey ; they, with the Jews, monopolize the towns, de 
voting themselves to commerce as well as navigation. Jews 
and Greeks are the natural traders of the Orient. Thus is 
the linguistic segregation between Greek and Slav perpetuated, 
if not intensified, by seemingly natural aptitudes. 

Perhaps the most surprising feature of our map of Turkey 
is the relative insignificance of the third element, the Turks. 
There were ten years ago, according to Couvreur ( 90) , not 
above seven hundred and fifty thousand of them in all Euro 
pean Turkey. Bradaska ( G9) estimated that they were out 
numbered by the Slavs seven to one. Our map shows that 
they form the dominant element in the population only in 

* For statistics consult Sax, 1878 ; Lejean, 1882 ; White, 1886 ; Couv 
reur, 1890; or Behm and Wagner, serially in Petermann. 


eastern Bulgaria, where they indeed constitute a solid and 
coherent body. Everywhere else they are disseminated as a 
small minority among the Greeks or Slavs. Even about Con 
stantinople itself the Greeks far outnumber them. In this 
connection we must bear in mind that we are now judging 
of these peoples in no sense by their physical characteristics, 
but merely by the speech upon their lips. Nowhere else in 
Europe, as we shall soon see, is this criterion so fallacious 
as in the Balkan states. Religion enters also as a confusing 
element. Sax s original map, from which ours is derived, 
distinguishes these religious affiliations, as well as language. 
It was indeed the first to employ this additional test.* The 
maze of tangled languages and religions upon his map proved 
too complicated for our imitative abilities. We were obliged 
to limit our cartography to languages alone. The reader who 
would gain a true conception of the ethnic heterogeneity of 
Turkey should consult his original map. 

The word Turk was for several centuries taken in a re 
ligious sense as synonymous with Mohammedan, f as in the 
Collect for Good Friday in its reference to " Jews, Turks, 
infidels, and heretics." Thus in Bosnia, where in the fifteenth 
century many Slavs were converted to Mohammedanism, 
their descendants are still known as Turks, especially where 
they use the Turkish speech in their religion. Obviously in 
this case no Turkish blood need flow in their veins. It is the 
religion of Islam, acting in this way, which has served to keep 
the Turks as distinct from the Slavs and Greeks as they are 
to-day. Freeman \ has drawn an instructive comparison in 
this connection between the fate of the Bulgars, who, as we 
shall see, are merely Slavonized Finns, and the Turks, who 
have steadily resisted all attempts at assimilation. The first 
came, he says, as " mere heathen savages (who) could be 
Christianized, Europeanized, assimilated " because no antip- 

* Oppel, 1890, gives a good cartographical history of the Balkan 
states ; more complete, however, in Sax, 1878, or Lejean, 1861 and 1882. 

f Consult Taylor, 1864 (ed. 1893), p. 48 ; Von Luschan, 1889, p. 198 ; 
Sax, 1863, p. 97. 

t i377 d. 


athy save that of race and speech had to be overcome. The 
Turks, in contradistinction, came " burdened with the half- 
truth of Islam, with the half-civilization of the East. By 
the aid of these, especially the former, the Turk has been en 
abled to maintain an independent existence as " an unnatural 
excrescence " on this corner of Europe. 

Even using this word as in a measure synonymous with 
religious affiliations, the Turks form but a small and decreas 
ing minority in the Balkan Peninsula. Couvreur ( !)0) again 
affirms that not over one third of the population profess the 
religion of Islam, all the remainder being Greek Catholics. 
This being so, the query at once suggests itself as to the reason 
for the continued political domination of this Turkish minority, 
Asiatic alike in habits, in speech, and in religion. The answer 
is certain. It depends upon that subtle principle, the balance 
of power in Europe. Is it not clear that to allow the Turk 
to go under, as numerically he ought to do, would mean to 
add strength to the great Slavic majority, affiliated as it is 
with Russia both by speech and religion ? This, with the 
consent of the Anglo-Saxon and other Teutonic rivals of the 
Slav, could never be allowed. Thus does it come about that 
the poor Greek is ground between the upper Turkish and 
the nether Slavic millstone. " Unnatural disunion is the fate 
of the whole land, and the cuckoo-cry about the independ 
ence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire means, among the 
other evil things that it means, the continuance of this dis 
union." Let us turn from this distressing political spectacle 
to observe what light, if any, anthropology may shed upon 
the problem. 

From the relative isolation of the Greeks at the extreme 
southern point of the peninsula, and especially in the Pelopon 
nesus, it would seem that they might be relatively free from 
those ethnic disturbances which have worked such havoc else 
where in the Orient. Nevertheless, Grecian history recounts 
a continuous succession of inroads from the landward north, 
as well as from the sea. It would transcend the limits of 
our study to attempt any detailed analysis of the early eth- 


nology of Greece.* Examination of the relationship of the 
IVlasgi to their contemporaries we leave to the philologists. 
Positively no anthropological data on the matter exist. We 
are sufficiently grateful for the hundred or more well-authenti 
cated ancient Greek crania of any sort which remain to us. 
It is useless to attempt any inquiry as to their more definite 
ethnic origin within the tribal divisions of the country. f The 
testimony of these ancient Greek crania is perfectly harmoni 
ous. All authorities agree that the ancient Hellenes were 
decidedly long-headed, betraying in this respect their affinity 
to the Mediterranean race, which we have already traced 
throughout southern Europe and Africa. J Whether from 
Attica, from Schliemann s successive cities excavated upon the 
site of Troy, or from the coast of Asia Minor; at all times from 
400 B. c. to the third century of our era, it would seem proved 
that the Greeks were of this dolichocephalic type. Stephanos * 
gives the average cranial index of them all as about 75.7, be 
tokening a people like the present Calabrians in head form ; 
and, for that matter, about as long-headed as the Anglo-Sax 
ons in England and America. More than this concerning 
the physical traits of these ancient Greeks we can not estab 
lish with any certainty. Xo perfect skeletons from which we 
can ascertain their statures remain to us. Nor can we be 
more positive as to their brunetness. Their admiration for 
blondness in heroes and deities is well known. As Dr. Bed- 
doe r > says, almost all of Homer s leaders were blond or 
chestnut-haired, as well as large and tall. Lapouge jl seems 
inclined to regard this as proof that the Greeks themselves 

* Consult Fligier, iSSr a. Stephanos, 1884, p. 430, gives a complete 
bibliography of the older works. Cf. also Reinach, 1893 b, in his review 
of Hesselmeyer ; and on the supposed Hittites, the works of Wright, De 
Cara, Conder, etc. 

f Stephanos, 1884, p. 432, asserts the Pelasgi to have been brachy- 
cephalic, while Zampa, 1886 b, p. 639, as positively affirms the contrary 

\ Xicolucci, 1865 and 1867 ; Zaborowski, iSSi ; Virchow, 1882 and 
1893; Lapouge, 1896 a, pp. 412-419; and Sergi, 1895 a, p. 75 ; are best on 
ancient Greek crania. 

* 1884, p. 432. || 1896 a, p. 414. 



were of this type, a broad interpretation which is scarcely justi 
fiable.* As we shall see, every characteristic in their mod 
ern descendants and every analogy with the neighbouring 
populations, leads us to the conclusion that the classical Hel 
lenes were distinctly of the Mediterranean racial type, little 
different from the Phoenicians, the Romans, or the Iberians. 
Since the Christian era, as we have said, a successive down 
pour of foreigners from the north into Greece has ensued, f 
In the sixth century came the Avars and the Slavs, bringing 
death and disaster. A more potent and lasting influence upon 
the country was probably produced by the slower and more 
peaceful infiltration of the Slavs into Thessaly and Epirus from 
the end of the seventh century onward. A result of this is that 
Slavic place-names to-day occur all over the Peloponnesus in 
the open country where settlements could readily be made. 
The most important immigration of all is probably that of the 
Albanians, who, from the thirteenth century until the ad 
vent of the Turks, incessantly overran the land. As a result 
the Albanian language is spoken to-day over a considerable 
part of the Peloponnesus, especially in its northeastern corner, 
where it attaches to the mainland. Only one little district 
has preserved, it may be added, anything like the original 
classical Greek speech. The Tzakons, in a little isolated and 
very rugged district on the eastern coast, include a number 
of classical idioms in their language. \ Everywhere else, either 
in the names of rivers, mountains, and towns, or in borrowed 
words, evidence of the powerful influence of foreign infiltra 
tion occurs. This has induced Fallmerayer, Philippson, and 
others to assert that these foreigners have in fact submerged the 
original Greeks entirely.* Explicit rebuttal of this is offered 
by Hopf, Hertzberg, and Tozer, who admit the Slavic element, 
but still declare the Greeks to be Greek. This is a matter 

* Stephanos, 1884, p. 439. 

f Philippson, Zur Ethnographic des Peloponnes ; Petermann, xxxvi, 
1890, pp. i-ir, 33-41, with map, gives a good outline of these. Consult 
also Stephanos, 1884, pp. 422 <-/ .IVY/. 

\ Op. cit., p. 37. 

* Cf. Couvreur, 1890, p. 514; and Freeman, 18771!, p. 401. 


concerning which neither philologist nor geographer has a 
right to speak ; the anthropological testimony is the only com 
petent one. To this \ve turn. 

The modern Greeks are a very mixed people. There can 
be no doubt of this fact from a review of their history. In 
despite of this, they still remain distinctly true to their original 
Mediterranean ancestry. This has been most convincingly 
proved in respect of their head form.* The cephalic index of 
modern living Greeks ranges with great constancy about 
81. This, it should be observed, betokens an appreciably 
broader head than in the case of the ancient Hellenes. 
Stephanos,! who has measured several hundred recruits, finds 
dolichocephaly to be most prevalent. in Thessaly and Attica; 
while broad-headedness, so characteristic, as w r e shall see, of 
the Albanians and southern Slavs, is more accentuated toward 
the north, especially in Epirus. About Corinth also, where 
Albanian intermixture is common, the cephalic index rises 
above 83. The Peloponnesus has probably best preserved 
its early dolichocephaly, as we should expect. In Thes 
saly also are the modern Greeks as purely Mediterranean as 
in classic times. It is most suggestive of the heterogeneity 
of these modern Greeks, despite their clearly Mediterranean 
affinities, to examine the seriation of these measurements. 
Turn, for example, to that remarkable curve of von Luschan s 
for the Greeks of southwestern Asia Minor, reproduced on 
page 1 1 6. Its double apex, at two widely separated points, 
one denoting a pure Mediterranean dolichocephaly, the other 
a broader-headedness as great as that of the pure Albanians, 
we have already described. ;[ There can be no doubt that in 
Asia Minor, at least, the word Greek is devoid of any racial 

* Weisbach, 1882 ; Nicolucci, 1867; Apostolides in Bull. Soc. d Anth., 
1883, p. 614; Stephanos, 1884; Neophytos, 1891 ; Lapouge, 1896 a, p. 419. 
Von Luschan, 1889, p. 209, illustrates the similarity between the Greek 
and the Bedouin skull. 

t 1884, p. 434. 

t Von Luschan, 1889, p. 206; 1891, p. 39. Stephanos s series, 1884, 
p. 435, has three distinct culminations, at 78, 82, and 84 respectively. 
Neophytos series from northwest Asia Minor is equally irregular ; 
op. <//., p. 29. 



significance. It merely denotes a man who speaks Greek, or 
else one who is a Greek Catholic, converted from Moham 
medanism. Greek, like Turk, has become entirely a matter 
of language and religion, as these people have intermingled. 
Thus in the southwest of Asia Minor, where Semitic influ 
ences have been strong, von Luschan * makes the pregnant 
observation that the Greeks often look like Jews, although they 
speak Turkish. The climax of physical heterogeneity is be 
trayed in Neophytos series of Greeks from northwestern Asia 
Minor, where he found not a single individual out of a hun 
dred and fifty with a cephalic index below 80. Here is proof 
positive that no Greeks of pure Mediterranean descent remain 
to represent the primitive Hellenic type in that region. 

Whatever may be thought of the ancients, the modern 
Greeks are strongly brunet in all respects. Ornstein ( 79) 
found less than ten per cent of light hair, although blue and 
gray eyes were characteristic of rather more than a quarter 
of his seventeen hundred and sixty-seven recruits. This 
accords with expectation ; for among the Albanians, next 
neighbours and most intrusive aliens in Greece, light eyes are 
quite common. Weisbach s (<82) data confirm this, ninety-six 
per cent of his Greeks being pure brunets.f In stature these 
people are intermediate between the Turks and the Albanians 
and Dalmatians, which latter are among the tallest of Euro 
peans.^ In facial features Nicolucci s ( G7) early opinion seems 
to be confirmed, that the Greek face is distinctively orthogna- 
thous that is to say, with a vertical profile, the lower parts of 
the face being neither projecting nor prominent. The face 
is generally of a smooth oval, rather narrow and high, espe 
cially as compared with the round-faced Slavs. The nose is 
thin and high, perhaps more often finely chiselled and straight 
in profile. The facial features seem to be well demonstrated 

* 1889, p. 209. 

f Neophytos finds 82.5 per cent of dark-brown or black hair, only 5 
per cent blond or red ; while 17 per cent of the eyes were dark among 200 

\ Weisbach, 1882, p. 73, gives averages as follows : Greeks, 1.65 metres ; 
Turks, 1.62 metres ; Albanians, 1.66 metres ; and Dalmatians, 1.69 metres. 




ROUMANIANS, County Hunyad, Hungary. 


BULGARIANS, County Temes, Hungary. 


in the classic statuary, although it is curious, as Stephanos 
observes, that these ideal heads are distinctly brachycephalic. 
Either the ancient sculptors knew little of anthropology, or 
else we have again a confirmation of our assertion that, how 
ever conscious of their peculiar facial traits a people may be, 
the head form is a characteristic whose significance is rarely 

Linguistically the pure Slavs in the Balkan states comprise 
only the Serbo-Croatians, who divide the ancient territory of 
lllvria with the Arnauts or Albanians. The western half of 
the peninsula, rugged and remote, has been relatively little 
exposed to the direct ravages of either Finnic or Turkish in 
vaders. Especially is this true of Albania. Nearly all authori 
ties since Hahn are agreed in identifying these latter people 
who call themselves Skipetars, by the way as the modern 
representatives of the ancient Illyrians.* They are said to 
have been partly Slavonized by the Serbo-Croatians, who have 
been generally regarded as descendants of the settlers brought 
by the Emperor Heraclius from beyond the Save. This he is 
said to have done in order to repopulate the lands devastated 
by the Avars and other Slavs who, Procopius informs us, first 
appeared in this region in the sixth century of our era. The 
settlers imported by Heraclius came, we are told, from two 
distant places : Old Servia, or Sorabia, placed by Freeman in 
modern Saxony ; and Chrobatia, which, he says, lies in south 
western Poland. f According to this vie\v, the Serbo-Croa 
tians are an offshoot from the northern Slavs, being divided 
from them to-day by the intrusive Hungarians ; while the Al 
banians alone are truly indigenous to the country. 

The recent political fate of these Illyrian peoples has been 
quite various, the Albanians alone preserving their independ 
ence continually under the merely nominal rule of the Turks. 
Religion, also, has affected the Slavs in various ways. Servia 

* GHick, 1897 a ; Lejean, 1882, p. 628 ; Bradaska, 1869. On early eth 
nology, consult Fligier, 1876 ; Tomaschek, 1880 and 1893. 

f Freeman, 1877 d, pp. 385, 404 et seq.; Lejean, 1882, pp. 216-222, and 
especially Howorth, iS7S- Si. 


owes much of its present peace and prosperity to the practical 
elimination of the Moslems. Bosnia is still largely Moham 
medan, with about a third of its people, according to White (VS6) , 
still professing that religion.* The significance of this is in 
creased, it being mainly the upper classes in Bosnia, according 
to Freeman, who embraced the religion of Islam in order to 
preserve their power and estates. The conversion was not 
national, as in the case of the Albanians. Thus social and re 
ligious segregation work together to produce discord. With 
multitudes of Jews monopolizing the commerce of the coun 
try and the people thus divided socially, as well as in re 
ligion, the political unrest in Bosnia certainly seems to re 
quire the strong arm of Austrian suzerainty to preserve order. 
In this connection it is curious to note Sax s ( 63) observation 
as to the physical peculiarities of these Mohammedans in Bos 
nia, who, as we have said, call themselves Turks. According 
to him a process of selection has evolved a purer " Caucasian " 
type, greater regularity of features, along with other traits. 
Certainly the force of religion as a factor in artificial selection 
can not be denied, as in this case. 

Whatever the theory of the historians as to origins may be, 
to the anthropologist tlTe modern Illyrians Serbo-Croatians 
and Albanians alike are physically a unit. More than this, 
they constitute together a distinct type so well individualized 
that Deniker (>98) , in his recent masterly analysis, honours them 
as a separate Adriatic, or, as he calls it, " Dinaric " race. Our 
knowledge of the region, considering its remoteness, is quite 
complete, owing especially to the zeal of Dr. Weisbach.f 
Two physical characteristics render this ethnic group distinc 
tive : first, that it comprises some of the tallest men in the 
world, comparing favourably with the Scotch in this respect ; 

* Von Schubert, 1893, p. 133, places the estimate much higher than this. 

f To him I am grateful for the most courteous assistance both in the 
collection of material and the loan of photographs. On the Albanians, 
consult Zampa, Anthropologie Illyrienne, 1886 b, and Gltick, 1896 b and 
18973 ; on the Serbo-Croatians, including Dalmatia, Weisbach, 1877, 1^4, 
and 1895 a, the latter with especial reference to Bosnia ; on Herzegovina, 
Weisbach, 1889 b. For Servia by itself no separate data exist ; and the 
same may be said of Montenegro. 


and, secondly, that these Illyrians tend to be among the broad 
est-headed people known. In general, it would appear that 
the people of Herzegovina and northern Albania possess these 
traits to the most notable degree; while both in the direction 
of the Save and Danube and of the plains of Thessaly and 
Epirus they have been attenuated by intermixture. Presum 
ably also toward the east among the Bulgarians in Macedonia 
and Thrace these characteristics diminish in intensity. Thus, 
for example, while the Herzegovinians, measured by Weis- 
bach, yielded an average stature of 5 9" (1.75 metres), the 
Bosnians were appreciably shorter (1.72 metres),* and the 
Dalmatians and Albanians were even more so (1.68 metres). 
Nevertheless, as compared with the Greeks, Bulgars, Turks, 
or Roumanians, even the shortest of these Slavs stood high. 
The superiority in stature of the whole body of the southern 
Slavs over the Russians, Poles, and others of the northern 
group is very noticeable. We have already spoken of it in 
another connection. f It would apparently preclude the possi 
bility of this as an imported Slavic trait ; rather does it seem to 
be indigenous to the country. From this specific centre out 
ward, especially around the head of the Adriatic Sea, over into 
Yenetia, spreads the influence of this giantism. It confirms, 
as we have said, the classical theory of an Illyrian cross among 
the Venetians, extending well up into the Tyrol. 

As for the second trait, the exaggerated broad-headed- 
ness, it too, like the tallness of stature, seems to centre about 
Herzegovina and Montenegro. Thus at Scutari, in the corner 
of Albania near this last-named country, Zampa \ found a 
cranial index of 89 ; in Herzegovina the index upon the 
living head ranges above 87. It would be difficult to ex 
ceed this brachycephaly anywhere in the world. The square 
foreheads and broad faces of the people correspond in every 
way to the shape of the heads. Its significance appears imme 
diately on comparison with the long oval faces of the Greeks. 
This broad-headedness diminishes slightly toward the north, 
probably by reason of the Serbo-Croatian intermixture ; * nev- 

* Capus, 1895, confirms it. f Pages 98 and 350 supra. 

\ 1886 b, p. 637. * Cf. map at p. 340 supra. 


ertheless, it still maintains the very respectable average of 85.7 
among the 3,803 Bosnians measured by Weisbach.* It falls 
more rapidly in the direction of Greece, showing how strong 
is the influence of that Mediterranean element among the 
Illyro-Greeks about Epirus. It seems to be a persistent trait. 
The Albanian colonists, studied by Livi and Zampa f in Cala 
bria, still, after four centuries of Italian residence and inter 
mixture, cling to many of their primitive characteristics, nota 
bly their brachycephaly and their relative blondness. This 
persistency again leads us to regard these traits as properly 
indigenous to the land and the people, not lately acquired by 
infusion of foreign blood from abroad. 

One more trait of the Balkan Slavs remains for us to note. 
The people are mainly pure brunets, as we might expect; but 
they seem to be less dark than either the Greeks or the Turks. 
Especially among the Albanians are light traits by no means 
infrequent. In this respect the contrast with the Greeks is 
apparent, as well as with the Dalmatians along the coast and 
the Italians -in the same latitude across the Adriatic.J Weis 
bach * found nearly ten per cent of blond and red hair among 
his Bosnian soldiers, while about one third of the eyes were 
either gray or blue. The Herzegovinians are even lighter than 
the Bosnians, almost as much so as the Albanians. From 
consideration of these facts it would appear as if the harsh 
climate of these upland districts had been indeed influential 
in setting off the inland peoples from the Italian-speaking Dal 
matians along the coast. For among the latter bnmetness 
certainly increases from north to south, || conformably to the 
general rule for the rest of Europe ; while in the interior, blond- 
ness apparently moves in the contrary direction, culminating 
in the mountain fastnesses of northern Albania and the vicin 
ity. On the whole, we find also in this trait of bnmetness com- 

* 1895 a, p. 228. Gliick s average for thirty Albanians is only 82.6. 
Weisbach, 1897 a, p. 84, finds the Bosnian brachycephaly to-day quite 
paralleled in crania from the early historic period. 

f 1886 b and 1886 a, p. 174 respectively. 

i Zampa, 1886 b, p. 636; Livi, 1896 a, p. 175- 

* I895 a, p. 210. 1 Weisbach, 1884. 



petent evidence to connect these Illyrians with the great body 
of the Alpine race farther to the west. We have also another 
illustration of its determined predilection for a mountainous 
habitat, in which it stoutly resists all immigrant tendencies 
toward variation from its primitive type. 

The Osmanli Turks, who politically dominate the Balkan 
Peninsula notwithstanding their numerical insignificance, are 
mainly distinctive among their neighbours by reason of their 
speech and religion.* Turkish is the westernmost representa 
tive of a great group of languages, best known, perhaps, as the 
Ural-Altaic family. This comprises all those of northern Asia 
even to the Pacific Ocean, together with that of the Finns in 
Russian Europe. Its members are by no means unified phys 
ically. All varieties of type are included within its boundaries, 
from the tall and blond one which we have preferred to call 
Finnic,f prevalent about the Baltic; to the squat and swarthy 
Kalmucks and Kirghez, to whom we have in a physical 
sense applied the term Mongols. The Turkish branch of 
this great family of languages is to-day represented in eastern 
Europe by two peoples, whom we may roughly distinguish as 
Turks and Tatars. \ The term Tatar, it should be observed, 
is entirely of European invention, like the similar word Hun 
garian. The only name recognised by the Osmanli them 
selves is that of Turk. This, by the way, seems quite aptly to 
be derived from a native root meaning " brigand," according 
to Chantre (>85 >. They apply the word Tatar solely to the north 
Asiatic barbarians. By general usage this latter term, Tatar, 
has to-day become more specifically applied by ethnologists to 
the scattered peoples of Asiatic descent and Turkish speech 
who are mainly to be found in Russia and Asia Minor.* 

* Lejean, 1882, p. 453, gives good descriptive material. Vambery, 
1885, divides the Ural-Altaic family into five groups viz., (i) Samoyed, 
<2) Tungus, (3) Finnic, (4) Mongolic, (5) Turkish or Tatar. 

f Page 360 supra. 

\ On terminology consult Vambery, 1885, p. 60 ; Chantre, 1895, p. 199 ; 
Keane, 1897, p. 302. 

* Vambery s (1885) further classification of the Tatar-Turkish sub 
division is as follows: (a) Siberian; Yakuts, etc.; (b) Central Asiatic; 


Of the two principal physical types to-day comprised with 
in the limits of the Ural-Altaic languages, the Turks and 
Tatars seem to be affiliated with the Mongol rather than the 
Finn, not physically alone, but in respect of language as well.* 
As a matter of fact they are much nearer other Europeans in 
original type than most people imagine. Their nearest rela 
tives in Asia seem to be the Turkoman peoples, who, to the 
number of a million or more, inhabit the deserts and steppes 
of western Asia. It was from somewhere about this region, 
in fact, as we know, that the hordes of the Huns under Attila. 
and those of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, set forth to the 
devastation of Europe. The physical type of these inhabitants 
of Turkestan has been fairly well established by anthropolo 
gists. It persists throughout a great multitude of tribes of 
various names, among whom the Kara-Kirghez, Uzbegs, and 
Kiptchaks are prominent, f At page 44 we have represented 
these Turkoman types. The most noticeable feature of the 
portraits is the absence of purely Mongol facial characteris 
tics. Except in the Kara-Kirghez the features are distinctly 
European. There is no squint-eye; the nose is well formed;: 
the cheek bones are not prominent, although the faces are 
broad; and, most impoftant of all, the beard is abundantly 
developed, both in the Uzbeg and the Kiptchak. The Kara- 
Kirghez, on the other hand, betrays unmistakably his Mon 
gol derivation in every one of these important respects. One 
common trait is possessed by all three : to wit, extreme brachy- 
cephaly, with an index ranging from 85 to 89. \ The flatness 
of the occiput is very noticeable in our portraits in every case, 
giving what Hamy calls a " cuboid aspect " to the skull.* 

Turkomans ; (c) Volga : Chuvashes and Bashkirs ; (d) Pontus : as in 
Crimean and Noga! Tatars ; (e) Western : Osmanli and Azerbeidjian. 

* Vambery, 1885, p. 63. 

f Complete data on these people will be found in Ujfalvy, iSyS- So, 
iii, pp. 7-50; Les Aryens, etc., 18963, pp. 51, 385-434: Bogdanof, 1888: 
Yavorski, 1897. 

\ Yavorski, 1897, p. 193, gets an index of 75.6 for his 191 observations ; 
every other authority confirms the opposite tendency. 

* Considerations generates sur les races jaunes. L Anth., vi, 1895. 
P- 247- 


These portraits, if typical, should be enough to convince us that 
the Turkoman of the steppes about the Aral and Caspian Seas 
is far from being a pure Mongol, even in his native land, al 
though a strain of Mongol blood is apparent in many of their 
tribes. He is not to be classed with the peoples depicted in our 
series at page 358, in other words. 

The fact is that the Asiatic Turkomans, whence our Os- 
manli Turks are derived, are a highly composite type. A 
very important element in their composition is that of certain 
brachycephalic Himalayan peoples, the Galchas and Tadjiks, 
who are for all practical purposes identical with the Alpine 
type of western Europe. In their accentuated brachycephaly, 
their European facial features, their abundance of wavy hair 
and beard, and finally in their intermediate colour of hair and 
eyes,* these latter peoples in the Pamir resemble their Euro 
pean prototypes. So close is this affiliation that we shall 
see in our next chapter that the occurrence of this type in 
western Asia is the keystone in any argument for the Asiatic 
origin of the Alpine race of Europe. The significance of it for 
us in this connection, is that it explains the European affinity 
of many of the Turkoman tribes, who are more strongly Al 
pine than Mongol in their resemblances. It is highly impor 
tant, we affirm, to fix this in mind; for the prevalent opinion 
seems to be that the Turks in Europe have departed widely 
from their ancestral Asiatic type, because of their present lack 
of Mongol characteristics, such as almond eyes, lank black 
hair, flat noses, and high cheek bones. The chances of phys 
ical resemblance really depend upon a decision as to the par 
ticular origin of the progenitors of these present Turks. If 
they are indeed directly derived from the pure Kirghez, as 
Yambery t asserts, we might expect all manner of Mongol 

* Ujfalvy (Les Aryens, etc., 1896 a, p. 428) found chestnut hair most fre 
quent, with 27 per cent of blondness, among some of the Tadjiks. The 
eyes are often greenish gray or blue (Ujfalvy, iSyS- So, iii, pp. 23-33, 

f 1885, p. 382. It is curious to notice that the nearest Asiatic language 
to the Turkish occurs among the Yakuts, in northern Siberia. They are 
unmistakable Mongols. 


traits. If, on the other hand, they originally were Turkomans, 
it would seem that we have no right to expect any such phe 
nomena even in Asia itself; to say nothing of the Osmanli 
Turks who have for generations, through Circassian wives 
and slaves, bred into the type of the other peoples of eastern 

Either the Osmanli Turks were never Mongols, or they have 
lost every trace of it by intermixture. Our portraits on the 
opposite page give little indication of Asiatic derivation ex 
cept in their accentuated short- and broad-headedness. This 
is considerably more noticeable in Asia Minor than in Euro 
pean Turkey.* West of the Bosporus the Turks differ but 
little from the surrounding Slavs in head form. They have 
been bred down from their former extreme brachycephaly, 
which still rules to a greater degree in Asia Minor. In our 
portraits from this region the absence of occipital prominence 
is very marked. In addition to this, the Turks are every 
where, as Chantre ( 95) observes, " incontestably brunet." t 
The hair is generally stiff and straight. The beard is full. This 
latter trait is fatal to any assumption of a persistence of Kirghez 
blood, or of any Mongolic extraction, in fact. The nose is 
broad, but straight in profile. The eyes are perfectly normal, 
the oblique Mongol type no more frequent than elsewhere.]; 
In stature the Turks are rather tall, especially those observed 
by Chantre : * but in this respect social conditions are undoubt 
edly of great effect. On the whole, then, we may consider 
that the Turks have done fairly w r ell in the preservation of their 
primitive characteristics. Chantre especially finds them quite 

* On the anthropology of European Turks, Weisbach, 1873, is the only 
authority. He found an average cephalic index of 82.8 in 148 cases. 
Elisyeef, iSgo- gi, and Chantre, 1895, pp. 206-211, have worked in Ana 
tolia, with indices of 86 for 143 individuals, and 84.5 for 120 men, respect 
ively. Both Von Luschan and Chantre give a superb collection of portrait 
types in addition. 

t Elisyeef s tables show a blondness by no means inconsiderable. 
\ Von Luschan, 1889, p. 212, finds less than one per cent in Lycia. Cf. 
Chantre, 1895, p. 207. 

* 1895, p. 208. Over half of his 120 were above 1.70 metres ; the aver 
age 1.71 metres. Elisyeef obtained a lower average of 1.67 metres. 

NOMAD IVERVEK, Lycia, Asia Minor. 

TURK, Lycia, Asia Minor. 


TURK, Lycia, Asia Minor 


homogeneous, considering all the circumstances. They vary 
according to the people among whom their lot is cast. Among 
the Armenians they become broader-headed, while among the 
Iranian peoples Kurds or Persians the opposite influence of 
intermixture at once is apparent. 

A sub-type of the Turk occurs among the nomads, who, 
under the name of Juriiks and Iverveks, still roam through 
central Anatolia. The name of these tribes signifies " wan 
derers." Little is known of them, save that they are of Turk 
ish speech and have entered Asia Minor in late historic times.* 
One of these is depicted in our upper portraits herewith. A 
difficulty in the analysis of these peoples lies in the preva 
lence of customs of cranial deformation among them. All 
that is certain is that they are very brunet, but in no wise Mon 
goloid. Their resemblance to the Gypsies, of supposedly 
Hindoo extraction, is rather close, as comparison of our por 
traits in this series will make apparent. Another Gypsy of 
distinctly Indian type from Asia Minor is represented in the 
series at page 422. f 

Before taking leave of the Turkish peoples a word should 
be added concerning the Tatars. Xo other people of Europe 
have scattered so far and wide, preserving an identity of lan 
guage meanwhile. They fall, in the main, into three groups: 
One about Kazan in eastern Russia, known as the Volga Ta 
tars (see map, page 362) ; a second in and about the Crimean 
peninsula ; and, thirdly, that centreing about the Caucasus 
mountains. These last, in northern Caucasia, are known as 
Xogays or Koumyks; those in the south, constituting the 
Azerbeidjian or Iranian Tatars. The first are aggregated in a 
solid body ; the second seem to be dispersed among a host of 
Armenians, Kurds, Persians, and other peoples. Their dis 
tribution is in part shown upon our map of Caucasia at page 
439. This latter group of Tatars in Russian Armenia number 
to-day upward of a million souls. They are popularly sup- 

* Viimbery, 1885, p. 603: Von Luschan, 1889, pp. 213-217; Chantre, 
1895, p. 200. 

f Gliick (1897 a), Von Luschan (1889), Schwicker (1883), describe these 
Gypsies and their languages and customs. 


posed to represent an element which was left behind during- 
the historic invasions of the Seljukian Turks into Europe.* 
The contrast between the two groups north and south of the 
Caucasus is very marked. The Nogays and Koumyks, from 
their proximity to the Kirghez and the Kalmucks, are strongly 
Mongolian in aspect and in head forni.f The Azerbeidjians, 
on the other hand, have become much Iranized by contact with 
the dolichocephalic peoples of this region. This endows them 
with the long oval face and smooth features of the Persians 
and Kurds. \ Despite these differences, both Nogays and Azer 
beidjians adhere closely to their primitive Tatar speech. Long- 
continued separation has been powerless to affect them in this 

The Crimean or Pontus Tatars offer us the same example 
of a community of language, coupled with a great diversity 
of physical type. Radde distinguishes three groups among 
them : one in the steppes just north of the peninsula, which 
still preserves many of its Asiatic characteristics ; a second, 
the so-called " hill Tatars," which is said to be more mixed ; 
and a third known as the coast Tatars. This last group has 
become entirely Europeanized. Our portraits of these coast 
Tatars at pages 364 and"422 make this apparent at once. \Ye 
must suppose strong admixture among them of Greek, Gypsy, 
and possibly also of Gothic blood.* Similar contrasts occur 
among the Volga Tatars, dependent upon the particular Finnic, 
Mongol, or Russian element, with whom they happen to have 
been thrown in contact. As for the Tatars in the Dobrudsha 
district at the mouth of the Danube, shown upon our map of 
the Balkan states, we are unable to give information. Finally, 
as a last and complete example of Europeanized Tatars, still 

* Vambery, 1885, pp. 569-579; Chantre, iSSs- Sy, iv, pp. 248 et scq., and 
1895, pp. 177-189 ; as well as Wyrubof, 1890. 

f Cf. Sviderski, 1898, on the Koumyks. 

\ The cephalic index of the Nogays is about 86 ; of the Azerbeidjians,. 
78 ; of the Crimeans, 86 ; of the Don, 79. Cf. Yavorski s table, p. 193. 

* Consult A. N. Kharuzin, 1890 a, b, and d; and also Merezkovski, 

I Benzengre, 1880, on the Tatars of Kassimof, is the only standard on 
these peoples. 


Turkish in speech, we may instance the small colony in Lithu 
ania. Even less of the Mongol remains in this case than 
among the shore Tatars of the Crimea.* The utter futility of 
attempting to correlate physical characteristics and language 
are again illustrated for us among these people to an extreme 

The Bulgarians are of interest because of their traditional 
Finnic origin and subsequent Europeanization. This has en 
sued through conversion to Christianity and the adoption of a 
Slavic speech. Our earliest mention of these Bulgars would 
seem to locate them between the Ural Mountains and the 
Volga, f The district was, in fact, known as Old Bulgaria till 
the Russians took it in the fifteenth century. As to which of 
the many existing tribes of the Volga Finns (see map, page 
362) represent the ancestors of these Bulgarians, no one is, 
I think, competent to speak. Pruner Bey seems to think they 
were the Ostiaks and Voguls, since emigrated across the Urals 
into Asia; J the still older view of Edwards and Klaproth made 
them Huns; * Obedenare, according to Virchow ( 86) , said they 
were Samoyeds or Tungus; while Howorth and Beddoe claim 
the honour for the Chuvashes. These citations are enough to 
prove that nobody knows very much about it in detail. All 
that can be affirmed is that a tribe of Finnic-speaking people 
crossed the Danube toward the end of the seventh century 
and possessed themselves of territory near its mouth. Remain 
ing heathen for two hundred odd years, they finally adopted 
Christianity and under their great leaders, Simeon and Samuel, 
became during the tenth century a power in the land. Their 
rulers, styling themselves " Emperors of the Slavs," fought the 
Germans; conquered the Magyars as well as their neighbours 
in Thrace, receiving tribute from Byzantium; became allies 
of Charlemagne; and then subsided under the rule of the 

* Superb portraits of these are given in the Dnevnik, Society of 
Friends of Natural Science, etc., Moscow, 1890, at column 63. 

f Read Pruner-Bey, iS6ob; Obedenare; Howorth, 1881 ; and espe 
cially Kanitz, 1875, for historic details. 

| See note, p. 361 supra. * Cf. Vambery, 1882, pp. 50-60. 

\ iSSi, p. 223, and 1893, p. 49, respectively. 


Turks. Since the practical demise of this latter power they 
have again taken courage, and in their semi-political inde 
pendence in .Bulgaria and northern Roumelia rejoice in an 
ever-rich and growing literature and sense of nationality. 

Bulgarian is spoken, as our map at page 403 indicates, 
far outside the present political limits of the principality in 
deed, over about two thirds of European Turkey. Gopcevic * 
has made a brilliant attempt to prove that Macedonia, shown 
by our map and commonly believed to be at bottom Bulgarian, 
is in reality populated mainly by Serbs. The weakness of 
this contention was speedily laid bare by his critics. Political 
motives, especially the ardent desire of the Servians to make 
good a title to Macedonia before the disruption of the Ottoman 
Empire, can scarcely be denied. Servia needs an outlet on the 
Mediterranean too obviously to cloak such an attempted ethnic 
usurpation. As a fact, Macedonia, even before the late Greco- 
Turkish war, was in a sad state of anarchy. The purest Bul 
garian is certainly spoken in the Rhodope Mountains ; there 
are many Roumanians of Latin speech ; the Greeks predomi 
nate all along the sea and throughout the three-toed peninsula 
of Salonica; while the Turks are sparsely disseminated every 
where. And as for religion well, besides the severally or 
thodox Greeks and Turks, there are in addition the Moslem 
and apostate Bulgarians, known as Pomaks, who have nothing 
in common with their Greek Catholic fellow-Bulgars, together 
with the scattering Pividus Roumanians and Albanians in ad 
dition. This interesting field of ethnographic investigation 
is, even at this late day, practically unworked. As Dr. Bed- 
doe ( " " writes and his remarks are equally applicable to 
Americans " here are fine opportunities for any enterprising 
Englishman with money and a taste for travel and with suffi 
cient brains to be able to pick up a language. But, alas! such 
men usually seem to care for nothing but killing something. " 

The Roumanians, or Moldo-Wallachians, are not confined 
within the limits of that country alone! Their language and 

* 1889 a, with map, in Petermann, 1889 b. Cf. criticism of his con 
tention by Oppel, 1890; Couvreur, 1890, p. 523; and Ghennadicff, 1890, 
p. 663. 

COAST TATARS, Goursuf, Crimea. 

GYPSY, Lycia, Asia Minor. 


GYPSY, Lycia, Asia Minor. 




nationality cover not only the plains along the Danube and 
the Black Sea; but their speech extends beyond the Carpathian 
Mountains over the entire southeastern quarter of Hungary 
and up into the Bukovina. (See map at page 429.) Transyl 
vania is merely a German and Magyar islet in the vast extent of 
the Roumanian nation. There are more than a third as many 
Roumanians, according to the census of 1890, as there are 
Magyars in the Hungarian kingdom.* Politically it thus hap 
pens that these people are pretty well split up in their alle 
giance. Xor can this be other than permanent. For the Car 
pathian Mountains, in their great circle about the Hungarian 
basin, cut directly through the middle of the nation as meas 
ured by language. This curious circumstance can be account 
ed for only on the supposition that the disorder in the direction 
of the Balkan Peninsula incident upon the Turkish invasion, 
forced the growing nation to expand toward the northwest, 
even over the natural barrier interposed between Roumania 
proper and Hungary. Geographical law, more powerful than 
human will, ordains that this latter natural area of character 
ization the great plain basin of Hungary should be the seat 
of a single political unit. There is no resource but that the 
Roumanians should in Hungary accept the division from their 
fellows over the mountains as final for all political purposes, f 
The native name of these people is Ylach, Wallach, or 
Wallachian. Various origins for the name have been as 
signed. Lejean ( S2) asserts that it designates a nomad shep 
herd, in distinction from a tiller of the soil or a dweller in 
towns. Picot ( 73) voices the native view as to ethnic origins 
by deriving the word Wallach from the same root as Wales, 
Walloon, etc., applied by the Slavs and Germans to the Celtic 
peoples as " foreigners." J This theory is now generally dis 
countenanced. Obedenare s (>7G) attempt to prove such a 

* Jekelfalussy, 1897, with his map of nationalities, 1885, is the best 
authority. Cf. also Auerbach, 1898, pp. 285-297. 

f Auerbach, 1898, p. 28(1, gives a full summary of the rival contro 
versy between Roumanians and Hungarians as to priority of title in Tran 

% Cf. Taylor, Words and Places, p. 42. 


Celtic relationship has met with little favour.* The western 
name Roumanian springs from a similarly exploded hypothe 
sis concerning the Latin origin of these people. To be sure, 
Roumanian is distinctly allied to the other Romance languages 
in structure. It is an anomaly in the eastern Slavic half of 
Europe. The most plausible explanation for this phenome 
non, and one long accepted, was that the modern Roumanians 
were descendants of the two hundred and forty thousand colo 
nists whom the Emperor Trajan is said to have sent into the 
conquered province of Dacia. The earlier inhabitants of the 
territory were believed to have been the original Thracians. 
Since no two were agreed as to what the Thracians were like, 
this did not amount to much. Modern common sense has 
finally prevailed over attempts to display philological erudi 
tion in such matters. Freeman i expresses this clearly. Rou- 
mania, as he says, lay directly in the path of invasion from the 
East; the hold of the Romans upon Dacia was never firm; 
the province was the first to break away from the Empire; 
and finally proof of a Latinization only at the late date of the 
thirteenth century is not wanting.]; The truth seems to be 
that two forces were contending for the control of eastern 
Europe. The Latin coiild prevail only in those regions which 
were beyond the potent influence of Greece. Dacia being re 
mote and barbarian, this Latin element had a fighting chance 
for survival, and succeeded. 

Our ethnic map at page 403 shows a curious islet of Rou 
manian language in the heart of the Greek-speaking territory 
of Thessaly. There is little sympathy between the t\vo peo 
ples, according to Hellene ( !10) . The occurrence of this Rou 
manian colony, so far removed from its base, has long puzzled 
ethnographers. Some believe the peoples were separately 
Romanized / ;/ situ; others that they were colonists from Dacia 
in the ninth and tenth centuries. At all events, these Pindus 
Roumanians are too numerous over a million souls to be 

* Cf. Picot, 1883, in his review of Tocilescu ; and Rosny, 1885, p. 83. 
f 1879, p. 217. Cf. also Auerbach, 1898, p. 286. 

\ Cf. Obedenare, 1876, p. 350; Slavici, iSSi, p. 43 ; Rosny, 1885, p. 27; 
Hellene, 1890, p. 190. 



neglected in any theory as to the origin of their language.* 
Another islet of quasi-Roumanian speech occurs in Istria, on 
the Adriatic coast. Its origin is equally obscure, f 

It is no contradiction that, in spite of the fact of our ex 
clusion of Roumania from the Balkan Peninsula owing to its 
Latin affinities, thereby seeming to differentiate it sharply from 
Bulgaria, the latter of Finnic origin; that we now proceed 
to treat of the physical characteristics of the two nationalities, 
Roumanian and Bulgarian, together. Here is another exam 
ple of the superficiality of language, of social and political 
institutions. They do not concern the fundamental physical 
facts of race in the least. At the same time we again em 
phasize the necessity of a powerful corrective, based upon 
purely natural phenomena, for the tendency of philologists 
and ethnographers to follow their pet theories far afield, giving 
precedence to analogies of language and customs over all the 
patent facts of geographical probability. Let us look at it in 
this light. Is there any chance that, on the opposite sides of 
the Danube, a few Finns and a few Romans respectively inter 
spersed among the dense. population which so fertile an area 
must have possessed, even at an early time, could be in any wise 
competent to make different types of the two? There is noth 
ing in our confessedly scanty anthropological data to show it, 
at all events. We must treat the lower Danubian plain as a 
unit, irrespective of the bounds of language, religion, or na 

It was long believed that the Bulgarians were distinctive 
among the other peoples of eastern Europe by reason of their 
long-headedness. All the investigations upon limited series of 
crania pointed in this direction. J This naturally was inter 
preted as a confirmation of the historic data as to a Finnic 
Bulgarian origin very distinct from that of the broad-headed 
Slavs. Several recent discoveries have put a new face upon 
the matter. In the first place, researches of Dr. Bassanovic, 
of \ arna, upon several thousand recruits from western Bul- 

* Picot, 1875, PP- 3QO ct s, (/. fAuerbach, 1898, p. 211. 

t Kopernicki, 1875 h . Beddoe, 1879; Virchovv, 1886 a; Malief, in his 
Catalogue of 1888, gives details for thirty-eight Bulgarian crania also. 


garia yielded an average cephalic index of 85.* This is 
nearly ten units above the results of the earlier observers. It 
proves that the west Bulgarians at least even outdo many 
of the Balkan Slavs in their broad-headedness. At the same 
time it appears that the older authorities were right, after all, 
in respect of the eastern Bulgarians. Among them, and also 
over in eastern Roumelia, the cephalic index ranges as low 
as 78. Our map at page 340 expresses this relation. The 
long oval-faced Bulgarians among our portraits are prob 
ably of this dolichocephalic type. Their contrast facially with 
the broad-headed Roumanians is very marked. Thus it is es 
tablished that the Bulgarian nation is by no means a unit in 
its head form. We should add also that, although not defi 
nitely proved as yet, it is highly probable that similar variations 
occur in Roumania. In the Bukovina brachycephaly certainly 
prevails. Our square-faced Roumanians facing page 410 may 
presumably be taken to represent this type. This broad- 
headedness decreases apparently toward the east as we leave 
the Carpathian Mountains, until along the Black Sea it seems, 
as in Bulgaria, to give way to a real dolichocephaly.f 

How are we to account for the occurrence of so extended 
an area of long-headertness all over the great lower Danubian 
plain ? Our study of the northern Slavs has shown that no 
such phenomenon occurs there among the Russians. It cer 
tainly finds no counterpart among the southern Slavs or the 
Turks. The only other people who resemble these Bulgars in 
long-headedness are the Greeks. Even they are far separated; 
and, in any event, very impure representatives of the type. 
What shall we say? Two explanations seem to be possible, as 
Dr. Beddoe observes. \ Either this dolichocephaly is due to the 
Finnicism of the original Bulgars ; or else it represents a char 
acteristic of the pre-Bulgarian population of the Danube basin. 
He inclines with moderation to the former view. The other 

* 1891, p. 30. Dr. Bassanovic has most courteously sent me a sketch 
map showing the results of these researches. Deniker, 1897, p. 203, and 
1898 a, describes them also. 

f Deniker, 1898 a, p. 122 ; Weisbach, 1877, p. 238 ; Rosny, 1885, p. 85. 

\ 1879, p. 233. 



horn of the dilemma is chosen by Anutchin * in a brilliant 
paper at the late Anthropological Congress at Moscow. Ac 
cording to his view and we assent most heartily to it this 
dolichocephaly along the Black Sea represents the last sur 
vival of a most persistent trait of the primitive inhabitants of 
eastern Europe. Referring again to our study of Russia,! we 
would call attention to the occurrence of a similar long-headed 
race underlying all the modern Slavic population. We shall 
be able to prove also that such a primitive substratum occurs 
over nearly all Europe. It has been unearthed not far from 
here, for example, at Glasinac in Bosnia. When archaeologi 
cal research is extended farther to the east, new light upon 
this point may be expected. It will be asked at once why this 
primitive population should still lie bare upon the surface, here 
along the lower Danube, when it has been submerged every 
where else in central Europe. Our answer is ready. Here in 
this rich alluvial plain population might, expectedly, be dense 
at a very early period. As we have observed before, such a 
population, if solidly massed, opposes an enormous resistance 
to absorption by new-comers. A few thousand Bulgarian in 
vaders would be a mere drop in the bucket of such an aggre 
gation of men. We are strengthened in this hypothesis that 
the dolichocephaly of the Danubian plain is primitive, by rea 
son of another significant fact brought out by Bassanovic.* 
Long-headedness is overwhelmingly more prevalent among 
women than among men. The former represent more often 
what Bassanovic calls the " dolichocephalic Thracian type." 
The oval-faced Bulgarian woman among our portraits would 
seem to be one of these. Now, in the preceding chapter, we 
have sought to illustrate the principle that in any population 
the primitive type persists more often in the women. The 
bearing of such a law in the case of the Bulgars would seem to 

* 1893, p. 282. 

\ Page 352 snfra. Cf. especially Bogdanof, 1893, p. i. 
\ Vide p. 463 infra. 

* 1891, p. 31. Women dolicho-, 25 per cent; meso-, 42 per cent; 
brachycephalic, 30 per cent ; while among men the percentages are 3, 
16, and 81 per cent respectively. 


be definite. Their long-headedness, where it occurs, must date 
from a far more remote period than the historic advent of the 
few thousand immigrants who have given the name Bulgaria 
to the country. 

As for the other physical traits of the I .ulgarians and Rou 
manians there is little to be added. It goes without saying 
that they are both deep brunets. Obedenare ( 7G) says the 
Roumanians are very difficult to distinguish from the modern 
Spaniards and Italians. This is probably true in respect of 
brunetness. The Oriental caste of features of our portraits, on 
the other hand, can not fail to attract attention. More than 
two thirds of Bassanovic s nineteen hundred and fifty-five 
Bulgarians were very dark-haired. Light eyes were of course 
more frequent, nearly forty per cent being classed as blue or 
greenish. A few about five per cent were yellow or tawny- 
haired, these individuals being at the same time blue-eyed. 
This was probably Procopius excuse for the assertion that 
the Bulgars were of fair complexion. He also affirmed that 
they were of goodly stature. This is not true of either the 
modern Roumanians or Bulgars. They average less than five 
feet five inches in height,* being considerably shorter than 
the Turks, and positively diminutive beside the Bosnians and 
other southern Slavs. The Bulgarians especially are corre 
spondingly stocky, heavily boned and built. \Ye may add that 
there is a real difference in temperament between the two na 
tionalities, built up, as we assert, from the same foundation. 
The Wallachians are said to be more emotional and responsive; 
the Bulgarians inclined to heaviness and stolidity. Both are 
pre-eminently industrious and contented cultivators of the soil, 
with little aptitude for commerce, so it is said. We hesitate 
to pass judgment in respect of their further aptitudes until fuller 
data can be provided than are available at the present time. 

At almost no point are the Hungarian people permitted 

* Bassanovic s series of 1,955 individuals averages only 1.638 metres. 
O/>. cit., p. 30. Auerbach, 1898, p. 259, gives an average of 1.63 metre- 
for 880 Wallachians in Transylvania. Obedenare, 1876, p. 374. states 
brown eyes to be most frequent in Roumania. 





to touch the political boundaries of the kingdom which bears 
their name.* Our map illustrates this peculiar relation. The 
various nationalities are indeed disposed, as Auerbach ( 98) sug 
gests, as if in order of battle, the Magyars in a state of siege 
beset upon all sides. This dominant people are principally 
compacted about the historic city of Buda-Pesth in a more 
or less solid mass. In upon them from every side press rival 
languages and peoples. The Slovaks to the north are both 
numerous and united. Moravia, it \vill be remembered, was 
conquered by the Magyars only through the co-operation of 
the Germans. More than half of the population in the entire 
eastern half of the monarchy are Roumanians or Wallachs. 
These people have, as our map shows, penetrated so far into 
Hungary as to cut off a considerable area of Magyar speech in 
Transylvania (Siebenbiirgen) from the great body of the nation 
about Buda-Pesth. A number of connecting islets of Hun 
garian survivals still exist between the two. This is proof 
positive that the Roumanians have come in later than the 
first Magyar possession, submerging their language and cus 
toms thereby. 

The Transylvanian Magyars on the slopes of the Carpa 
thians are known as zcklcrs, or " borderers," although we 
are disposed to think that it is the western Hungarians who are 
really best entitled to that name. At all events, this eastern 
group, though smaller, is far more compact. The main body 
of the nation in the west is interpenetrated by multitudes of 
colonists from the outside, especially by the Germans. As for 
the Serbo-Croatians, who have encroached upon Hungarian 
territory from the south, they seem, unlike the Germans, to 
form a coherent and clannish people. Almost nine tenths of 
the population in many places within the limits of the Serbo- 
Croatian language are in reality of this nationality. In no 
single Magyar district, on the other hand, according to the 

* On the demography of Hungary consult especially the official com 
pendium published in English, The Millennium of Hungary and its 
People, edited by Jekelfalussy, Buda-Pesth, 1897. Auerbach, Les Races 
et Nationalites en Autriche-Hongrie, Paris, 1898, is also excellent, Hun- 
falvy, 1877 and iSSi, is a classic authority. 



census of 1880, is there more than seventy per cent of Hun 

By this time it will have been noted that Hungary is by 
no means solidly Magyar. Only about four tenths of the 
17,500,000 inhabitants of the monarchy are of this nation 
ality, f This minority, to be sure, outnumbers the total of the 
Germans, Slovaks, and Roumanians combined, but it is still 
a minority nevertheless. There are two good reasons why 
these people are entitled to rule; for, of course, we assume 
it to be a self-evident geographical proposition that but one 
single political unit should abide in this Danubian plain. It is 
one of the most clearly defined areas of characterization in 
Europe. The prior claim in behalf of Magyar sovereignty is 
based upon numerical preponderance. This is becoming 
strengthened continually, for it is certain that the Magyar 
speech is gaining ground more rapidly than any of its com 
petitors. This is partly because the Hungarians are increas 
ing faster than the other peoples about them. It is also due 
in a measure to the adoption of the official language by many 
who are of foreign birth. The second reason why the Magyars 
are entitled to rule all Hungary is because these people seem 
to be pre-eminent intellectually. They form the large mass 
of the city populations, the Slavs being natural cultivators of 
the soil. The liberal professions seem to be recruited from 
the Magyars also in the main.J Our data are drawn from 
Hungarian statistics, which naturally would not underestimate 
the ability of their own nationality. Even making due allow 
ance for this, their representation in the intellectual classes 
is very marked. Certainly no better title to sovereignty could 
be urged. 

* Jekelfalussy, 1885. The census of 1890 shows the same relative com 
pactness of the Serbo-Croatians, although for some reason the percent 
ages are considerably lower. Jekelfalussy, 1897, p. 417. 

f Jekelfalussy, 1897, p. 417, gives census returns for 1890. The pro 
portions are as follows: Hungarians, 42.8 per cent; Germans, 12.1 per 
cent; Slovaks, n per cent; Wallachs, 14.9 per cent; Ruthenians, 2.2 
per cent ; Croats, 9 per cent ; Servians, 6.1 per cent. This, of course, is 
for Hungary alone, not for the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 

$ Cf. Jekelfalussy, 1897, p. 418, and Auerbach, 1898, p. 252. 



The definite origin of the Magyars has long been a matter 
of controversy. Historically, they displaced the Avars, who 
had reduced the country to a state of anarchy in the last decade 
of the ninth century.* They seem to have come in from the 
northeast. For a while they were encamped in the plains be 
tween the Don and the lower Dnieper in Russia. The Bulgars 
seemingly pressed upon them here from behind, until they, 
to the number possibly of a few hundred thousand, crossed 
the Carpathians. They seem to have met with little opposi 
tion in effecting a settlement along the Danube, except in 
Moravia. Whence they came before their appearance in south 
ern Russia no man knows with any approach to certainty. 
The only evidence is linguistic rather than historical. 

Two centuries ago Fogel discovered a number of points 
of similarity between the Magyar language and that of the 
Lapps and Finns, f Closer analysis thereafter appeared to 
connect it most definitely with the speech of the Volga branch 
of this Finnic family, especially the Ostiaks and Voguls. A 
number of Turkish words seemed also to be related to the 
language of the Chouvashes. Yambery \ has made a deter 
mined and able effort to prove that both the Hungarian cul 
ture and language are. Turkish rather than Finnic in origin. 
The nearest 4i poor relations " of the Hungarians are the Bash 
kirs, according to him; an opinion in which Sommier ( 81) 
seems to acquiesce. As for the Byzantine chroniclers, they 
called them Turks, Huns, and Ungars indiscriminately. On the 
whole, the trend of opinion seems to favour the Finnic hypothe 
sis, making due allowance for the chance of borrowing from 
the Turkish peoples during the course of their long migrations. 
For our more general purposes all these theories lead to the 
same result. We may be fairly certain that we have to do with 
an immigrant people, originating in some part of Russia en 
tirely beyond the sphere of the Aryan or inflectional languages. 

* Hunfalvy, 1877, pp. 145-179. 

f Simonyi gives an excellent chapter on this, in Jekelfalussy, 1897, pp. 
143-165. Cf. also Hunfalvy, p. 146, and Pruner Bey, 1865. 

I 1882, pp. 235-257. Auerbach, 1898, p. 230, discusses it ably. Ober- 
miiller s (1871) fantastic theory of a Caucasian Kabardian derivation may 
be mentioned. 

193- SZEKLER, Torda-Aranyos. Blue eyes, chestnut hair. Index 89. 194. 

195. SZEKLER, 1 orda-Aranyos. Blue eyes, chestnut hair. Index 91. 196. 

197. County Csik. TRANSYLVANIA. County Borsod. 198. 




The physical characteristics of the Magyars have been but 
little investigated scientifically. We know less of them than 
of almost any other great European people. On the one hand, 
Topinard ( 78) assures us that they form to-day " one of the 
most beautiful types in Europe " ; on the other, we have it 
from Lefevre * that our word " ogre " is a derivative from 
ougre or Hungar, so outlandish were these people to their 
new neighbours in Europe. Perhaps this may indeed have 
been so, although even the present Volga Finns shown in our 
portraits at page 358 are by no means Mongols or even ogres, 
in personal appearance. The modern Hungarians are cer 
tainly not un-European in any respect. Through the courtesy 
of Dr. Janko, custos of the National Museum at Buda-Pesth, 
we are able to present authentic portraits of perhaps the purest 
of the Magyars. Our types on the opposite page, and the 
additional one at page 228, are all representative of the Szeklers 
of Transylvania. From their isolation and the compactness 
of their settlement one might expect them to have retained 
their primitive features in some purity. 

From these portraits and from our other data it appears 
that the Magyars are a strikingly fine-looking and well- 
developed people. The facial features are regular, the nose 
and mouth well formed. There is nothing Asiatic or Mongol 
to be seen. Perhaps, indeed, they have, as Dr. Becldoe writes 
me, an Oriental type of beauty, with somewhat prominent 
" semi-Tatar " cheek bones. Nevertheless, we find no trace 
of the " coarse Mongoloid features " which Keane (>9G) de 
scribes among these Szcklcrs, whom he rightly seems to re 
gard as the purest representatives of their race. Nor are they 
even very dark, these Hungarians. Brunets are in a major 
ity, to be sure, but this is true of all southeastern Europe. The 
most prevalent combination is of blue eyes and chestnut hair, 
judging by the data from Dr. Janko s observations. Nearly 
every one of our portrait types were thus constituted, f Ac- 

* 1896 b, p. 367. Cf. Jekelfalussy, 1898, p. 402. 

f Of 81 Szeklers, 35 had blue eyes, 34 brown, 9 gray, and 3 light brown. 
As to hair colour, 20 were blond, 44 chestnut-brown, 13 black, i red, and 3 
light brown. 



cording to this, the Magyars differ but slightly from the Aus 
trian Germans. Their blondish proclivities would tend to 
confirm the theory of Finnic rather than Turkish origin; 
for, as we have already shown, the Volga Finns, and even 
the Ostiaks and Voguls over in Siberia, are still quite light 
in type. 

As for the head form of the Hungarians, the data are very 
scanty and defective. The eighty-four Sticklers of Janko s 
series gave an index of 84.5, from which it would appear that 
the purest of Magyars are pretty broad-headed. Weisbach s (>7T) 
and Lenhossek s * results are not far from these, although 
Deniker f gives some indication of a longer-headedness. 
Rashly generalizing from this scanty material, we have ven 
tured to predict a distribution of head form as shown on our 
map at page 340. This would indicate a natural cephalic index 
of about 84, falling toward the west by reason of German in 
termixture. In this respect, then, we find Turkish rather than 
Volga Finnic affinities, for the Volga Finns are all quite long 
headed (see map, page 360). Finally, in stature our evidence 
in the matter of Finnic or Turkish origins is equally incon 
clusive. Janko s Szcklcrs were all very tall (1.70 metres), but 
others do not confirm* this as a characteristic trait of the na 
tion. \ Most observers agree that the Magyars are only of 
average height; taller than the Poles, but shorter than the 
Serbo- Croatian s. It is to be hoped that this most interesting 
field of investigation may not long remain unworked.* So 
far as our knowledge goes, it tends to confirm us in the view 
that the historians and ethnographers have immensely over 
estimated the importance of the original Finnic immigration, 
with a corresponding neglect of the population which existed 
in Hungary before their advent. These earlier inhabitants, 
while adopting the language of their conquerors, have suc 
ceeded in almost entirely obliterating the original traits of the 
Magyars as a race. If they were originally Finns and related 
to the Ostiaks and Voguls, the direction of their intermixture 

* Revue d Anth., scrie i, v, p. 552 ; Hunfalvy, 1877, p. 273. 

f 1898 a, p. 120. \ Cf. map, page 350 supra, with appendix. 

* On the state of archaeology, vide Pulszky, 1891. 



has all been toward that of the Alpine race. This latter has 
been proved an early possessor of the soil of central Europe. 
The present traits of the Hungarians seem to lend force to 
the hypothesis that the same race \vas also firmly rooted in 
the great Danubian plain before their appearance. Accord 
ing to this view, they would be, roughly speaking, perhaps 
one eighth Finnic and seven eighths Alpine by racial descent. 



THE utter absurdity of the misnomer Caucasian, as applied 
to the blue-eyed and fair-headed " Aryan " (?) race of western 
Europe, is revealed by two indisputable facts. In the first 
place, this ideal blond type does not occur within many hun 
dred miles of Caucasia; and, secondly, nowhere along the great 
Caucasian chain is there a single native tribe making use of 
a purely inflectional or Aryan language. In the days of Bros- 
set and Bopp we were taught that the Georgians, most noted 
of the Caucasian tribes, spoke such a tongue. Blumenbach 
is said to have given the name Caucasian to his white race 
after seeing a fine specimen of such a Georgian skull. We 
know better to-day, thanks to the labours of Uslar and others. 
Even the Ossetes, whose language alone is possibly inflec 
tional, have not had their claims to the honour of Aryan made 
positively clear as yet.* And even if Ossetian be Aryan, there 
is every reason to regard the people as immigrants from the 
direction of Iran, not indigenous Caucasians at all. Their 
head form, together with their occupation of territory along 
the only highway the Pass of Dariel across the chain from 
the south, give tenability to the hypothesis. f At all events, 
whether the Ossetes be Aryan or not, they little deserve pre 
eminence among the other peoples about them. They are 
lacking both in the physical beauty \ for which this region 
is justly famous, and in courage as well, if we may judge by 
their reputation in yielding abjectly and without shadow of 
resistance to the Russians. 

* Smirnof, 1878, gives full discussion. Cf. Seydlitz, 1881, p. 98. 
f Houssay, 1887, p. 106 ; Seydlitz, 1881, p. 125. 
\ Chantre, 1895, iv, p. 156. 


We mention these apparently irrelevant facts because it is 
undeniable that a large measure of the popularity of the name 
Caucasian has had its origin in the traditional physical per 
fection and chivalrous spirit of the natives of this part of the 
world. Byzantine harem tales of Circassian beauty have not 
failed to influence opinion upon the subject of European ori 
gins. Not even the charm of mystery remains in support of 
a Caucasian race theory to-day. In the present state of our 
knowledge, it is therefore difficult to excuse the statement of a 
recent authority, who still persists in the title Homo Cancasicus 
as applied to the peoples of Europe. It is not true that any of 
these Caucasians are even " somewhat typical." : As a fact, 
they could never be typical of anything. The name covers 
nearly every physical type and family of language of the Eur- 
Asian continent, except, as we have said, that blond, tall, 
" Aryan "-speaking one to which the name has been specifically 
applied. It is all false; not only improbable, but absurd. The 
Caucasus is not a cradle it is rather a grave of peoples, of 
languages, of customs, and of physical types, f Let us be as 
sured of that point at the outset. 

Nowhere else in the world probably is so heterogeneous 
a lot of people, languages, and religions gathered together in 
one place as along the chain of the Caucasus mountains. J He 
rodotus and the Plinys were well aware of this. The number 
of dialects is reckoned in the neighbourhood of sixty-eight. 
These represent all stages of development. One that of the 
Ossetes is possibly Aryan; it is but very primitively Euro 
pean, to say the least. A second, the Circassian Kabardian 
and Abkhasian is incorporative. It is so like the American 
Indian languages in structure that we find Cruel * using it as 
proof of a primitive American Indian substratum of popula 
tion over Europe. May the day come when philologists shall 
have an eye to the common decencies of geographical and 

* Keane, Ethnology, p. 226. f Smirnof, 1878, p. 241. 

\ On the ethnography, mainly linguistic, of the Caucasus, the prin 
cipal authorities are Smirnof, 1878 ; Seydlitz, iSSi and 1885 ; and Chantre, 
1885. Our map, after Rittich, 1878, has been corrected from the results 
of the later authorities. * 1883, pp. 166-173. 



physical possibility! Then again, there arc the purely agglu 
tinative languages Asiatic in their affinities of the Kou- 
myks, Kalmucks, and Tatars. To all these we may add a 
fourth great linguistic family, the Semitic, represented by the 
Armenians and the omnipresent Jews. Over all and through 
all is what Bryce calls a " top dressing " of Europeans, speak 
ing the most highly evolved languages peculiar to western or 
civilized Europe. Thus it happens, as Uslar long ago proved, 
that greater differences exist within the Caucasus between its 
linguistic microcosms " than between the most widely sepa 
rated members of the Aryan family in Europe. In other words, 
for example, the Avars differ more from the Ossetes or the 
Kabardians in language than the Lithuanians differ from 
the Spaniards. In the former case it is a matter of structure; 
in the latter merely of deviation from a common type or stem 
by a transmutation of root words. 

The geographical character and location of the Caucasian 
mountains offer a patent explanation for this phenomenon of 
heterogeneity. Four distinct currents of language with their 
concomitant physical types, have swept up to the base of this 
insuperable physical barrier. We use the term insuperable 
advisedly, for there is ip reality only one break in the entire 
chain from the Black Sea to the Caspian. This is the famous 
Pass of Dariel eight thousand feet high lying in the terri 
tory of the Ossetes. It explains why this people alone among 
all its neighbours is able to occupy both slopes of the moun 
tains. All the other tribes and languages lie either on one 
side or the other. The Tatars, to be sure, are both north and 
south of the mountains; they seem to be about everywhere. 
Yet we have already shown (page 419) that where they have 
crossed the chain they have been entirely transformed phys 
ically by isolation. Up against such a mountain system as 
this, have swept great currents of human life from every quar 
ter of the eastern hemisphere. They have not blended. There 
has been contiguous isolation, to coin a phrase, ample in sup 
ply for all. Thus has it been possible for each language to pre 
serve and perhaps still further to develop its peculiarities in 
situ. Linguistic isolation has again served to intensify the geo- 



graphical segregation due to physical environment. The effect 
of all this in the matter of race could not be other than to cause 

r^^-w* */Y/?///, 

KA V 4 


y *m 

%m , 



S^f^X^ t& JL 

^itAE N 1^ 


a heterogeneity of physical types quite without parallel else 
where in the world. 

It would lead us too far astray from the main line of our 
interests to attempt a detailed description of the physical types 



peculiar to all the Caucasian tribes.* Our principal object is 
negative viz., to show what these people are not; that is to 
say, to divest this region of the fanciful importance which has 
so long been assigned to it by students of European origins. 
A glance at our map of cephalic index of Caucasia will make 
its physical heterogeneity apparent, even excluding the Ar 
menians, Kurds, and Azerbeidjian Tatars who lie entirely out 
side the mountain chain. The first impression conveyed by 
the map, next to that of heterogeneity, is of a prevalent broad- 
headedness. In this respect the Caucasians as a whole are 
distinct both from the Russian Slavs on the north, and from 
the Iranian peoples Tates or Tadjiks, Kurds, and Persians 
in the opposite direction. Among the mountaineers them 
selves, the Lesghian tribes betray an accentuated brachy- 
cephaly equal to that of the pure Mongols about the Caspian. 
The Kartvelian tribes, numerically most important of all, seem 
to become somewhat longer-headed from east to west.f As 
for the principal remnant of the Tscherkesses or Circassians, 
known as Kabardians, they are not very different from their 
neighbours ; but the Abkhasians along the Black Sea belong 
ing to the same family, whom, by the way, Bryce \ calls " the 
most unmitigated rogues and thieves in all Caucasia," are 
slightly more dolichocephalic than even the Russians. The 
fourth group the Ossetes appear on our map to be quite 
different from all the other Caucasians, except the Abkhasians 
just named. The difference between them and the Lesghians 
in head form is exemplified by comparison of the two lower 
types in our series near by. The round and occipitally short 
head of the Lesghian is at one extreme ; the long oval one of 
the Ossete at the other. Their faces are as differently pro 
portioned also as are their skulls. 

* Chantre s monumental work, Recherches Anthropologiques dans le 
Caucase, 4 vols., Atlas, Paris, iSSs- Sy, is a standard. In addition, the 
detailed researches of Russian observers should be consulted, such as Pan- 
tyuckhof, 1893, on the Georgians ; Vyschogrod, 1895, on the Kabardians ; 
Gilchenko, 1897, on the Ossetes ; Sviderski, 1898, on the Koumyks, etc. 

\ Cf. table in Chantre, 1885, iv, p. 272. 

J Transcaucasia and Ararat, 1897. 


L.\XK, Ratum 


->i .TK, Koban. 


rscHETSCHEN. Cephalic Index 82.3. 


INGOUCHE ( Tschetschen group). Cephalic Index 84.4. 208. 

LEEGHIAN from Gounib. 



An important fact must be noted at this point viz., that 
customs of cranial deformation are exceedingly prevalent all 
through Caucasia and Asia Minor. This renders all study of 
the head form quite uncertain. Thus the Laze about Datum 
practise this deformation most persistently; their foreshort 
ened heads and their long oval faces are in corresponding dis 
harmony.* Our portrait type from this tribe is apparently 
normal in head form. The occiput shows no sign of artificial 
depression. That their brachycephaly is real is much to be 
doubted. Among the Abkhasians, on the other hand, the rare 
phenomenon of lateral compression of the skull may account 
for their striking long-headedness.f On the whole, making 
due allowance for this uncertainty, it would seem that the 
Caucasians are pretty strongly inclined to be broad-headed. 
The Lesghians and the Svans are the wildest and most iso 
lated. They are most brachycephalic. The Ossetes are on the 
highway of transmigration. They have either deviated from 
the original pattern, or else, as we have suggested above, they 
are immigrants, not indigenous at all. 

Our series of portraits illustrates the facts concerning the 
facial features of these tribes. Their classic beauty is well rep 
resented in our Mingrelian, whom we may assume as typical 
of the Georgian group. It is, however, a perfectly formal, 
cold, and unintelligent beauty, in no wise expressive of char 
acter, as Chantre observes. The Mingrelians, despite their 
warm and fertile country, are, according to Bryce, persist 
ently " ne er-do-weels." The Lesghian group, and also the 
Tchetchen, are described as less regularly featured than the 
Circassians or Georgians. The faces bear evident traces of 
the hardship to which not only their rigorous environment 
exposes them, but also of the continual struggle against the 
Mongols, who incessantly threaten them from the north. Their 
contrast in temperament with the characteristically gay and 
dance-loving Georgians is very marked. The renowned beau 
ties of the Caucasus are, of course, the Tscherkessen or Cir 
cassians. The Kabardians are less pure than the Adighe or 

* Chantre, 1885, iv, p. 91. f Op. cit., iv, p. 130. 


Circassians proper, but even among them the broad shoulders 
and erect carriage, with the oval face, brilliant brown eyes, and 
fine chestnut hair, are predominant. In character these Cir 
cassians are also pre-eminent. Amiable, talkative, and inquisi 
tive to a degree, they are also brave, chivalrous, and hospitable. 
To be sure, their name may be derived from the Turkish words 
meaning " to cut the road." Nevertheless, though given to 
brigandage, they are faithful to their friends. Their whole 
sale preference of exile to Russian domination, more than 
four fifths of them having emigrated to Turkey in the sixties, 
is evidence of a not inconsiderable moral stamina. The Os- 
setes, who by the way call themselves Ir or Irons, stand at 
the other extreme as regards both face and character. They 
are tall, but lack suppleness, elegance, and dignity; the fea 
tures are said to be irregular and angular. Our portrait is a 
good type. Many Jewish features occur, as among the Cir 
cassians also, for that matter. In character they are deficient 
in bravery, their prompt acquiescence in the Russian military 
rule, as we have said, being characteristic. One physical pe 
culiarity of importance remains to be noted. Chantre * found 
among the Ossetes above thirty per cent of blonds. This is 
thrice as great as among the Georgians. Nearly all the other 
Caucasians are of a relatively dark type, chestnut hair and 
dark-brown eyes prevailing, although black is quite common. f 
Even among the Laze, whose whiteness of skin is remarkable, 
Chantre found the hair of a third of them black. Thus we 
are easily able to dispose of any theory of a blond Caucasian 
race in the light of these facts. 

A large area, indefinitely bounded by the Mediterranean 
Sea. Caucasia, the Red Sea, and the Pamir, remains to be 
described. Obviously, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Persia 
can not be left out of account in our review of the Oriental 
peoples of Europe. This region has been the seat of the oldest 
known civilizations. It possesses a far better claim to our 

* Op. cit., iv, p. 170. Cf. Khanykoff, 1886, p. 113. 

f Yyschogrod, for example, found forty-seven per cent of black hair 
among the Kabardians. 



attention as a possible centre of human or cultural evolution 
than Caucasia. Two difficulties confront us at the outset in an 
analysis of its racial types. One is the kaleidoscopic changes 
ever taking place in the character of its nomad populations; 
the other is the intricacy of the problem due to the central 
location of the district. To it have converged from every di 
rection great currents of immigration or invasion: Turkish- 
Tatar, from the steppes of Asia; European, from Greece; Afri 
can, from Egypt. In the convergence of these currents upon 
this point we find, of course, a plausible explanation for its 
early pre-eminence in civilization. Corresponding difficulty 
in distinguishing the several ethnic elements is a necessary 
corollary of this fact. 

The distribution of language offers positively no clew to 
the problem. The Azerbeidjian Tatars, forming a major ele 
ment in the population of Persia, are positively Iranian in every 
trait, although their language is Turkish. Our portrait of 
one of these at page 449 reveals no symptom of Turkoman 
blood. Notwithstanding this, no other alternative is offered 
to the linguist than to class these people as Turks. The Kurds, 
on the other hand, are mainly inhabitants of Asiatic Turkey, 
but they are Iranian in their affinities, both linguistic and 
physical. The Armenians, judging by their language which 
seems to be Aryan,* might reasonably be expected to stand 
between the Greeks and the Persians. As a matter of fact, 
they are far more closely related physically to the Turkomans 
than to these other Aryan-speaking peoples. Language fails 
utterly to describe the racial situation. 

This extensive region is to-day occupied by two distinct 
racial types, roughly corresponding to two of the three races 
which we have so painfully followed over Europe.f The first 
of these in this part of the world we may provisionally call 
the Iranian. It includes the Persians and Kurds, possibly 
the Ossetes in the Caucasus, and farther to the east a large 

* Cf. note in Keane s Ethnology, p. 411. Whether Armenian be 
Iranic, Semitic, or unique, it is surely Aryan. 

f Chantre s monumental Recherches dans 1 Asie Occidentale, Lyon, 
1895, is our authority. Cf. especially his summary at pp. 234-244. 


number of Asiatic tribes, from the Afghans to the Hindus. 
These peoples are all primarily long-headed and dark brunets. 
They incline to slenderness of habit, although varying in stat 
ure according to circumstances. In them we recognise at once 
undoubted congeners of our Mediterranean race in Europe. 
The area of their extension runs off into Africa, through the 
Egyptians, who are clearly of the same race. Not only the 
modern peoples, but the ancient Egyptians and the Phoenicians 
also have been traced to the same source.* By far the larger 
portion of this part of western Asia is inhabited by this eastern 
branch of the Mediterranean race. 

The second racial type in this borderland between Europe 
and Asia we may safely follow Chantre in calling Armenoid, 
because the Armenians most clearly represent it to-day. It 
is less widely distributed than the Iranian racial type. Out 
side of Asia Minor, it occurs sporadically among a few ethnic 
remnants in Syria and Mesopotamia. Throughout the Ana 
tolian peninsula it forms the underlying substratum of popula 
tion, far more primitive than any occupation by the Turks. 
This type is possessed of a most peculiar head form, known 
to somatologists as hypsi-brachycephaly. It is illustrated by 
our accompanying portsait page. The head is abnormally flat 
tened at the back. It rises sharply from the neck, while, as if 
at the expense of this foreshortening, the height of the skull 
is greatly increased. This disguises, of course, the real breadth 
of face peculiar to this type, as contrasted with the Ira 
nians. Artificial compression is at once suggested by such 
head forms as these. It is undoubtedly present, either con 
sciously performed or else as a product of the hard cradles. 
That the shortness of the head is not entirely artificial can not 
be doubted, or else we have a case of inheritance of acquired 
characteristics. For even in absence of such deformation the 
same sugar-loaf cranial form occurs.f Along with this pecul 
iarity of head form are other bodily characteristics differenti 
ating these people from the Iranian type. The body is heavier 
built, with an inclination among the Armenians at least to 

* Page 387 supra. f Chantre, 1895, pp. 38-67. 


TACHTADSKY, Lycia, Asia Minor. 


215. TACHTADSKY, Lycia, Asia Minor. Stature 1.71 m. Index 86. 216. 




obesity. There are not very great differences in pigmentation 
between the two racial types. Both are overwhelmingly brunet. 
The rare blonds of the Caucasus are even more scarce here 
abouts; although Chantre found eleven per cent of blonds 
among them, the great majority were very dark. Only as we 
enter the Himalayan highlands, among Galchas and their fel 
lows, do lighter traits in hair and eyes appear. 

Two rival peoples Kurds and Armenians contend for the 
mastery of eastern Asia Minor. The first of these, the Kurds, 
are difficult to classify culturally. The lower classes are seden 
tary dwelling in villages, while the chiefs live in tents wander 
ing at will. There are nearly two million of them in all, two 
thirds in Asiatic Turkey, the rest in Persia, with a few thousand 
in Caucasia. The Armenians claim that these Kurds are of 
Median origin, but the better opinion is that they are descend 
ants of the Chaldeans. Their affinity to the Syrian Arabs can 
not be doubted.* These Kurds have remained relatively un 
touched by the Mongol or Turkish invasions in the retire 
ment afforded by the mountains of Kurdistan. Both in their 
language and their physical traits they are Iranian. Chantre, f 
studying them in Asia Minor, reports as to their hard fea 
tures and savage aspect. Their own derivation of " Kurd " is 
from a word meaning "excellent"; but the Turkish equiva 
lent for it, " wolf," seems more aptly to describe their char 
acter. They are very dark, with eyes of a deep-brown tint; 
the women darker, as a rule. Our portrait at page 449 is 
fairly typical. The nose is straight or convex; rarely con 
cave. The head is long and exceedingly narrow (index 78.5), 
with a face corresponding in its dimensions. The effects of 
lateral compression of the skull are plainly apparent in our 
portrait. In stature they are of moderate height. As a whole, 
owing to their wide extension, nomadic habits, and lack of 
social solidarity, these Kurds are a heterogeneous people. 
They lack the strong cementing bonds either of religion or of 
a national literature. 

* Chantre, 1885, ii, p. 214. 

t 1895, pp. 75 et scq. ; with data on 332 subjects. Nasonof, 1890, is 
also good. 


Even aside from their persistence in Christianity despite 
all manner of oppression, the Armenians are by far the most 
interesting people of Asia Minor. Of all the Orientals, they 
are the most intelligent, industrious, and peaceful. In many 
traits of character they resemble the Jews, especially in their 
aptitude for commercial pursuits and in their characteristic 
frugality, inclining to parsimony. There are about five mil 
lion of these Armenians in all, somewhat over half of them 
being inhabitants of Turkey, with the remainder in Russian 
Caucasia and Persia. Anthropologically, these people are of 
supreme importance as an example of purity of physical type, 
resulting from a notable social and religious solidarity. They 
rival the Jews again in this respect. One of this nation can 
almost invariably be detected at once by means of his peculiar 
head form, which we have already described.* Even in places 
where they have been isolated from the main body of the 
nation for centuries they adhere to this primitive type. Hous- 
say,f for example, finds the Armenian colonists near Ispahan 
in Persia settled there in 1605, still strongly individualized 

It is not without significance, we believe, that Chantre^ 
remarking upon the purity of the Armenian type, adds that it 
is " more homogeneous in appearance than in reality." There 
is good evidence to show that their unity of type, being largely 
a product of social selection, is defective in those details of 
which the people themselves are not conscious. It would ap 
pear that in their head form, differently from most people, they 
fully realize their own peculiarities. Deformation of the skull 
so commonly practised, seems often, as Chantre says, to " ex 
aggerate the brachycephaly common to them." The Kurds, 
on the other hand, being naturally dolichocephalic, make their 
heads appear longer than they really are by artificial means * 
The deadly enmity between Kurds and Armenians is well 
known. Can it be that these opposing customs of cranial de- 

* On the Armenians, consult Chantre, 1895, pp. 37 et seq. ; Von Luschan, 
1889, p. 212; Khanykoff, 1866, pp. 112; and Tvaryanovitch, 1897. 

f i887, p. 120. \ 1895, pp. 238, 341. 

* Op. cit., pp. 51 and 113. 


formation are an expression of it to some degree? We venture 
to suggest it as a partial explanation. 

That the Armenoid or hypsi-brachycephalic racial type of 
Asia Minor is not entirely a matter of artificial selection would 
appear from its prevalence in out-of-the-way places all over 
Asia Minor. It occurs far outside the Armenian territory. It 
is more fundamental than the social consciousness of a nation. 
Von Luschan * finds it among a number of primitive tribes 
in Anatolia, noticeably among the so-called Tachtadsky. These 
people, now few in numbers, inhabit the mountainous and re 
mote districts in Lycia. Their name, " woodcutters," desig 
nates the occupation in which they are mainly engaged. They 
are only superficially Mohammedans, their real cult being 
entirely secret, and probably pagan. Living in rude shelters 
at elevations of three or four thousand feet above the sea, they 
appear in the towns only at rare intervals. The necessity of 
selling their wares overcomes their dread of the tax-gatherer 
and of army service. Quite like the Tachtadsky physically are 
another people, known as the Bektasch, or " half Christians," 
who form the town population in some regions. Down in the 
mountains of northern Syria the same stratum of population 
crops out among the Ansaries, or " little Christians/ Ac 
cording to Chantre,f these people are anthropologically indis 
tinguishable from the other Armenoid types. Generally speak 
ing, all these peoples are found only in regions of isolation 
in marshy, mountainous, or remote districts. On the coast 
and in the larger towns a type akin to the long-headed Greek 
is more apt to prevail. For these reasons, von Luschan ( 89) 
concludes that the Armenoid type is the more primitive, and 
that it represents the earliest inhabitants of the peninsula. That 
it is older than the Turks no one can doubt. Yet we are in 
clined to agree with Sergi \ that it is not necessarily the very 
earliest. In fact, there is evidence to show a still more ancient 
type, like that found in the Greek necropoli. This latter is 
quite Mediterranean in its racial affinities; probably of the 

* 1889, pp. 198-213. Cf. also YambtJry, 1885, p. 607. 
f 1895, pp. 139-148. \ 1895 a, p. 58. 


same origin as the dolichocephalic Iranian peoples who still 
predominate to the south and west. 

Summarizing the anthropological history of Asia Minor, 
we draw the following conclusions: First, that the Mediter 
ranean or Iranian racial type represents the oldest layer of. 
population in this part of the world. This, as we shall see in 
the next chapter, is true of all Europe also. A second racial 
element, subsequently superposed, is that of the Armenoid 
or brachycephalic type. The similarity of this to our Alpine 
races of western Europe has been especially emphasized by 
the most competent authority, von Luschan.* Finally, on top 
of all has come the modern layer of immigrant and more or 
less nomadic Turks and their fellows. The possibility of con 
necting one of these, our second or Armenoid type, with the 
ancient Hittites can not fail to suggest itself. f Possibly it was 
Pelasgic. Yon Luschan ( - ) suggests it. Sergi r!ir ) believes 
the Pelasgi and Hittites were both Asiatic in origin. Who 
knows? It would be of interest to examine the question fur 
ther had we sufficient time. For our immediate purposes the 
importance of the Armenoid group is derived from the fact 
that it, with the Caucasian one, is the only connecting link 
between the Alpine racjal type of western Europe and its 
prototype, or perhaps we had better say merely its congener, 
in the highlands of western Asia. The tenuity of the connect 
ing link between the two is greatest at this point. Were it 
not for the potent selective influences of religion, complete 
rupture by the invading Tatar-Turks might conceivably have 
taken place. As it is, the continuity of the Alpine race across 
Asia Minor can not be doubted. 

In Persia there is no such clear segregation of racial types 
as we have observed between Armenians and Kurds, who are 
as impossible of intermixture as oil and water. We have passed 
beyond the outermost sphere of European religion, Christianity. 
Marked topographical features are also lacking on the great 

* 1889, p. 212. 

f On Hittite ethnography consult De Cara, Gli Hethei-Pelasgi, Roma, 
1894 ; Sergi, 1895 a, p. 54 ; and the works of Wright (1884), Berlin (1888), 
Tomkins (1889), Sayce (1891), and Conder (1898). 

KURD, Asia Mino 

AZERBEIDJIAN, Persian Tatar. Index 77.7 

SUZIAN, South Persia. Index 74.7 


plateau of Iran. A wholesale blending of types has conse 
quently ensued among the modern Persians.* Three distinct 
ethnic influences have been at work, however, producing 
what we may call varieties, or subtypes, of the pure Iranian. 
This latter is found only in two limited districts: one among 
the Farsis about Persepolis, just northeast of the Persian Gulf; 
the other among the Loris, or " mountaineers," somewhat far 
ther to the west, over against the Kurds. Of these, the former 
are the ideal Aryans (?) of the earlier philologists. Their skin 
is described as fair. They are slender but finely formed. This 
trait is quite noticeable in comparing them with the Turko 
mans or Tatars. The hair and beard are abundant, of a dark 
chestnut colour. Thus they are blonds, only by comparison 
with their darker neighbours on every side. Real blonds, with 
blue eyes, are very rare; we have Houssay s word for that. 
The Loris are taller and much darker, often with black hair. 
Let us add that they are also acutely dolichocephalic, with 
smoothly oval faces and regular features, thus in every detail 
corresponding to the criteria necessary to adjudge them Medi 
terranean by race. 

Three subvarieties of this ideal Persian type lie in the sev 
eral directions of Africa, central Asia, and India. The first of 
these is Semitic. It occurs all along the line of contact with the 
Arabs, producing as a natural consequence a distinctly darker 
population toward the southwest. The second subvariety forms 
the great mass of the nation. It results from an intermixture 
with the pure Iranian of a Turkoman or Tatar strain. Such 
are the Hadjemis and Tadjiks, for example, who predominate 
in the east and northeast. The Azerbeidjian Tatars, whom we 
have already described,! also fall within this class. Although 
they speak Turkish, they are in reality distinctly Iranian by 
race. Our portrait on the opposite page, reproduced from 
Danilof s monograph, is fairly typical. The hair is coarser, 

* Authorities are Duhousset, Les Populations de la Perse, 1859 ; Khany- 
koff, Memoire sur 1 Ethnographie de la Perse, 1866 ; Houssay, Les 
Peuples Actuels de la Perse, Bull. Soc. d Anth., Lyon, pp. 101-148, with 
map ; and Danilof s work of 1894 in Russian, especially cols. 10-20. This 
we have had translated ; our portraits are from the same source. 

f Page 419 supra. 


inclining to black ; the face is broader, with greater promi 
nence of the cheek bones, than in the pure Iranian. The heads 
at the same time become broader, especially toward the north 
east ; and what Bryce calls the " slim, lithe, stealthy, and cat 
like Persian," is transformed into the bigger and more robust 
Turkoman. Instead of Turkoman, dare we say an Alpine 
strain of blood is here apparent? We shall see. Finally, our 
third subtype of the Persian occurs toward the southeast, 
among the so-called Suzians, about the mouth of the Persian 
Gulf. Look at our portrait of one of these on the preceding 
page. Is not the strain of negroid blood at once apparent? 
Notice the flattened and open nose, the thick lips and the black- 
hair and eyes. We have reached the confines of India. Here 
we meet the first traces of the aboriginal population underlying 
the Hindoos. It includes all the native Indian hill tribes, 
and extends away off over seas into Melanesia. We are enter 
ing upon a new zoological realm. Our tedious descriptive 
task for European peoples is nearly completed. 

East of Persia the several racial types which have almost 
imperceptibly blended into the modern population of that 
country divide at the western base of the central Asiatic high 
lands. This great barrier, as we have already pointed out in 
our chapter on the head form, marks one of the most sudden 
racial transitions in the world. At its eastern end along the 
Himalayas, it divides the pure Mongols in Thibet from the 
Hindoos and the negroid hill tribes of India. Farther to the 
west, the Hindu-Koosh Mountains in Afghanistan have forced 
apart the two racial types which we have traced all the way 
here from Europe. North of the mountains in Turkestan 
one racial type the Alpine occurs among the Turkomans. 
We can not too strongly emphasize the fact that these peoples 
in the Aral-Caspian Sea depression are by no means Mongol 
as a whole. South of the Hindu-Koosh extends the eastern 
branch of the Mediterranean race, among the Afghans and 
Hindoos. Space forbids a description of these Indo- Europeans 
in detail.* W r e are all familiar with the type, especially as it 

* Anthropological authorities on the Hindoos are less abundant than 
for the native or Dravidian peoples. Risley, 1891, is the most compre- 


is emphasized by inbreeding and selection among the Brah- 
mans.* There can be no doubt of their racial affiliation with 
our Berbers, Greeks, Italians, and Spaniards. They are all 
members of the same race, at once the widest in its geo 
graphical extension, the most populous, and the most primi 
tive of our three European types. 

In our former description of the Turkomans of the Aral- 
Caspian Sea depression we have left little doubt as to their 
affinity to the Alpine race of Europe. In the mountaineers of 
the Pamir this resemblance becomes perfect. Topinard s im 
mediate recognition of this fact twenty years ago, on the basis 
of Ujfalvy s discoveries, has never been disputed. f More 
than that, in the highlands of the Pamir among the Galchas 
a little west of Samarcand, linguistic research has proved that 
the European or inflectional type of languages prevails over 
a large area.J These Galcha tribes, or mountain Tadjiks, 
differ in several ways from the great body of the nomadic 
Turkomans in the Caspian steppes. In every detail they tend 
toward the Alpine type, as if by reason of their isolation in the 
mountains, a primitive population had been preserved in rela 
tive purity. Eor all practical purposes, our two upper portraits 
at page 45 may be taken as representative of this eastern 
most member of the brachycephalic, gray-eyed, and heavily 
built race of central Europe. These people are not blonds, 
nor even as blond as the Tadjik s in the plains.* They are even 
more brachycephalic, however, almost establishing a world s 
record in this respect. In this connection it is curious to note 

hensive. Cf. also Mantegazza, iSS3- S4 ; Crooke, 1890; and the works of 
Oppert, Rousselet, and others. 

* Johnston, Race et Caste dans 1 Inde ; L Anth., vi, 1895, pp. 176- 
181, discusses the skin colour. Kollmann, Internationales Archiv fiir 
Ethnographic, vi, 1893, p. 51, shows the differences in head form ; the 
Brahmans being apparently more brachycephalic. 

4- Rev. d Anth.. 1878, p. 706. Cf. note, p. 417 supra. Ujfalvy, in Bull. 
Soc. d Anth., 1887, p. 15, describes the progress of opinion in this direc 

\ Ujfalvy, 1896 a, pp. 44 </ .w/. Van den Gheyn (1884); also Tomas- 
chek and others, cited by Keane, Ethnology, p. 411. 

* Ujfalvy, 1896 a, pp. 53, 428, and 485. 



that among the peoples north of the Hindu-Koosh broad- 
headedness increases as one penetrates the mountains, while on 
their southern slopes the opposite rule obtains.* From either 
side, therefore, purity of types and these, too, of a very dif 
ferent sort increase toward the watershed which lies between 
them. How different a phenomenon from that afforded by the 
gradual transitions of type on the Iranian plateau! Can it 
longer be affirmed that in approaching the highlands of Asia 
we are tracing our European racial types back to a common 
trunk? Facts all belie the assumption. Two at least, of the 
racial elements in the peoples of Europe are as fundamentally 
different here in the heart of Asia as all through central Eu 
rope. In other words, in our progress from Europe eastward, 
instead of proceeding toward the trunk, rather does it appear 
that we have been pushing out to the farthest branches of two 
fundamentally distinct human types. 

* Op. /., p. 52. 



IN our school days most of us were brought up to regard 
Asia as the mother of European peoples. We were told that 
an ideal race of men swarmed forth from the Himalayan high 
lands, disseminating culture right and left as they spread 
through the barbarous West. The primitive language, parent 
to all of the varieties of speech Romance, Teutonic, Slavic, 
Persian, or Hindustanee spoken by the so-called Caucasian 
or white race, was called Aryan. By inference this name was 
shifted to the shoulders of the people themselves, who were 
known as the Aryan race. In the days when such symmetrical 
generalizations held sway there was no science of physical 
anthropology; prehistoric archaeology was not yet. Shem, 
Ham, and Japhet were still the patriarchal founders of the 
great racial varieties of the genus Homo. A new science of 
philology dazzled the intelligent world by its brilliant discov 
eries, and its words were law. Since 1860 these early inductions 
have completely broken down in the light of modern research; 
and even to-day greater uncertainty prevails in many phases 
of the question that would have been admitted possible twenty 
years ago. The great difficulty is to approach the matter in 
a calm and entirely judicial spirit : for it may justly be affirmed 
that no other scientific question, with the exception, perhaps, 
of the doctrine of evolution, was ever so bitterly discussed or 
so infernally confounded at the hands of Chauvinistic or other 
wise biassed writers. 

At the very outset let us rigidly distinguish the phenom 
ena, principles, and conclusions concerning race from those 
of language and culture, and each of these in turn from the 




other. Archaeology, to be sure, may sometimes combine the 
data of human remains with those of an attendant civilization; 
but philology has, in our present state of knowledge, no possible 
bond of union in the study of European origins with either of 
the other two sciences. All attempts, therefore, to correlate 
linguistic data with those derived from the study of physical 
characteristics are not only illogical and unscientific; they are 
at the same time impossible and absurd, as we shall hope to 
show. They involve an entire misconception of the just prin 
ciples and limitations of scientific research. 

Two antagonistic opinions, respectively characteristic of 
the rival French and German schools of anthropology, have 
obtained widespread popular currency through neglect to ob 
serve the rule laid down in the preceding paragraph. The 
first of these is that the " Aryan race " was somehow blond, 
long-headed, and tall in other words, that the ancestors of 
the modern Teutonic type were the original civilizers of Eu 
rope. For civilization and Aryanism were indissolubly con 
sidered as one and the same; all plausible enough, to be sure, 
until you look the matter squarely in the face. It is easy to 
see how this gratuitous assumption of a tall, blond " Aryan 
race " originated. The sacred books of the East suggested 
that the chosen people were " white men." This is not sur 
prising, in view of the fact that the aboriginal inhabitants of 
India, among whom they came, were veritably then, as they 
are to-day, negroes. Johnston (>98) has shown us how clearly 
a blond skin is an index of caste among the Brahmans even 
at this late day. After the Yedas the Greeks took it up, and 
represented their ideal types after the same blond fashion.* 
The coincidence that many of the most distinctive Aryan-speak 
ing Europeans to-day are blonds compared with the Basques, 
Magyars. Turks, and Mongols, who lie outside the Aryan pale, 
apparently gave scientific voucher to the view. The Indo- 
Germanic languages note the adjective were essentially Eu 
ropean: the Teutonic type was the only real Homo Euro^ciis. 
Hence Homo Ritroptcus was the original Aryan. A logical 

* Cf. Lap ouge, 1889 a; Sergi, 18953, p. 19. 



leap in the dark! This did not prevent it from being taken. 
The idea gained in prestige year by year, especially as the 
racial Teutonism of the upper classes all over Europe was defi 
nitely established. What wonder that the blondness, tallness 
nay, even the necessary long-headedness of the " Aryan 
race " rose about the need of proof? At the hands of Wilser,* 
Poesche ( 78) , Penka ( SO) , Zaborowski,f Lapouge ( 89) , and their 
disciples it has attained the rank of law! 

The scientific heresy of attempting to locate a linguistic 
centre through appeal to physical characteristics has created 
its greatest devastation among the ranks of the philologists; 
even Sayce (>87) , Rhys,J and Kendall ( 8<J) seem to have been 
deceived by its apparent plausibility. Some of the older an 
thropologists were certainly tainted with the notion. Schaff- 
hausen, Ecker, and von Holder are all cited in its favour by 
Penka.* The notion crops out all along through the memo 
rable discussions over the Aryan question in the Societe d An- 
thropologie at Paris in i864.|| Latterly, with clearer light upon 
the subject, few authorities upon either side hesitate to con 
demn any and all such attempts to correlate the data of two 
entirely incompatible and independent sciences. Virchow, for 
example, styles such a theory of an " Aryan race " as " pure 
fiction." Reinach (-92) stigmatizes Penka s hypothesis that the 
Aryans were Scandinavians as a " prehistoric romance." Few 
somatologists would even agree with Huxley A to-day that 
blondness of the Aryans is a "fair working hypothesis"; or 
assume with Keane that " nevertheless, all things considered, 
it seems probable enough." Max Muller (>88) , making heroic 
reparation for the errors of his youth, hits much nearer the 
mark when he writes: "To me, an ethnologist who speaks of 
an Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great 
a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic diction 
ary or a brachycephalic grammar. It is worse than a Baby- 

* 1885, p. 77. f I8 g 8i p . 62 . i i8go- 9 i, p. 251. 

* Von Holder, 1876, p. 32, expressly denies the possibility of any racial 


I A ,*///,// by Reinach, 1892, pp. 38-46. See also Aryans in index to our 
supplementary Bibliography. A lSgo 2 ? 



Ionian confusion of tongues it is downright theft. ... If 
I say Aryas, I mean neither blood, nor bones, nor hair, nor 
skull. I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language." 

We have shown what havoc may be wrought in clear think 
ing by attempted correlations between physical anthropology 
and linguistics. A second error against which we must be 
on our guard is that of confusing the data of archaeology with 
those of the science of language. Because a people early hit 
upon the knowledge of bronze and learned how to tame horses 
and milk cows, it does not follow that they also invented the 
declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs. Such an 
assumption is scarcely less unwarranted than that a man s 
hair must be blond and his eyes blue because he is inflectional 
in his speech. Nevertheless, this is the basis upon which many 
anthropologists of the Gallic school * have sought to identify 
the Alpine race a predominant element in the French nation, 
be it observed as the only and original Aryans. Whether 
they are justified, in the first place, in their claim that this 
race really bore an Oriental culture into western Europe will 
be food for our further discussion, f But, even assuming for a 
moment s peace that they did, it does not and can not prove 
anything further respecting the language which was upon their 
lips. Unless reasoning can be held well aloof from any such 
assumptions, the question of European origins will never cease 
to be an arena in which heads are wildly broken to no scien 
tific avail. 

In order that we may conscientiously distinguish between 
the positively proved and the merely hypothetical, we shall 
advance by propositions, keeping them in martial order. We 
are entering debatable territory. One great advantage alone 
we may claim. As Americans, we should be endowed with 
" the serene impartiality of a mongrel," as the late Professor 

* De Mortillet, 1879; Ujfalvy, 1884 b, p. 437; Sergi, 18983, p. 141; 
Zampa, 1891 a, p. 77. Canon Taylor s reasoning is also prejudiced by this 
assumption (1890, p. 295). Zaborowski, 1881, asserts that Henri Martin 
among Frenchmen alone dissents from this view. He should have added 
Lapouge, 1889 a. Cf. Reinach, 1892, p. 59; and the renewed discussion 
of the Aryan question in the Societe d Anthropologie in 1879. 

f Page 486 infra. 



Huxley put it. Xo logical conclusion has terror for us. 
Whether the noble Aryan be proved Teuton, Celt, or Iberian, 
it is all the same. We have no monopoly of inheritance in it 
in any case. 


Concerning race, first of all, we may hold four propositions 
to be fairly susceptible of proof. They are as follows : 

I. The European races, as a whole, show signs of a secondary 
or derived origin; certain characteristics, especially the tc.i tnre 
of the hair, lead us to class them as intermediate between the ex 
treme primary types of the Asiatic and the negro races respectively. 

From what we have seen of the head form, complexion, 
and stature of the population of Europe, we might be led to 
expect that in other physical traits as well this little continent 
contained all extremes of human variation. We have been sur 
prised, perhaps, at the exceeding diversity of forms occurring 
within so restricted an area, and in a human group which 
most of us have perhaps been taught to regard as homogene 
ous. One physical characteristic alone affords justification 
for this hypothesis of ethnic homogeneity. This is the form 
and texture of the hair. Only in this respect, not in its colour, 
the hair is quite uniform all over Europe, and even far into 
Hindustan, where Aryan languages have migrated. At the 
same time, however, this texture in itself indicates a second 
ary origin that is to say, it denotes a human type derived 
from the crossing of others which we may class as primary. 
The population of Europe, in other words, should be num 
bered among the secondary races of the earth. What its con 
stituent elements may have been we shall discuss somewhat 

The two extremes of hair texture in the human species are 
the crisp curly variety so familiar to us in the African negro; 
and the stiff, wiry, straight hair of the Asiatic and the Ameri 
can aborigines. These traits are exceedingly persistent; they 
persevere oftentimes through generations of ethnic intermix 
ture. It has been shown by Primer Bey and others that this 
outward contrast in texture is due to, or at all events coin 
cident with, real morphological differences in structure. The 



curly hair is almost always of a flattened, ribbon-like form 
in cross section, as examined microscopically; while, cut 
squarely across, the straight hair more often inclines to a fully 
rounded or cylindrical shape. It may be coarse, or fine, or of 
any colour, but the texture remains quite constant in the same 
individual and the same race. Moreover, this peculiarity in 
cross section may often be detected in any crossing of these 
extreme types. The result of such intermixture is to impart 
a more or less wavy appearance to the hair, and to produce 
a cross section intermediate between a flattened oval and a 
circle. Roughly speaking, the more pronounced the flatness 

Negro type; Uganda. (From Buchta, Die oberen Nil-Lander, 1881.) 

the greater is the tendency toward waviness or curling, and 
the reverse. 

Our map, after Gerland ( 92) , shows the geographical distri 
bution of these several varieties of hair texture among the races 
of the earth. As in all our preceding world maps, we have to 
do with the aboriginal and not the imported peoples. Our 
data for North America apply to the Indians alone, before the 
advent of either the whites or negroes. These latter depart 
in no wise physically from the types whence they were de 
rived. It appears that most of Asia and both the Americas 
are quite uniformly straight-haired. At the other extreme 


stands Africa, and especially Papua and the archipelago to the 
southeast of it, which as far as the Fiji group is known as 
Melanesia, or the " black islands." According to Keane ( 96) , 
the name Papua is derived from a Malay word, meaning " friz 
zled." This map strikingly corroborates the evidence pre 
sented by our other world maps, showing the distribution of 
the head form and the skin colour. Generally speaking, the 
aphorism holds that the round-headed people are also round- 
haired. The black-skinned races are, on the other hand, gen 
erally long-headed and characterized by hair of an elongated 
oval in cross section. Physical anthropologists, to be sure, 
distinguish several subvarieties of this curly hair. Thus, among 
the Bushmen and Hottentots at the southern tip of Africa, 
the spirals are so tight that the hair aggregates in little nub 
bles over the scalp, leaving what were long supposed to be 
entirely bald spots between. This is known as the pepper 
corn type, from its resemblance to such grains scattered over 
the head. And in Melanesia the texture is not quite like that 
of the main body of the Africans; but for all practical pur 
poses they may all be classed together. 

The remaining tints upon our map denote the extension 
of the \vavy textured hair, which is generally intermediate in 
cross section, varying from ribbonlike to nearly cylindrical 
shape. There are three separate subdivisions under this head. 
Two of these, the Polynesian and the Australian, are most cer 
tainly wavy-haired mongrels, derived from intermixture of 
the straight-haired Asiatic races with the extreme frizzled type 
of Melanesia. This latter is by all authorities regarded as the 
primitive occupant of the Pacific archipelago, and of Indo 
nesia as well. Among the Malays, and such hybrids as the 
Japanese, the Asiatic type preponderates; in the Australian 
peoples the other element is more strongly represented. Tas 
mania is quite distinct from its neighbouring continent. Iso 
lation perhaps has kept it true to its primitive type. The Poly 
nesians and Micronesians seem to be compounded of about 
equal proportions of each. Of course, all sorts of variations 
are common. The peoples of the Pacific are peculiarly aber 
rant in this respect. Some islands are characterized by quite 


lank and coarse-haired types; some have the frizzled hair stiff 
ened just enough to make it stand on end, producing those 
surprising shocks familiar to us in our school-geography illus 
trations of the Fiji islanders. 

What shall we say of the European races, the third of our 
intermediate types? Here also all individual variations occur, 
seemingly in utter defiance of any law. The Italian is as apt 
to be straight-haired as the Norwegian; in either nation the 
curly variety seems to occur sporadically. Yet common ob 
servation, to say nothing of microscopical examination, would 
naturally class the population of Europe among the fine-tex 
tured, wavy-haired races of the earth. One never sees the 
wiry form so familiar in the American Indian, or the frizzle 
of the full-blooded negro. Are we to infer from this that the 
people of Europe, therefore, are, like the Polynesians and Aus 
tralians, the result of an ethnic cross between other more pri 
mary types? Certainly the study of the head form, with every 
extreme known to man within the confines of the single con 
tinent, seems to discredit this possibility. The only alternative 
is to consider this texture of hair to be a more liquid char 
acteristic, so to speak, than the shape of the head; in other 
words, to assume that a few drops of alien blood might suffice 
to produce an intermediate texture of the hair, and yet not 
be adequate to modify the head form. If this were indeed so, 
then we might imagine that, even while our three European 
races have kept reasonably distinct in head form, intermixture 
has nevertheless taken place to some extent in every nook and 
corner of the continent; and that this infinitesimal crossing 
has been enough to modify the hair texture. But we are now 
wandering off into vague hypothesis. There is yet enough 
that is positively known to demand our attention without in 
dulging in speculation. We have stated the situation; let the 
reader draw his own conclusions. 

II. The earliest and lowest strata of population in Europe were 
extremely long-headed; probability points to the living Mediter 
ranean race as most nearly representative of it to-day. 

Of the most primitive types, coexisting with a fauna and 
flora now extinct or migrated with change of climate from 


central and western Europe, oftentimes no remains exist ex 
cept the skulls by which to judge of their ethnic affinities. 
We know more, in fact, concerning their culture than their 
physical type in the earlier stone age at least; but it is never 
theless established beyond all question that they were dolicho 
cephalic, and that, too, to a remarkable degree. This feature 
characterized all subdivisions of the populations of this epoch. 
Many varieties have been identified by specialists, such as the 
stocky, short-statured Neanderthal type and the taller and 
more finely moulded Cro-Magnon race. The classification of 
each nation differs in minor details, but they all agree in this, 
that the population both of the early and the late stone age 
was long-headed to an extreme. 

The present unanimity of opinion among archaeologists 
concerning this earliest dolichocephalic population is all the 
more remarkable because it represents a complete reversal of 
the earliest theories on the subject. Retzius, in 1842, from a 
comparison of the Scandinavians with the Lapps and Finns, 
propounded the hypothesis that the latter broad-headed bru- 
net types were the relics of a pre-Aryan population of Europe. 
The comparative barbarism of the Lapps confirmed him in 
this view. It seemed to^ be plain that this Mongoloid or Asi 
atic variety of man had been repressed to this remote north 
ern region by an immigrant blond, long-headed race from the 
southwest. That this is in a measure true for Scandinavia can 
not be denied. Arbo s researches show a Lapp substratum 
considerably outside their present restricted territory. That 
is a very different matter from the affirmation that such a bra- 
chycephalic (" Turanian ") race once inhabited all Europe be 
fore the Aryan advent. Such was, however, the current opin 
ion. To show its popularity, it is only necessary to cite the 
names of its leading exponents.* Nilsson and Steenstrup first 
took it up, and then afterward Schaffhausen, Xicolucci, Thur- 
nam, Lubach, Busk, and Carter Blake. Its leading exponents 
in France were Primer Bey and De Quatrefages. Edwards 
and Belloguet assumed it as proved in all their generalizations. 

* Cf. Hamy, 1884, p. 44 ; and Virchow, 1874 a ; Ranke, Mensch., ii, pp. 
445, 528-530; Schaffhausen, 1889. 


Then began the discoveries of abundant prehistoric remains 
all over Europe, particularly in France. These with one ac 
cord tended to show that the European aborigines of the stone 
age were not Mongoloid like the Lapps after all, but the exact 
opposite. In every detail they resembled rather the dolicho 
cephalic negroes of Africa. The only other races approaching 
them in long-headedness are either the Eskimos, whom Boyd 
Dawkins believes to be a relic of this early European people, 
or else the Australians. Huxley, in turn, long ago asserted 
these latter savages to be our human progenitors. We need 
not stop to discuss either of these radical opinions. It is suffi 
cient for us that Broca finally dealt the death blow to the older 
view in 1868 by the evidence from the caves of Perigord ; the 
very district where our living Cro-Magnon type still survives, 
as we have already shown. 

This dolichocephalic substratum has been traced all over 
Europe with much detail in the neolithic or late stone age ; by 
which time the geography and the flora and fauna of the con 
tinent had assumed in great measure their present conditions. 
We know that the long-headed type, now predominating on 
the northern and southern outskirts of Europe, in Spain, south 
ern Italy, the British Isles, and Scandinavia, once occupied 
territory close up to the foot of the high Alps on every side. 
Remains of it have not yet been found in the mountains them 
selves, although closely hedging them in on every side. For 
example, Zampa, Xicolucci, and Sergi have alike collected 
evidence to prove that the whole basin of the Po River, now 
a strongly brachycephalic centre, was in the neolithic period 
populated by this long-headed type.* In other words, Italy, 
from end to end, was once uniform anthropologically in the 
head form of its people; in the south it is to-day still true to 
the primitive and aboriginal type. As far north as Rome no 
change can be detected between the modern and the most 
ancient skulls. f For France, a recent summary of the human 
remains of the late stone age, based upon nearly seven hun 
dred skeletons or skulls, shows an overwhelming preponder- 

* Vide page 262 supra. \ Calori, 1868, p. 205 ; Nicolucci, 1875. 


ance of this long-headed type.* The round-heads were almost 
entirely absent in the beginning, as we showed them heretofore 
to have been in the British Isles during the same epoch. f 
France was apparently very unevenly populated. In all the 
uplands, especially the central plateau of Auvergne, human 
remains are less abundant, although when occurring being of 
the same decidedly long-headed type \ this, be it remem 
bered, in the same district where to-day one of the roundest- 
headed populations in the world resides. For Germany, in 
vestigation all points the same way. Ranke * has exhibited 
the chronological development with great clearness for Ba 
varia. This region corresponds to northern Italy in its prox 
imity to the main core of the living Alpine type. In Bavaria, 
now like the Po basin the seat of a purely brachycephalic 
population, the paleolithic inhabitants were exclusively long 
headed. The average index of seven crania of this most an 
cient epoch Ranke finds to be 76. At the time of the early 
metal period a large part of the racial substitution had appar 
ently taken place, broad-headedness being quite prevalent. 
After a diminution of the cranial index, during the period of 
the Volkerwandcning, it again rose to its present figure (83), 
as it appears in the mpdern broad-headed Bavarians. This 
agrees even in details all too closely with the independently 
discovered data for France to be a mere coincidence. 

As for the outlying parts of Europe, the same law holds 
good without exception. Thus in Spain, whether judged by 
crania from the caves and dolmens or from the kitchen middens 
of Mugem, the modern population is almost an exact counter 
part of the most ancient one.|| A slight increase in breadth 

* Salmon, 1895. Vide seriation curve on p. 116 supra. G. de Mortillet, 
1878 and 1897, p. 275 ; Reinach, 1889, ii ; and Herve, 1892, give convenient 
summaries also. f Page 306 supra. 

\ Durand and De Lapouge, i8g7- 98, reprint pp. 13 and 57. 

* 1897 a, pp. 58-65. Cf. Kollmann, i88i- 83 and 1882 a ; Virchow, 
1872 b ; Ammon, 1893, p. 66. Ecker, 1865, p. 79, said mixed ; but von 
Holder, 1876, p. 20, found purer. For Alsace-Lorraine, also true ; Blind, 
1898, p. 4. 

|| Oliviera, in Cartailhac, 1886, pp. 305-316 ; Jacques, in Siret, 1887, pp. 
2 73-396 ; and also 1888, p. 221 ; O16riz, 18943, pp. 259-262 ; and Anton, 1897. 


of head is noticeable, for even the long-headed Spaniards, like 
the French as well, scarcely equal the absolutely negroid head 
form of the earliest inhabitants. The same fact confronts us 
in Scandinavia. Long-headed as the people are to-day, they 
constitute a less pronounced type than their prehistoric an 
cestors. All authorities agree upon this point.* Turning next 
toward the east, we have already cited the testimony for the 
Slavic countries.! It admits of no possible doubt. And, last 
of all, even as far as the Caucasus, beneath its present brachy- 
cephalic population there is evidence that the aboriginal in 
habitants were clearly long-headed.J Thus we have covered 
every part of Europe, emphasizing the same indubitable fact. 
Only in one place in the highest Alps is this law unverified. 
It seems as if this inhospitable region had remained unin 
habited until a later time. 

Assuming it as proved, therefore, that the first popula 
tion of Europe was of this quite uniform type of head form, 
what do we know of its other physical characteristics? This 
concerns the second half of our primary proposition. That is 
to say, may we decide to which branch of the living long 
headed race it belonged; that of the tall, blond Teuton or of 
the shorter-statured, dark-complexioned Mediterranean type? 
It is a matter of no small moment to settle this if possible. 
Unfortunately, we can prove nothing directly concerning the 
complexion, for of course all traces of hair have long since 
disappeared from the graves of this early period. Presump 
tively, the type was rather brunet than blond, for in the dark 
colour of hair and eye it would approach the foundation tints 
of all the rest of the human race. The light hair and blue 
eye of northern Europe are nowhere found in any appreciable 
proportion elsewhere, save perhaps among the Ainos in Japan, 
an insignificant people, too few in numbers and too remote to 
affect the generalization. If, therefore, as all consistent stu 
dents of natural history hold to-day, the human races have 
evolved in the past from some common root type, this pre- 

*Von Dueben, 1876; A. Retzius. 1843; Arbo, 1882; Montelius, 1895 b, 
p. 31 ; Barth, 1896. f p age 352 supra. 

\ Chantre, 1887, ii, p. 181. 


dominant dark colour must be regarded as the more primi 
tive.* It is not permissible for an instant to suppose that 
ninety-nine per cent of the human species has varied from a 
blond ancestry, while the flaxen-haired Teutonic type alone 
has remained true to its primitive characteristics. 

We are strengthened in this assumption that the earliest 
Europeans were not only long-headed, but also dark-complex 
ioned, by various points in our inquiry thus far. We have 
proved the prehistoric antiquity of the living Cro-Magnon type 
in southwestern France ; and we saw that among these peasants 
the prevalence of black hair and eyes is very striking. And 
comparing types in the British Isles, we saw that everything 
tended to show that the brunet populations of Wales, Ireland, 
and Scotland constituted the most primitive stratum of popu 
lation in Britain. Furthermore, in that curious spot in Gar- 
fagnana, where a survival of the ancient Ligurian population 
of northern Italy is indicated, there also are the people char 
acteristically dark.f Judged, therefore, either in the light of 
general principles or of local details, it would seem as if this 
earliest race in Europe must have been very dark. It was Medi 
terranean in its pigmental affinities, and not Scandinavian.^ 

As to stature, a tra;t in w r hich the Teuton and the Iberian 
differ markedly from one another to-day, we hav